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Pharmacokinetic Principles of Dosing Adjustments
Understanding the Basics



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ISBN 9781566768993
Published November 30, 2000 by Routledge
272 Pages

 
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Book Description

This book has evolved over the last twenty years from a cumulative effort to develop a professional course in pharmacokinetics that would assist future practitioners in therapeutic decision making. As practicing pharmacists become more involved with patient advising, it becomes apparent that clinicians will be required to make dosing adjustments for certain drugs. This will become increasingly more likely as pharmacy practitioners have access to patient information that requires careful attention to dose and dosing interval, which in turn correlates to various pharmacokinetic parameters such as half-life and the volume of distribution of drugs.

Although many handbooks are available on this subject, they do not devote more than a brief chapter to the concepts behind the dosing adjustment approach. Pharmacokinetic Principles of Dosing Adjustments provides the concepts used to formulate approaches. Equations that appear in various chapters are developed, not through lengthy derivations, but by more of an intuitive approach. The equations are presented in their conceptual form, rather than a separate convenient form applicable to each clinic situation. This method is used to demonstrate how you can apply the initial conditions to the properties of the drug, patient and/or route of administration, rather than memorizing each variation of the basic equation. The author defines pertinent pharmacokinetic terms as well as kinetic processes and classical modeling relevant to dosing adjustments. Examples are included within each chapter that emphasize an understanding of the concepts.

Pharmacokinetic Principles of Dosing Adjustments was written for practitioners who operate in a setting that requires careful consideration to dosing parameters and, in particular, with patients that require constant monitoring of therapeutic outcomes including dosing adjustments. Based on the introductory course in pharmacokinetics taught by Dr. Schoenwald for the past twenty years, this book is intended as a review and resource for practicing pharmacists.

Table of Contents

BASIC CONCEPTS

Pharmacokinetic Processes
Introduction
Overview of Pharmacokinetic Processes
Study Guide

Kinetic Processes Applied to the Whole Body
Introduction
Classical Pharmacokinetic Models
Justification for Application of a One-Compartment Model
Study Guide

Disposition Parameters of the One-Compartment Model
Introduction
Elimination Rate Constant
Half-Life
Volume of Distribution
Area Under the Plasma Concentration-Time Curve
Systemic Clearance
Study Guide

Parameters Used In Adjusting Doses
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and the Retrospective Approach
Prospective Approach
Urine Measurements of Drugs and Renal Clearance
Dosage Adjustment in Renal Failure
Hepatic Elimination and Dosing Adjustments
Study Guide

PARENTERAL DOSING ADJUSTMENTS

Infusion
Introduction
Basic Infusion Principles
Bolus Dose Plus Constant Rate Infusion
Rapid Infusion Followed by Slow Infusion
Intermittent Infusion
Study Guide

ORAL DOSING

Important Parameters
Introduction
Fraction Absorbed (F)
Absorption Rate Constant
Factors Affecting the Absorption of Drugs
Study Guide

Bioavailability/Bioequivalence
Introduction
Definitions
Bioavailability Measurements
Bioequivalence
Generic Substitution
Study Guide

Multiple Dosing Regimens
Introduction
Superposition Principle and Multiple Dosing
Multiple Dosing Factor
Multiple Dosing Equations
Accumulation
Missed Dose
Study Guide

ADVANCED CONSIDERATIONS

Two-Compartment Model
Introduction
Volumes of Distribution
IV Infusion: Two-Compartment Model
Dosing Strategies
Advanced Considerations
Study Guide

An Introduction to Nonlinear Pharmacokinetics
Introduction
Application to Phenytoin Dosing Regimens
Single-Point Method
Bayesian Approach
Study Guide

Appendix: Study Guide Solutions

Index

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Reviews

"...introductory text... With its concise presentation and user-friendly examples, this text would best be utilized in introductory pharmocokinetics courses at the undergraduate level. It would also be a valuable addition to the reference collection of any medical library or drug information center."
-American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, vol. 65, Fall 2001