Pharmaceutical and Clinical Calculations: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Pharmaceutical and Clinical Calculations

2nd Edition

By Mansoor A. Kahn, Indra K. Reddy


396 pages

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Hardback: 9781566768122
pub: 2000-04-06
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Pharmaceutical and clinical calculations are critical to the delivery of safe, effective, and competent patient care and professional practice. Pharmaceutical and Clinical Calculations, Second Edition addresses this crucial component, while emphasizing contemporary pharmacy practices. Presenting the information in a well-organized and easy-to-understand manner, the authors explain the principles of clinical calculations involving dose and dosing regimens in patients with impaired organ functions, aminoglycoside therapy, pediatric and geriatric dosing, and radiopharmaceuticals with appropriate examples.

Each chapter begins with an introduction to the topic, followed by a comprehensive discussion. Key concepts are highlighted throughout the book for easy retrieval. The examples presented in the text reflect the practice environment in community, hospital, and nuclear pharmacy settings, and the clinical problems presented reflect a direct application of underlying theoretical principles and discussions. Pharmaceutical and Clinical Calculations, Second Edition is an essential tool for any practitioner who needs to reinforce their knowledge of the subject and is a valuable study guide for the Pharmacy Board examination.


"… an excellent reference source for practicing pharmacists … contains five sets of review problems that are … an excellent review for the NAPLEX exam … an excellent source for covering everything from the very basic computational principles to more advanced patient-specific dosing techniques … an excellent job of presenting not only the theory and concepts involved with patient-specific dosing but also many real world examples…"

- Steven P. Stodghill, University of Mississippi

Journal of Pharmacy Teaching, Volume 8, Number 4 2001

"…learn the basic principles of how to accurately interpret prescriptions and medication orders, measure, calculate, and compound quality dosage forms …learn multiple methods to accurately and safely dose patients. The computational methods to accomplish those ends are clearly presented and the examples used to demonstrate the concepts are relevant to contemporary practice…a reference source for practitioners who need to 'refresh' basic concepts in measurements and calculations to ensure safe and effective drug therapy for their patients."

- Arthur A. Nelson, Dean and Professor, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center

Table of Contents

Prerequisite Mathematics Review

Numbers and Numerals

Arabic and Roman Numerals



Ratio and Proportion


Percent Concentration Expressions

Dilution and Concentration

Density and Specific Gravity

Systems of Measurement

The Metric System

Apothecaries' System

The Avoirdupos System

The Household System


Prescription and Medication Orders

Types of Prescriptions

Components of Prescriptions

Label on the Container

Medication Order

Common Latin Terms and Abbreviations

Medications and Their Directions for Use

Prescription Problems

Errors and Omissions

Principles of Weighing and Measuring

Prescription Balance and Sensitivity Requirement

Aliquot Method for Solids

Liquid Measurements

Aliquot Method for Liquids

Calculations Involving Oral Liquids

Calculations Associated with Bulk Preparations

Calculation of Doses

Percentage Strength Calculations of Oral Liquids

Dilution and Concentration

Milliequivalent Calculations of Oral Electrolyte Solutions

Dosage Calculations Involving Milliequivalents

Calculations Involving Capsules, Tablets, and Powder Dosage Forms

Strength of Dosages

Extemporaneous Filling of Capsules

Compounding Tips and Calculations for Filling Powder Prescriptions

Calculations Involving Ointments, Creams, and Other Semisolids

Compounding Tips

Calculations Associated with Bulk Preparations

Percentage Strength Calculations of Semisolid Preparations

Dilution and Concentration

Calculations Involving Topical Ophthalmic, Nasal, and Otic Preparations


Calculation of Dissiociation (I) Factor

Sodium Chloride Equivalents of Drug Substances

Isotonicity Adjustments by Sodium Chloride Equivalent Methods

Tonicity Agents Other Than Sodium Chloride

Isotonicity Adjustments by Cryoscopic Method

Volumes of Iso-Osmotic Solutions

pH Adjustment

Conversion of Hydrogen Ion Concentration to pH

Conversion of pH to Hydrogen Ion Concentration


Calculations Involving pH Value of a Buffer

Molar Ratio of Buffer Components in a Buffer

Calculations Involving Suppositories

Displacement Value

Preparation of Suppositories with Cocoa Butter

Calculations Involving Injectable Medications

Rate of Flow of Intravenous Fluids

Insulin Dosage

Heparin Dosage

Calculations Involving Reconstitution of Dry Powders

Milliequivalents and Milliosmoles

Calculations Involving Nutrition

Calculations of Calories

Parenteral Hyperalimentation

Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) Calculations

Geriatric Nutrition

Pediatric Nutrition

Calculation of Doses and Dose Adjustments

Plasma Concentration versus Time Profile

Some Pharmacokinetic Parameters

Fraction of Drug Absorbed and the Dosing Interval


Loading and Maintenance Doses

Dose Adjustments in Renal Failure

Dose Adjustments in Hepatic Failure

Pediatric and Geriatric Dosing

Dosage Calculations Based on Age

Dosage Calculations Based on Body Weight

Dosage Calculation Based on Body Surface Area

Dosage Regimen in Patients Using Aminoglycosides

Critical Care

Pediatric Critical Care

Calculations Involving Immunizing Agents and Vaccines

Bacterial Vaccines

Viral Vaccines


Calculations Involving Radiopharmaceuticals

Units of Radioactivity

Half-Life of Radiopharmaceuticals

Mean Life

Radioactive Decay of Radioisotopes

Percentage Activity

Dispensing of Radiopharmaceuticals

Review Problems

Answers to Practice Problems

Answers to Review Problems

Appendices A-E

Suggested Readings


About the Series

Pharmacy Education Series

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MEDICAL / Health Care Delivery
MEDICAL / Pharmacology
MEDICAL / Pharmacy