Pharmaceutical and Clinical Calculations  book cover
2nd Edition

Pharmaceutical and Clinical Calculations

ISBN 9781566768122
Published April 6, 2000 by Routledge
396 Pages

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Book Description

Pharmaceutical and clinical calculations are critical to the delivery of safe, effective, and competent patient care and professional practice. Pharmaceutical and Clinical Calculations, Second Edition addresses this crucial component, while emphasizing contemporary pharmacy practices. Presenting the information in a well-organized and easy-to-understand manner, the authors explain the principles of clinical calculations involving dose and dosing regimens in patients with impaired organ functions, aminoglycoside therapy, pediatric and geriatric dosing, and radiopharmaceuticals with appropriate examples.

Each chapter begins with an introduction to the topic, followed by a comprehensive discussion. Key concepts are highlighted throughout the book for easy retrieval. The examples presented in the text reflect the practice environment in community, hospital, and nuclear pharmacy settings, and the clinical problems presented reflect a direct application of underlying theoretical principles and discussions. Pharmaceutical and Clinical Calculations, Second Edition is an essential tool for any practitioner who needs to reinforce their knowledge of the subject and is a valuable study guide for the Pharmacy Board examination.

Table of Contents

Prerequisite Mathematics Review
Numbers and Numerals
Arabic and Roman Numerals
Ratio and Proportion
Percent Concentration Expressions
Dilution and Concentration
Density and Specific Gravity
Systems of Measurement
The Metric System
Apothecaries' System
The Avoirdupos System
The Household System
Prescription and Medication Orders
Types of Prescriptions
Components of Prescriptions
Label on the Container
Medication Order
Common Latin Terms and Abbreviations
Medications and Their Directions for Use
Prescription Problems
Errors and Omissions
Principles of Weighing and Measuring
Prescription Balance and Sensitivity Requirement
Aliquot Method for Solids
Liquid Measurements
Aliquot Method for Liquids
Calculations Involving Oral Liquids
Calculations Associated with Bulk Preparations
Calculation of Doses
Percentage Strength Calculations of Oral Liquids
Dilution and Concentration
Milliequivalent Calculations of Oral Electrolyte Solutions
Dosage Calculations Involving Milliequivalents
Calculations Involving Capsules, Tablets, and Powder Dosage Forms
Strength of Dosages
Extemporaneous Filling of Capsules
Compounding Tips and Calculations for Filling Powder Prescriptions
Calculations Involving Ointments, Creams, and Other Semisolids
Compounding Tips
Calculations Associated with Bulk Preparations
Percentage Strength Calculations of Semisolid Preparations
Dilution and Concentration
Calculations Involving Topical Ophthalmic, Nasal, and Otic Preparations
Calculation of Dissiociation (I) Factor
Sodium Chloride Equivalents of Drug Substances
Isotonicity Adjustments by Sodium Chloride Equivalent Methods
Tonicity Agents Other Than Sodium Chloride
Isotonicity Adjustments by Cryoscopic Method
Volumes of Iso-Osmotic Solutions
pH Adjustment
Conversion of Hydrogen Ion Concentration to pH
Conversion of pH to Hydrogen Ion Concentration
Calculations Involving pH Value of a Buffer
Molar Ratio of Buffer Components in a Buffer
Calculations Involving Suppositories
Displacement Value
Preparation of Suppositories with Cocoa Butter
Calculations Involving Injectable Medications
Rate of Flow of Intravenous Fluids
Insulin Dosage
Heparin Dosage
Calculations Involving Reconstitution of Dry Powders
Milliequivalents and Milliosmoles
Calculations Involving Nutrition
Calculations of Calories
Parenteral Hyperalimentation
Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) Calculations
Geriatric Nutrition
Pediatric Nutrition
Calculation of Doses and Dose Adjustments
Plasma Concentration versus Time Profile
Some Pharmacokinetic Parameters
Fraction of Drug Absorbed and the Dosing Interval
Loading and Maintenance Doses
Dose Adjustments in Renal Failure
Dose Adjustments in Hepatic Failure
Pediatric and Geriatric Dosing
Dosage Calculations Based on Age
Dosage Calculations Based on Body Weight
Dosage Calculation Based on Body Surface Area
Dosage Regimen in Patients Using Aminoglycosides
Critical Care
Pediatric Critical Care
Calculations Involving Immunizing Agents and Vaccines
Bacterial Vaccines
Viral Vaccines
Calculations Involving Radiopharmaceuticals
Units of Radioactivity
Half-Life of Radiopharmaceuticals
Mean Life
Radioactive Decay of Radioisotopes
Percentage Activity
Dispensing of Radiopharmaceuticals
Review Problems
Answers to Practice Problems
Answers to Review Problems
Appendices A-E
Suggested Readings

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"… an excellent reference source for practicing pharmacists … contains five sets of review problems that are … an excellent review for the NAPLEX exam … an excellent source for covering everything from the very basic computational principles to more advanced patient-specific dosing techniques … an excellent job of presenting not only the theory and concepts involved with patient-specific dosing but also many real world examples…"
- Steven P. Stodghill, University of Mississippi
Journal of Pharmacy Teaching, Volume 8, Number 4 2001

"…learn the basic principles of how to accurately interpret prescriptions and medication orders, measure, calculate, and compound quality dosage forms …learn multiple methods to accurately and safely dose patients. The computational methods to accomplish those ends are clearly presented and the examples used to demonstrate the concepts are relevant to contemporary practice…a reference source for practitioners who need to 'refresh' basic concepts in measurements and calculations to ensure safe and effective drug therapy for their patients."
- Arthur A. Nelson, Dean and Professor, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center