2nd Edition

Optical Fiber Communication Systems with MATLAB® and Simulink® Models

By Le Nguyen Binh Copyright 2015
    900 Pages 654 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Carefully structured to instill practical knowledge of fundamental issues, Optical Fiber Communication Systems with MATLAB® and Simulink® Models describes the modeling of optically amplified fiber communications systems using MATLAB® and Simulink®. This lecture-based book focuses on concepts and interpretation, mathematical procedures, and engineering applications, shedding light on device behavior and dynamics through computer modeling.

    Supplying a deeper understanding of the current and future state of optical systems and networks, this Second Edition:

    • Reflects the latest developments in optical fiber communications technology
    • Includes new and updated case studies, examples, end-of-chapter problems, and MATLAB® and Simulink® models
    • Emphasizes DSP-based coherent reception techniques essential to advancement in short- and long-term optical transmission networks

    Optical Fiber Communication Systems with MATLAB® and Simulink® Models, Second Edition is intended for use in university and professional training courses in the specialized field of optical communications. This text should also appeal to students of engineering and science who have already taken courses in electromagnetic theory, signal processing, and digital communications, as well as to optical engineers, designers, and practitioners in industry.


    List of Abbreviations


    Historical Perspectives

    Digital Modulation for Advanced Optical Transmission Systems

    Demodulation Techniques

    MATLAB® Simulink® Platform

    Organization of the Book Chapters

    Optical Fibers: Geometrical and Guiding Properties

    Motivations and Some Historical Background

    Dielectric Slab Optical Waveguides


    Numerical Aperture

    Modes of Symmetric Dielectric Slab Waveguides

    Optical-Guided Modes

    Cutoff Properties

    Optical Fiber: General Properties

    Geometrical Structures and Index Profile

    The Fundamental Mode of Weakly Guiding Fibers

    Cutoff Properties

    Single and Few Mode Conditions

    Power Distribution and Approximation of Spot Size

    Power Distribution

    Approximation of Spot Size r0 of a Step-Index Fiber

    Equivalent Step-Index (ESI) Description

    Definitions of ESI Parameters

    Accuracy and Limits

    Examples on ESI Techniques

    General Method

    Nonlinear Optical Effects

    Nonlinear Phase Modulation Effects

    Optical Fiber Manufacturing and Cabling

    Concluding Remarks



    Optical Fibers: Signal Attenuation and Dispersion


    Signal Attenuation in Optical Fibers

    Intrinsic or Material Attenuation


    Rayleigh Scattering

    Waveguide Loss

    Bending Loss

    Microbending Loss

    Joint or Splice Loss

    Attenuation Coefficient

    Signal Distortion in Optical Fibers

    Basics on Group Velocity

    Group Velocity Dispersion (GVD)

    Transfer Function of Single-Mode Fibers

    Higher-Order Dispersion

    Transmission Bit-Rate and the Dispersion Factor

    Polarization Mode Dispersion

    Fiber Nonlinearity

    Advanced Optical Fibers: Dispersion-Shifted, -Flattened, and -Compensated Optical Fibers

    Effects of Mode Hopping

    Numerical Solution: Split-Step Fourier Method

    Symmetrical Split-Step Fourier Method (SSFM)

    MATLAB® Program and MATLAB® Simulink® Models of the SSFM

    Modeling of Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)

    Optimization of Symmetrical SSFM

    Concluding Remarks


    Appendix: MATLAB® Program for the Design of Optical Fibers—A Solution to the Mini-Project Design

    Appendix: Program Listings for the Design of Standard Single-Mode Fiber

    Appendix: Program Listings for Design of Nonzero Dispersion-Shifted Fibers

    Appendix: Program Listings of the Split Step Fourier Method with SPM and Raman Gain Distribution

    Appendix: Program Listings of Initialization File



    Overview of Modeling Techniques for Optical Transmission Systems Using MATLAB® Simulink®


    Optical Transmitter

    Background of External Optical Modulators

    Optical Phase Modulator

    Optical Intensity Modulator

    Impairments of Optical Fiber

    Chromatic Dispersion (CD)

    Chromatic Dispersion as a Total of Material Dispersion and Waveguide Dispersion

    Dispersion Length

    Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)

