2nd Edition

Pharmaceutical and Clinical Calculations

By Mansoor A. Kahn, Indra K. Reddy Copyright 2000

    Pharmaceutical and clinical calculations are critical to the delivery of safe, effective, and competent patient care and professional practice. Pharmaceutical and Clinical Calculations, Second Edition addresses this crucial component, while emphasizing contemporary pharmacy practices. Presenting the information in a well-organized and easy-to-understand manner, the authors explain the principles of clinical calculations involving dose and dosing regimens in patients with impaired organ functions, aminoglycoside therapy, pediatric and geriatric dosing, and radiopharmaceuticals with appropriate examples.

    Each chapter begins with an introduction to the topic, followed by a comprehensive discussion. Key concepts are highlighted throughout the book for easy retrieval. The examples presented in the text reflect the practice environment in community, hospital, and nuclear pharmacy settings, and the clinical problems presented reflect a direct application of underlying theoretical principles and discussions. Pharmaceutical and Clinical Calculations, Second Edition is an essential tool for any practitioner who needs to reinforce their knowledge of the subject and is a valuable study guide for the Pharmacy Board examination.

    Prerequisite Mathematics Review
    Numbers and Numerals
    Arabic and Roman Numerals
    Ratio and Proportion
    Percent Concentration Expressions
    Dilution and Concentration
    Density and Specific Gravity
    Systems of Measurement
    The Metric System
    Apothecaries' System
    The Avoirdupos System
    The Household System
    Prescription and Medication Orders
    Types of Prescriptions
    Components of Prescriptions
    Label on the Container
    Medication Order
    Common Latin Terms and Abbreviations
    Medications and Their Directions for Use
    Prescription Problems
    Errors and Omissions
    Principles of Weighing and Measuring
    Prescription Balance and Sensitivity Requirement
    Aliquot Method for Solids
    Liquid Measurements
    Aliquot Method for Liquids
    Calculations Involving Oral Liquids
    Calculations Associated with Bulk Preparations
    Calculation of Doses
    Percentage Strength Calculations of Oral Liquids
    Dilution and Concentration
    Milliequivalent Calculations of Oral Electrolyte Solutions
    Dosage Calculations Involving Milliequivalents
    Calculations Involving Capsules, Tablets, and Powder Dosage Forms
    Strength of Dosages
    Extemporaneous Filling of Capsules
    Compounding Tips and Calculations for Filling Powder Prescriptions
    Calculations Involving Ointments, Creams, and Other Semisolids
    Compounding Tips
    Calculations Associated with Bulk Preparations
    Percentage Strength Calculations of Semisolid Preparations
    Dilution and Concentration
    Calculations Involving Topical Ophthalmic, Nasal, and Otic Preparations
    Calculation of Dissiociation (I) Factor
    Sodium Chloride Equivalents of Drug Substances
    Isotonicity Adjustments by Sodium Chloride Equivalent Methods
    Tonicity Agents Other Than Sodium Chloride
    Isotonicity Adjustments by Cryoscopic Method
    Volumes of Iso-Osmotic Solutions
    pH Adjustment
    Conversion of Hydrogen Ion Concentration to pH
    Conversion of pH to Hydrogen Ion Concentration
    Calculations Involving pH Value of a Buffer
    Molar Ratio of Buffer Components in a Buffer
    Calculations Involving Suppositories
    Displacement Value
    Preparation of Suppositories with Cocoa Butter
    Calculations Involving Injectable Medications
    Rate of Flow of Intravenous Fluids
    Insulin Dosage
    Heparin Dosage
    Calculations Involving Reconstitution of Dry Powders
    Milliequivalents and Milliosmoles
    Calculations Involving Nutrition
    Calculations of Calories
    Parenteral Hyperalimentation
    Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) Calculations
    Geriatric Nutrition
    Pediatric Nutrition
    Calculation of Doses and Dose Adjustments
    Plasma Concentration versus Time Profile
    Some Pharmacokinetic Parameters
    Fraction of Drug Absorbed and the Dosing Interval
    Loading and Maintenance Doses
    Dose Adjustments in Renal Failure
    Dose Adjustments in Hepatic Failure
    Pediatric and Geriatric Dosing
    Dosage Calculations Based on Age
    Dosage Calculations Based on Body Weight
    Dosage Calculation Based on Body Surface Area
    Dosage Regimen in Patients Using Aminoglycosides
    Critical Care
    Pediatric Critical Care
    Calculations Involving Immunizing Agents and Vaccines
    Bacterial Vaccines
    Viral Vaccines
    Calculations Involving Radiopharmaceuticals
    Units of Radioactivity
    Half-Life of Radiopharmaceuticals
    Mean Life
    Radioactive Decay of Radioisotopes
    Percentage Activity
    Dispensing of Radiopharmaceuticals
    Review Problems
    Answers to Practice Problems
    Answers to Review Problems
    Appendices A-E
    Suggested Readings


    Mansoor A. Kahn, Indra K. Reddy

    "… an excellent reference source for practicing pharmacists … contains five sets of review problems that are … an excellent review for the NAPLEX exam … an excellent source for covering everything from the very basic computational principles to more advanced patient-specific dosing techniques … an excellent job of presenting not only the theory and concepts involved with patient-specific dosing but also many real world examples…"
    - Steven P. Stodghill, University of Mississippi
    Journal of Pharmacy Teaching, Volume 8, Number 4 2001

    "…learn the basic principles of how to accurately interpret prescriptions and medication orders, measure, calculate, and compound quality dosage forms …learn multiple methods to accurately and safely dose patients. The computational methods to accomplish those ends are clearly presented and the examples used to demonstrate the concepts are relevant to contemporary practice…a reference source for practitioners who need to 'refresh' basic concepts in measurements and calculations to ensure safe and effective drug therapy for their patients."
    - Arthur A. Nelson, Dean and Professor, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center