The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared obesity a global epidemic. Its prevalence has more than doubled since 1980, causing a myriad of health problems for children and adults. Obesity: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Prevention, Second Edition explores the molecular mechanisms and pathophysiology leading to obesity and metabolic disorders. It examines the safety of obesity drugs and drug development strategies as well as the role of physical activity, nutrition, and nutraceutical supplements in obesity treatment and prevention.
With contributions from a cadre of internationally known experts, the book covers a spectrum of essential topics related to this widespread phenomenon, including:
- The relationship between obesity and type 2 diabetes
- The addiction mechanism related to refined foods as a significant factor in obesity
- The correlation between obesity and environmental estrogens, endocrine disruption, cigarette smoking, and inflammatory response
- The role of drug and chemical toxicities and genomic imprinting disorders in obesity
- The safety and regulation of prescription and over-the-counter weight loss drugs
- Various diets, the glycemic index, and the role of exercise in treating or preventing obesity
- Controversy over effective vs. banned weight loss supplements
- Childhood obesity and its prevention
- Bariatric surgery for weight management and reversal of metabolic disorders
As the public has become more aware of the deadly adverse effects of obesity, numerous products and programs have targeted the overweight and obese population, many with dangerous side effects. It is essential that we develop strategic, therapeutic intervention supported by credible data. This volume is an ideal reference point for researchers looking for new avenues of inquiry and practicing medical professionals, clinical nutritionists, and dietitians seeking guidance for their patients.
Table of Contents
Introduction. Epidemiology of Obesity. Epidemiology of Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity. Pathophysiology of Obesity. Global View on the Development of Noncommunicable Diseases. Evidence for Refined Food Addiction. Disruption of Development by Environmental Estrogens. Cigarette Smoking, Inflammation, and Obesity. Role of Neurotransmitters in Obesity Regulation. Neurobiology of Obesity. Leptin as a Vasoactive Adipokine. Leptin-Induced Inflammation. Overview of Ghrelin, Appetite, and Energy Balance. Molecular Genetics of Obesity Syndrome. Sleep and Obesity. Obesity and Degenerative Diseases. Oxidative Stress Status in Humans with Metabolic Syndrome. Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes. Inflammation. Angiogenesis-Targeted Redox-Based Therapeutics. Obese and Overweight. Genomic Imprinting Disorders in Obesity. Novel Concept in Obesity Drug Development. Adipose Drug Targets for Obesity Treatment. History and Regulation of Prescription and Over-the-Counter Weight Loss Drugs. Safety of Obesity Drugs. Safety of Obesity Drugs. Historical Perspective, Efficacy of Current Drugs, and Future Directions in the Management of Obesity. Natural, Nutritional, and Physical Approaches of Weight Management. Essential Role of Exercise and Physical Activity in Weight Management. Role of Exercise in Diet and Weight Loss. Role of Exercise in Weight Management and Other Health Benefits. Overview of Nutritional and Dietary Approaches for Weight Control. Gender Effects on Adiposity. Beyond Obesity Prevention. Carbohydrate Digestion Inhibitors. Vegetarian Diets in the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity. Atkins Paradigm. Nature vs. Nurture. Glycemic Index. Chromium (III) in Promoting Weight Loss and Lean Body Mass. An Overview on (−)-Hydroxycitric Acid in Weight Management. Review of the Safety and Efficacy of Bitter Orange () and Its Primary Protoalkaloid, -Synephrine, in Weight Management. Antiobesity Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid. Role of Tea in Weight Management. Laboratory and Clinical Studies of Chitosan. Role of Curcumin, the Golden Spice, in Obesity and Associated Chronic Diseases. Role of in Weight Management. Glucomannan in Weight Loss. Role of Medium-Chain Triglycerides in Weight Management. Antiobesity by Marine Lipids. Dairy Foods, Calcium, and Weight Management. Lessons from the Use of Ephedra Products as a Dietary Supplement. Extract in the Management of Obesity. Curcumin. Review of the Safety and Efficacy of Banaba (L.) and Its Major Constituents, Corosolic Acid and Ellagitannins, in the Management of Metabolic Syndrome. Appetite, Body Weight, Health Implications of a Low-Glycemic-Load Diet. Herbals and Dietary Nutrients Associated with Weight Loss. Calcium and Obesity. Dietary Supplementation in Weight Loss. Beyond Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load. Challenges to the Conduct and Interpretation of Weight Loss Research. Child Obesity and Prevention. Obesity and Disordered Eating in Youth. Childhood Obesity. Impact of Childhood Obesity on Musculoskeletal Growth, Development, and Disease. New Directions in Childhood Obesity. Thinking Outside the Box. Bariatric Surgery in Weight Management. Bariatric Surgery and Reversal of Metabolic Disorders. Bariatric Surgery in Pediatric Weight Management. Index.
