Nonformal Education and Civil Society in Japan critically examines an aspect of education that has received little attention to date: intentional teaching and learning activities that occur outside formal schooling.
In the last two decades nonformal education has rapidly increased in extent and significance. This is because individual needs for education have become so diverse and rapidly changing that formal education alone is unable to satisfy them. Increasingly diverse demands on education resulted from a combination of transnational migration, heightened human rights awareness, the aging population, and competition in the globalised labour market. Some in the private sector saw this situation as a business opportunity. Others in the civil society volunteered to assist the vulnerable. The rise in nonformal education has also been facilitated by national policy developments since the 1990s.
Drawing on case studies, this book illuminates a diverse range of nonformal education activities; and suggests that the nature of the relationship between nonformal education and mainstream schooling has changed. Not only have the two sectors become more interdependent, but the formal education sector increasingly acknowledges nonformal education’s important and necessary roles. These changes signal a significant departure from the past in the overall functioning of Japanese education. The case studies include: neighbourhood homework clubs for migrant children, community-based literacy classes, after-school care programs, sport clubs, alternative schools for long-term absent students, schools for foreigners, training in intercultural competence at universities and corporations, kôminkan (community halls), and lifelong learning for the seniors. This book will appeal to both scholars of Japanese Studies/Asian Studies, and those of comparative education and sociology/anthropology of education.
Table of Contents
1. Nonformal education in Japan: Its interface with formal schools, Kaori Okano 2. The homework club and beyond: A civil society group’s quest to build a place for learning and belonging in a time of migration, Tomoko Nakamatsu 3. The importance of nonformal education in the success of Dôwa Education, June A. Gordon 4. Community based after-school care programs in Japan: Potential of non-formal education for children and residents, Eiji Tsuda 5. Homo Athleticus: The Educational Roles of Extracurricular Clubs in Japanese Schools, Thomas Blackwood 6. Alternative Schools: An Educational Safety-net for Long-term Absent Students, Hideki Ito 7. The changing relationship between ‘schools for foreigners’ and formal schools, Kaori Okano 8. Education and training for the intercultural competence of Japanese university graduates: Policy, practice and markets in informal education, Jeremy Breaden 9. Kōminkan: Its Roles in Education and Community-Building, Chizu Sato 10. Lifelong learning universities in the ageing society: Empowering the elderly, Koji Maeda
Kaori H. Okano is Professor in Asian Studies/Japanese, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
This volume provides an integrated view of how learning in Japan occurs outside of schools, from kindergarten to universities for the elderly. It explores how migrants and indigenous minorities cope with public schooling through non-formal means, and offers a rare look at the role that religious organizations sometimes play in Japanese society. -- Professor Gerald Le Tendre, Pennsylvania State University
Non-formal education is often a neglected area of scholarly investigation. Yet, it occupies significant space and importance in everyday life in our contemporary society, providing all generations with alternative learning opportunities. This book will be a unique contribution that highlights the interface between formal and non-formal education and provides readers with multilayered understanding of learning in post-industrial Japan. -- Professor Ryuko Kubota, University of British Columbia
Overall, this book provides an excellent overview of nonformal education in Japan, describing in detail the history, policy, and background of various programs as well as positive effects they have had on participants and/ or the community at large. It also delves into challenges programs have faced, in terms of government policy limitations or how a lack of funding has curtailed projects or forced creative solutions. For these reasons, I wholeheartedly recommend this volume to anyone with an interest in various types of nonformal schooling, including scholars in the fields of social or comparative education (especially with a focus on Japan or East Asia), future participants or would-be volunteers, and finally, parents who might benefit from a detailed description and background information on aspects of their child’s education. -- Robert J. Werner, JALT Journal