Obesity : Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Prevention, Second Edition book cover
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Obesity
Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Prevention, Second Edition




ISBN 9781439854259
Published July 6, 2012 by CRC Press
1008 Pages 132 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared obesity a global epidemic. Its prevalence has more than doubled since 1980, causing a myriad of health problems for children and adults. Obesity: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Prevention, Second Edition explores the molecular mechanisms and pathophysiology leading to obesity and metabolic disorders. It examines the safety of obesity drugs and drug development strategies as well as the role of physical activity, nutrition, and nutraceutical supplements in obesity treatment and prevention.

With contributions from a cadre of internationally known experts, the book covers a spectrum of essential topics related to this widespread phenomenon, including:

  • The relationship between obesity and type 2 diabetes
  • The addiction mechanism related to refined foods as a significant factor in obesity
  • The correlation between obesity and environmental estrogens, endocrine disruption, cigarette smoking, and inflammatory response
  • The role of drug and chemical toxicities and genomic imprinting disorders in obesity
  • The safety and regulation of prescription and over-the-counter weight loss drugs
  • Various diets, the glycemic index, and the role of exercise in treating or preventing obesity
  • Controversy over effective vs. banned weight loss supplements
  • Childhood obesity and its prevention
  • Bariatric surgery for weight management and reversal of metabolic disorders

As the public has become more aware of the deadly adverse effects of obesity, numerous products and programs have targeted the overweight and obese population, many with dangerous side effects. It is essential that we develop strategic, therapeutic intervention supported by credible data. This volume is an ideal reference point for researchers looking for new avenues of inquiry and practicing medical professionals, clinical nutritionists, and dietitians seeking guidance for their patients.