    Fiber Nonlinearity

    Modeling of Fiber Propagation

    Symmetrical SSFM

    Modeling of PMD

    Optimization of Symmetrical SSFM

    Optical Amplifiers

    Optical and Electrical Filters

    Optical Receiver

    Performance Evaluation

    Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio (OSNR)

    OSNR Penalty

    Eye Opening (EO)

    Conventional Evaluation Methods

    Novel Statistical Methods

    MATLAB® Simulink® Modeling Platform

    General Model

    Initialization File

    OCSS©: A MATLAB® Simulation Platform


    System Design Using Software Simulation

    Optical Communication Systems Simulator: OCSS© Simulation Platform

    Transmitter Module

    Optical Fiber Module

    Receiver Module

    System Simulation

    Equalized Optical Communications Systems

    Soliton Optical Communications Systems


    Concluding Remarks


    Optical Direct and External Modulation


    Direct Modulation

    Introductory Remarks

    Physics of Semiconductor Lasers

    Modeling and Development of Optical Transmitter

    Conditions for the Laser Rate Equations

    Power Output and Eye-Diagram Analysis

    Introduction to Optical External Modulation

    Phase Modulators

    Intensity Modulators

    Phasor Representation and Transfer Characteristics

    Bias Control

    Chirp-Free Optical Modulators

    Structures of Photonic Modulators

    Typical Operational Parameters

    Electro-Absorption Modulators

    Silicon-Based Optical Modulators

    MATLAB® Simulink® Models of External Optical Modulators



    OCSS Simulation Platform

    Initial Conditions for Photon Density, S(t) and Carrier Density, N(t)


    Advanced Modulation Format Optical Transmitters


    Digital Modulation Formats

    ASK Modulation Formats and Pulse Shaping

    Return-to-Zero Optical Pulses

    Phasor Representation of CSRZ Pulses

    Phasor Representation of RZ33 Pulses

    Differential Phase Shift Keying


    Optical DPSK Transmitter

    Generation of Modulation Formats

    Amplitude–Modulation ASK–NRZ and ASK–RZ

    Discrete Phase–Modulation NRZ Formats

    Photonic MSK Transmitter Using Two Cascaded Electro-Optic Phase Modulators

    Optical MSK Transmitter Using Mach–Zehnder Intensity Modulators: I–Q Approach

    Single Sideband (SSB) Optical Modulators

    Optical RZ–MSK

    Multi-Carrier Multiplexing (MCM) Optical Modulators

    Spectra of Modulation Formats

    Generation of QAM Signals


    Optimum Setting for Square Constellations


    Appendix: Structures of Mach–Zehnder Modulator



    Direct Detection Optical Receivers


    Optical Receivers in Various Systems

    Receiver Components


    Detection and Noises

    Linear Channel

    Data Recovery

    Noises in Photodetectors

    Receiver Noises

    Noise Calculations

    Performance Calculations for Binary Digital Optical Systems

    Signals Received

    Probability Distribution

    Minimum Average Optical Received Power

    Total Output Noises and Pulse Shape Parameters

    An HEMT-Matched Noise Network Preamplifier

    Matched Network for Noise Reduction

    Noise Theory and Equivalent Input Noise Current

    Trans Impedance Amplifier: Differential and Nondifferential Types

    Concluding Remarks

    Appendix: Noise Equations



    Digital Coherent Optical Receivers


    Coherent Receiver Components

    Coherent Detection

    Optical Heterodyne Detection

    Optical Homodyne Detection

    Self-Coherent Detection and Electronic DSP

    Coherent and Incoherent Receiving Techniques

    Digital Processing in Advanced Optical Communication Systems

    Digital Signal Processing associated with Coherent Optical Receiver

    Overview DSP-Assisted Coherent Reception

    Polarization Multiplexed Coherent Reception: Analog Section

    DSP-Based Phase Estimation and Correction of Phase Noise and Nonlinear Effects

    DSP-Based Forward Phase Estimation of Optical Coherent Receivers of QPSK Modulation Format

