This work highlights contemporary approaches to resource utilization and provides comprehensive coverage of technological advances in residuum conversion. It illustrates state-of-the-art engineering methods for the refinement of heavy oils, bitumen, and other high-sulphur feedstocks.
Feedstock terminology, availability and evaluation: definition and terminology; occurrence and availability; composition; testing and evaluation. Engineering aspects of refining: reaction stoichiometry; chemical kinetics; thermochemistry and chemical equilibrium; kinetic measurements and data analysis; reactor design; mixing in flow systems and reactors; transport phenomena; heterogeneous gas-solid reactions and heterogeneous catalysis. Refining: pre-treatment and distillation; thermal cracking; catalytic cracking; hydrotreating; hydrocracking; the next generation processes; product improvement; hydrogen production. Conversion factors and SI units.