Table of Contents

Introduction
Epidemiology of Obesity; G. Turconi and H. Cena
Epidemiology of Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity; K. Corley, M. S. Cabrera, J. C. Desmangles, C. Fernandez, and A. Chatterjee
Pathophysiology of Obesity
Global View on the Development of Noncommunicable Diseases; K.-H. Wagner and H. Brath
Evidence for Refined Food Addiction; J. R. Ifland, H. G. Preuss, M. T. Marcus, K. M. Rourke, W. C. Taylor, and M. Lerner
Disruption of Development by Environmental Estrogens; F. S. Vom Saal, B. L. Coe, B. M. Angle, and J. A. Taylor
Cigarette Smoking, Inflammation, and Obesity; S. K. Biswas, I. L. Megson, C. A. Shaw, and I. Rahman
Role of Neurotransmitters in Obesity Regulation; S. E. Ohia, C. A. Opere, M. Kulkarni, and Y. F. Njie-Mbye
Neurobiology of Obesity; N. Eikelis
Leptin as a Vasoactive Adipokine; A. Bouloumié, C. A. Curat, A. Miranville, K. Lolmède, and C. Sengenès
Leptin-Induced Inflammation; N.-Y. Song and Y.-J. Surh
Overview of Ghrelin, Appetite, and Energy Balance; R. Fernández-Fernández and M. Tena-Sempere
Molecular Genetics of Obesity Syndrome; R. S. Dwivedi, M. R. Wing, and D. S. Raj
Sleep and Obesity; M. A. Miller, and F. P. Cappuccio
Obesity and Degenerative Diseases
Oxidative Stress Status in Humans with Metabolic Syndrome; C.-Y. Chen and J. B. Blumberg
Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes; S. Yaturu and S. K. Jain
Inflammation: A Hallmark of Obesity in Conflict with Wound Healing; S. Roy and C. K. Sen
Angiogenesis-Targeted Redox-Based Therapeutics; S. Chatterjee, D. Bagchi, M. Bagchi, and C. K. Sen
Obese and Overweight: A New Sensitive Population for Drug and Chemical Toxicities?; G. B. Corcoran
Genomic Imprinting Disorders in Obesity; M. G. Butler
Novel Concept in Obesity Drug Development
Adipose Drug Targets for Obesity Treatment; O. Boss, L. Lehr, and J.-P. Giacobino
History and Regulation of Prescription and Over-the-Counter Weight Loss Drugs; S. M. Schwartz and D. M. Savastano
Safety of Obesity Drugs
Safety of Obesity Drugs; A. K. Gupta and F. L. Greenway
Historical Perspective, Efficacy of Current Drugs, and Future Directions in the Management of Obesity; B. Khandalavala and A. Chatterjee
Natural, Nutritional, and Physical Approaches of Weight Management
Essential Role of Exercise and Physical Activity in Weight Management; D. Blatt and C. L. Gostic
Role of Exercise in Diet and Weight Loss; W. J. Kraemer, C. Dunn-Lewis, and H.-Y. Luk
Role of Exercise in Weight Management and Other Health Benefits: Emphasis on Pedometer-Based Program; H. G. Preuss, D. Bagchi, and G. R. Kaats
Overview of Nutritional and Dietary Approaches for Weight Control; S. Agarwal
Gender Effects on Adiposity; S. Cvitkusic, D. J. Baer, and G. K. Harris
Beyond Obesity Prevention: Anti-Aging effect of Caloric Restriction; K. W. Saupe and J. D. Mulligan
Carbohydrate Digestion Inhibitors; J. K. Udani and M. L. Barrett
Vegetarian Diets in the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity; K. T. Knecht, H. T. Cale, H. T. Bui, D. K. Tran, and J. Sabaté
Atkins Paradigm; A. Robarge and B. W. Downs
Nature vs. Nurture: Role of Plant-Based Diet in Obesity Management; D. Ghosh
Glycemic Index; D. J. A. Jenkins, K. Srichaikul, A. Mirrahimi, L. S. A. Augustin, J. L. Sivenpiper, L. Chiavaroli, and C. W. C. Kendall
Chromium (III) in Promoting Weight Loss and Lean Body Mass; D. Bagchi, M. Bagchi, S. Zafra-Stone, and H. G. Preuss
An Overview on (−)-Hydroxycitric Acid in Weight Management; D. Bagchi, S. Zafra-Stone, M. Bagchi, and H. G. Preuss
Review of the Safety and Efficacy of Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium) and Its Primary Protoalkaloid, p-Synephrine, in Weight Management; S. J. Stohs and M. Shara
Antiobesity Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid; R. Zwe-Ling Kong
Role of Tea in Weight Management; C. Kandaswami
Laboratory and Clinical Studies of Chitosan; H. G. Preuss, D. Bagchi, and G. R. Kaats
Role of Curcumin, the Golden Spice, in Obesity and Associated Chronic Diseases; S. Prasad, S. Patchva, and B. B. Aggarwal
Role of Caralluma fimbriata in Weight Management; R. V. Venkatesh and R. Rajendran
Glucomannan in Weight Loss; B. Swanson and J. K. Keithley
Role of Medium-Chain Triglycerides in Weight Management; M. G. Enig and B. B. Teter
Antiobesity by Marine Lipids; K. Miyashita and M. Hosokawa
Dairy Foods, Calcium, and Weight Management; A. Bruckbauer and M. B. Zemel
Lessons from the Use of Ephedra Products as a Dietary Supplement; M. G. Soni, K. Shelke, R. Amin, and A. Talati
Coleus forskohlii
Extract in the Management of Obesity; M. Majeed
Curcumin: Potential Role in Obesity and Obesity-Related Metabolic Diseases; A. Shehzad and Y. Sup Lee
Review of the Safety and Efficacy of Banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa L.) and Its Major Constituents, Corosolic Acid and Ellagitannins, in the Management of Metabolic Syndrome; S. J. Stohs, H.Miller, and G. R. Kaats
Appetite, Body Weight, Health Implications of a Low-Glycemic-Load Diet; S. J. Bell
Herbals and Dietary Nutrients Associated with Weight Loss; A. Afshan Ali, S. M. Lewis, X. Yang, W. Salminen, and J. E. Leakey
Calcium and Obesity: The Nutrient Problem in Microcosm; R. P. Heaney
Dietary Supplementation in Weight Loss: A Dietician’s Perspective; B. Wedman-St. Louis
Beyond Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load; C. Bush and D. Reed
Challenges to the Conduct and Interpretation of Weight Loss Research; G. R. Kaats and H. G. Preuss
Child Obesity and Prevention
Obesity and Disordered Eating in Youth; S. S. Jaser
Childhood Obesity: From An Exercise Physiologists’ Viewpoint; S.-H. Suh and Y.-S. Kim
Impact of Childhood Obesity on Musculoskeletal Growth, Development, and Disease; L. M. Esposito, P. W. Esposito, and A. Chatterjee
New Directions in Childhood Obesity; F. Zapata, R. E. Quiros-Tejeira, C. Fernandez,
K. Lester, A. Chatterjee, and S. G. Hassink
Thinking Outside the Box; S. Gonzalez and B.Ramsey
Bariatric Surgery in Weight Management
Bariatric Surgery and Reversal of Metabolic Disorders; M. Manco
Bariatric Surgery in Pediatric Weight Management; A. Dusad, C. Fernandez, G. Rathore, S. K. Mittal, and A. Chatterjee
Index