    Coherent Receiver Analysis

    Shot-Noise-Limited Receiver Sensitivity




    EDF Amplifiers and Simulink® Models

    Introductory Remarks

    Fundamental and Theoretical Issues of EDFAs

    EDFA Configuration

    EDFA Operational Principles

    Pump Wavelength and Absorption Spectrum

    EDFAs in Long-Haul Transmission Systems

    EDFA Simulation Model

    Amplifier Parameters

    EDFAs Dynamic Model

    Amplifier Noises

    EDFA Simulation Model

    EDFA MATLAB® Simulink® Model

    Simulator Design Outline

    Simulator Design Process

    Simulator Requirement

    Simulator Design Assumptions

    EDFA Simulator Modeling

    Pump Source

    Simulink® EDFA Simulator: Execution Procedures

    Samples of the Simulink® Simulator

    Concluding Remarks


    MATLAB® Simulink® Modeling of Raman Amplification and Integration in Fiber Transmission Systems


    ROA versus EDFA

    Raman Amplification


    Raman Amplification Coupled Equations

    Raman and Fiber Propagation under Linear and Nonlinear Fiber Dispersions

    Propagation Equation

    SSMF and DCF as Raman Fibers

    Noise Figure


    Nonlinear Raman Gain/Scattering Schrödinger Equation

    Fiber Nonlinearities


    Split-Step Fourier Method

    Gaussian Pulses, Eye Diagrams, and Bit Error Rate

    Raman Amplification and Gaussian Pulse Propagation

    Fiber Profiles

    Gaussian Pulse Propagation

    Long-Haul Optically Amplified Transmission

    Concluding Remarks



    Raman Amplification and Split-Step Fourier Method: MATLAB® Program

    Initialization *.m File


    Digital Optical Modulation Transmission Systems

    Advanced Photonic Communications and Challenging Issues


    Challenging Issues

    Enabling Technologies

    Digital Modulation Formats

    Incoherent Optical Receivers

    Return-to-Zero Optical Pulses

    Generation Principles

    Phasor Representation

    Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK)


    Optical DPSK Transmitter

    Incoherent Detection of Optical DPSK

    Minimum Shift Keying

    CPFSK Approach

    ODQPSK Approach

    Incoherent Detection of Optical MSK

    Dual-Level MSK

    Theoretical Background

    Proposed Generation Scheme

    Incoherent Detection of Optical Dual-Level MSK

    Spectral Characteristics of Advanced Modulation Formats



    Design of Optical Communications Systems



    Structure of DWDM Long-Haul Transmission Systems

    Long-Haul Optical Transmission Systems

    Intensity Modulation Direct Detection Systems

    Loss-Limited Optical Communications Systems

    Dispersion-Limited Optical Communications Systems

    System Preliminary Design

    Gaussian Approximation

    System Preliminary Design under Nonlinear Effects

    Some Notes on the Design of Optical Transmission Systems

    Link Budget Calculations under Linear and Nonlinear Impairments

    Engineering an OADM Transmission Link

    Appendix: Power Budget

    Power Budget Estimation: An Example

    Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Optical SNR

    TIA: Differential and Nondifferential Types



    Self-Coherent Optically Amplified Digital Transmission Systems: Techniques and Simulink® Models

    ASK Modulation Formats Transmission Models

    Introductory Remarks

    Components Revisited for Advanced Optical Communication System

    Optical Sources

    Optical Modulators

    Mach–Zehnder (MZ) Intensity Modulators Revisited

    Transmission Loss and Dispersion Revisited

    Nonlinear Effects

    Signal Propagation Model

    Modulation Formats

    NRZ or NRZ–ASK

    RZ (or RZ–ASK)

    Return-to-Zero Optical Pulses

    Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK)