Debasis Bagchi is a professor in the Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Houston College of Pharmacy in Texas and the Director of Innovation & Clinical Affairs at Iovate Health Sciences Research Inc., in Oakville, Canada. His research interests include free radicals, human diseases, carcinogenesis, pathophysiology, mechanistic aspects of cytoprotection by antioxidants, and regulatory pathways in obesity, diabetes, and gene expression. He has received funding from various institutions and agencies, including the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Nebraska State Department of Health, Biomedical Research Support Grant from National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Cancer Institute (NCI), Health Future Foundation, The Procter & Gamble Company, and Abbott Laboratories. Dr. Bagchi received the Master of the American College of Nutrition Award in 2009. He has authored 287 peer- reviewed publications and 15 books.
Harry G. Preussis a tenured professor at Georgetown University (Washington, D.C.) in four departments—biochemistry, physiology, medicine, and pathology. His current research, both laboratory and clinical, centers on the use of dietary supplements and nutraceuticals to favorably influence or even prevent a variety of medical perturbations, especially those related to obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disorders. He has also researched the ability of essential oils and fats to overcome various infections, including those resistant to antibiotics. He recently won the coveted Charles E. Ragus Award of the American College of Nutrition (ACN) for publishing the best research paper in their journal for the year 2006 and the ACN Award for 2010 given to an outstanding senior investigator in nutrition.
"This volume, the 2nd edition of a comprehensive text reviews in 63 chapters written by many countries experts, the epidemiology, pathophysiology, drug and nutritional therapies. Five chapters are on childhood obesity and prevention, another section (2 chapters) are on bariatric surgery. Well referenced, recommended to endocrinologists and nutritionists."
—Professor Zvi Laron, Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews, Vol. 10, No. 4, July 2013
Praise for the First Edition:
“...Obesity takes a broader perspective. We are treated to short reviews of neurobiology, leptin, and ghrelin as well as chapters on environmental estrogens as endocrine disrupters, smoking and inflammation, and other oxidative stressors that may be contributing to the obesity epidemic. Regarding thereapies, this book has solid chapters on diet and exercise ... on specific “neutraceuticals” – foods with purported therapeutic benefits ... the authors offer thoughts, theories, and treatments that are “outside the box,” and they do so majestically.”
—Margo A. Denke, MD, University of Texas, writing in The New England Journal of Medicine, December 13, 2007
“... this book is not a casual read. It is an in-depth treatise on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of a modern-day epidemic, obesity. It begins with a detailed review of the prevalence and health burden of obesity worldwide and how the current situation has developed over the past 4 decades. ... deals with the pathophysiology of obesity ... natural, nutritional, and physical approaches to weight management. There is very little, if anything, about the many approaches to weight loss that is not addressed ... .
“... This book covers all aspects of obesity. ... the editors maintained an evidence-based approach whenever possible and have maintained an open mind and an impartiality toward controversial issues. They discuss the recent development of drugs ... and the role of vegetarianism, tea, and other natural health products.
“ ... This is a textbook and reference, and it serves that purpose exceptionally well. Graduate students in the field of obesity should read it or at least use it as a reference. ... this book will point them in the right direction and give them an overview about what they need to learn; a lot of that learning can come directly from this book. Practitioners specializing in obesity management and lifestyle issues should have it as a reference, as should obesity researchers.”
—Marshall Godwin, MD, MSc, CCFP, writing in JAMA, 2008;299(17):2092-2093