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Editor(s)

Biography

Debasis Bagchi is a professor in the Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Houston College of Pharmacy in Texas and the Director of Innovation & Clinical Affairs at Iovate Health Sciences Research Inc., in Oakville, Canada. His research interests include free radicals, human diseases, carcinogenesis, pathophysiology, mechanistic aspects of cytoprotection by antioxidants, and regulatory pathways in obesity, diabetes, and gene expression. He has received funding from various institutions and agencies, including the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Nebraska State Department of Health, Biomedical Research Support Grant from National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Cancer Institute (NCI), Health Future Foundation, The Procter & Gamble Company, and Abbott Laboratories. Dr. Bagchi received the Master of the American College of Nutrition Award in 2009. He has authored 287 peer- reviewed publications and 15 books.

Harry G. Preuss is a tenured professor at Georgetown University (Washington, D.C.) in four departments—biochemistry, physiology, medicine, and pathology. His current research, both laboratory and clinical, centers on the use of dietary supplements and nutraceuticals to favorably influence or even prevent a variety of medical perturbations, especially those related to obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disorders. He has also researched the ability of essential oils and fats to overcome various infections, including those resistant to antibiotics. He recently won the coveted Charles E. Ragus Award of the American College of Nutrition (ACN) for publishing the best research paper in their journal for the year 2006 and the ACN Award for 2010 given to an outstanding senior investigator in nutrition.

Featured Author Profiles

Author - Debasis  Bagchi
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Debasis Bagchi

Adjunct Professor and Director, University of Houston College of Pharmacy
Houston , Texas, USA

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Reviews

"This volume, the 2nd edition of a comprehensive text reviews in 63 chapters written by many countries experts, the epidemiology, pathophysiology, drug and nutritional therapies. Five chapters are on childhood obesity and prevention, another section (2 chapters) are on bariatric surgery. Well referenced, recommended to endocrinologists and nutritionists."
—Professor Zvi Laron, Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews, Vol. 10, No. 4, July 2013

Praise for the First Edition:

“...Obesity takes a broader perspective. We are treated to short reviews of neurobiology, leptin, and ghrelin as well as chapters on environmental estrogens as endocrine disrupters, smoking and inflammation, and other oxidative stressors that may be contributing to the obesity epidemic. Regarding thereapies, this book has solid chapters on diet and exercise ... on specific “neutraceuticals” – foods with purported therapeutic benefits ... the authors offer thoughts, theories, and treatments that are “outside the box,” and they do so majestically.”
—Margo A. Denke, MD, University of Texas, writing in The New England Journal of Medicine, December 13, 2007

“... this book is not a casual read. It is an in-depth treatise on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of a modern-day epidemic, obesity. It begins with a detailed review of the prevalence and health burden of obesity worldwide and how the current situation has developed over the past 4 decades. ... deals with the pathophysiology of obesity ... natural, nutritional, and physical approaches to weight management. There is very little, if anything, about the many approaches to weight loss that is not addressed ... .
“... This book covers all aspects of obesity. ... the editors maintained an evidence-based approach whenever possible and have maintained an open mind and an impartiality toward controversial issues. They discuss the recent development of drugs ... and the role of vegetarianism, tea, and other natural health products.  
“ ... This is a textbook and reference, and it serves that purpose exceptionally well. Graduate students in the field of obesity should read it or at least use it as a reference. ... this book will point them in the right direction and give them an overview about what they need to learn; a lot of that learning can come directly from this book. Practitioners specializing in obesity management and lifestyle issues should have it as a reference, as should obesity researchers.”  
—Marshall Godwin, MD, MSc, CCFP, writing in JAMA, 2008;299(17):2092-2093