    Simulink® Models

    DQPSK Modulation Formats Transmission Models

    DQPSK Optical System Components

    DQPSK Receiver



    PDM-16 QAM Transmission Systems

    MSK Transmission Model

    Introductory Remarks

    Generation of Optical MSK-Modulated Signals

    Optical Binary-Amplitude MSK Format

    Star-QAM Transmission Systems for 100 Gb/s Capacity


    Design of 16-QAM Signal Constellation

    Star 16-QAM

    Square 16-QAM

    Offset-Square 16-QAM

    8-DPSK_2-ASK 16-Star QAM

    Configuration of 8-DPSK_2-ASK Optical Transmitter

    Configuration of 8-DPSK_2-ASK Detection Scheme

    Transmission Performance of 100 Gb/s 8-DPSK_2-ASK Scheme

    Power Spectrum

    Receiver Sensitivity and Dispersion Tolerance

    Long-Haul Transmission

    Appendix: Simulink® and Simulation Guidelines

    MATLAB® Simulink®

    Guide for Use of Simulink® Models

    MATLAB® Files


    Tbps Optical Transmission Systems: Digital Processing-Based Coherent Reception


    Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Systems

    Carrier Phase Recovery

    112G QPSK Coherent Transmission Systems

    I–Q Imbalance Estimation Results

    Skew Estimation

    Fractionally Spaced Equalization of CD and PMD

    Linear, Nonlinear Equalization and Back-Propagation Compensation of Linear and Nonlinear Phase Distortion

    16 QAM Systems

    Tb/s Superchannel Transmission Systems


    Nyquist Pulse and Spectra

    Superchannel System Requirements

    System Structure

    Timing Recovery in Nyquist QAM Channel

    128 Gb/s 16 QAM Superchannel Transmission

    450 Gb/s 32 QAM Nyquist Transmission Systems

    Non-DCF 1 and 2 Tb/s Superchannel Transmission Performance

    Transmission Platform


    Multicarrier Scheme Comparison

    Remarks and Challenges


    Digital Signal Processing for Optical Transmission Systems


    General Algorithms for Optical Communications Systems

    Linear Equalization

    Nonlinear Equalizer (NLE) or Decision Feedback Equalizers (DFE)

    Maximum Likelihood Sequence Detection (MLSD) and Viterbi

    Nonlinear MLSE

    Shared Equalization between Transmitter and Receivers

    Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) Technique for Phase Estimation



    Carrier Phase Estimation


    Correction of Phase Noise and Nonlinear Effects

    Forward Phase Estimation QPSK Optical Coherent Receivers

    Carrier Recovery in Polarization Division Multiplexed Receivers: A Case Study

    Systems Performance of MLSE Equalizer-MSK Optical Transmission Systems

    MLSE Equalizer for Optical MSK Systems

    MLSE Scheme Performance

    MIMO Equalization

    Generic MIMO Equalization Process

    Training-Based MIMO Equalization

    Remarks on References


    Appendix A: Technical Data of Single-Mode Optical Fibers

    Appendix B: RMS Definition and Power Measurement

    Appendix C: Power Budget

    Appendix D: How to Relate the Rise/Fall Time with the Frequency Response of Network and Power Budget Analyses for Optical Link Design and in Experimental Platforms

    Appendix E: Problems on Optical Fiber Communication Systems



    Le Nguyen Binh is a technical director at the European Research Center of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. in Munich, Germany. He is the editor, author, and/or coauthor of numerous books, as well as the editor of CRC Press’ Optics and Photonics series.

    "This book describes the principles, practices and modeling of optically amplified fiber communications systems using MATLAB® and Simulink® platforms. This lecture-based book is pleasant and contains careful discussions of a large number of topics dealing with the multifaceted aspects of light-wave optical-fiber communications engineering. Binh does an excellent job of focusing on practical applications and fundamental issues. What sets the book apart from other optical fiber texts is the author’s framing in terms of MATLAB Simulink models. The target audience for Binh’s book includes undergraduate engineering and science students, as well as optical engineers and designers."
    —Book Review by Professor Christian Brosseau, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest, France, writing in Optics & Photonics News

    "This book adds an aspect of programming and simulation not so well developed in other books. It is complete in this sense and enables directly linking the physics of optical components and systems to realistic results."
    —Martin Rochette, Associate Professor, McGill University, Quebec, Canada

    "…this will be an excellent textbook since it has all new development and information on optical communication systems…I think this book can easily replace many other textbooks in this field."
    —Massoud Moussavi, California State Polytechnic University-Pomona

    "The book is well written. It describes the fundamentals of fiber optic systems and presents the exact model texts and mathematical formulas which can be used to create practical computing models."
    —Associate professor, Dr. Paulius Tervydis, Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania