Physical Chemistry for Engineering and Applied Sciences: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Physical Chemistry for Engineering and Applied Sciences

1st Edition

By Frank R. Foulkes

CRC Press

704 pages | 159 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2012-09-12
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Description

Physical Chemistry for Engineering and Applied Sciences is the product of over 30 years of teaching first-year Physical Chemistry as part of the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering at the University of Toronto. Designed to be as rigorous as compatible with a first-year student’s ability to understand, the text presents detailed step-by-step derivations of the equations that permit the student to follow the underlying logic and, of equal importance, to appreciate any simplifying assumptions made or mathematical tricks employed.

In addition to the 600 exercises and end-of-chapter problems, the text is rich in worked non-trivial examples, many of which are designed to be inspiring and thought-provoking. Step-by-step derivation of all equations enables the student to smoothly follow the derivation by sight, and can be understood relatively easily by students with moderate skills and backgrounds in mathematics.

Clear and accessible, Physical Chemistry for Engineering and Applied Sciences includes:

  • The answers to all of the 112 worked examples, 99 exercises following many of the worked examples, and 496 end-of-chapter problems
  • Topics not normally seen in introductory physical chemistry textbooks (ionic reaction rates, activities and activity coefficients) or not regularly explained in much detail (electrochemistry, chemical kinetics), with an eye on industrial applications
  • Special appendices that provide detailed explanations of basic integration and natural logarithms for students lacking a background in integral calculus
  • An in-depth chapter on electrochemistry, in which activities and activity coefficients are used extensively, as required for accurate calculations

Table of Contents

THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW BUT PROBABLY FORGOT

Basic Definitions

SI Units

Dalton’s Atomic Theory

Stoichiometry

Equivalent Weight

Amount of Substance: the Mole

Avogadro’s Hypothesis

Conservation of Mass

Conservation of Charge

Atomic Mass Scales

STATES OF MATTER AND THE PROPERTIES OF GASES

The Three States of Matter

Pressure

Archimedes’ Principle

Temperature

THE IDEAL GAS

The Ideal Gas Equation of State

Molar Volumes

Combined Gas Equation

Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures

Mole Fractions

Partial Volumes

THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES

Postulates

Simplified Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law

The Meaning of Pressure

The Meaning of Temperature

Diffusion and Effusion

The Speeds of Gas Molecules

Effect of Pressure on Speed

Distribution of Molecular Speeds

The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution as an Energy Distribution

Fraction of Molecules Having E > E'

Concluding Remarks

REAL GASES

Real Gases

Isotherms for Real Gases

Equations of State for Real Gases

The Virial Equation

The Van der Waals Equation

Liquefaction of Gases

THERMODYNAMICS (I)

Thermodynamics

Definitions Used In Thermodynamics

Work

PV-Work

Maximum Work Obtainable from the Isothermal Expansion of an Ideal Gas

Reversible Processes

THERMODYNAMICS (II)

Internal Energy (U) and the First Law of Thermodynamics

State Functions

Work and Heat Are Not State Functions

Q and W Have Algebraic Signs

Another Look At PV-Work

Chemical Reaction in a Constant Volume System

The Heat Capacity of a Single Phase System

ΔU for the Isothermal Expansion of an Ideal Gas

The Internal Energy of a Monatomic Ideal Gas

THERMODYNAMICS (III)

Enthalpy (H)

Constant Pressure Processes

Thermochemistry

ΔH for Fusion (Melting) and Freezing

ΔH for Vaporization and Condensation

ΔH for Sublimation

Ionization Enthalpies

Electron Affinities

Bond Enthalpies

THERMODYNAMICS (IV)

The Standard State for Chemical Reactions

Hess’s Law of Constant Heat Summation

Standard Enthalpies of Formation

Variation of ΔH with Temperature at Constant Pressure

THERMODYNAMICS (V)

Spontaneous Processes

Entropy (S)

ΔS for the Isothermal Expansion of an Ideal Gas

ΔS for a Constant Pressure Heating or Cooling Process

ΔS for a Constant Volume Heating or Cooling Process

ΔS for a Reversible Phase Change

Whenever a Real Process Takes Place ΔSuniv Increases

Trouton’s Rule

THERMODYNAMICS (VI)

Absolute Entropies and the Third Law of Thermodynamics

Dealing With Phase Transitions

Entropy Changes for Chemical Reactions

THERMODYNAMICS (VII)

Gibbs Free Energy (G)

Gibbs Free Energy Changes, "Other" Work, and Spontaneity

Evaluation of ΔGT,P

ΔG° for a Chemical Reaction

Thermodynamic Stability

CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM (I)

Equilibrium Constants

The Reaction Quotient (Q) and Relative Activities (ai)

Formulation of Equilibrium Constants

Molar Free Energies

ΔGR for Chemical Reactions

CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM (II)

Calculations Using Thermodynamic Equilibrium Constants

Effect of Catalyst on K

Effect of Temperature on K

Effect of Pressure on K

PHASE EQUILIBRIUM (I)

Phase Change and Gibbs Free Energy

Phase Diagram for a Single Pure Substance

The Phase Rule

PHASE EQUILIBRIUM (II)

Phase Diagram for CO2

Phase Diagram for Water

The Clapeyron Equation

Phase Diagram for Carbon

Phase Diagram for Helium

The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation

MIXTURES

Expressions for Concentration

Partial Molar Volumes

The Chemical Potential (μ)

The Chemical Potential of a Component in an Ideal Gas Mixture

More About Activities

Ideal Liquid Solutions of Volatile Solutes: Raoult’s Law

Ideal Liquid Solutions of Non-Volatile Solutes

Ideal Liquid Solutions of Two Volatile Liquids

Real (Non-Ideal) Solutions

Chemical Potential and Solvent Activity

Ideal Dilute Solutions of Volatile Solutes: Henry’s Law

The Solubility of Gases

Distillation

The Lever Rule

Liquid-Liquid Phase Diagrams

Liquid-Solid Phase Diagrams

Compound Formation

COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES

Colligative Properties

Vapor Pressure Depression

Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Depression

Osmotic Pressure

IONIC EQUILIBRIUM

Ionic Equilibrium

Activities of Dissolved Species in Solution

Activities and Activity Coefficients of Electrolytes in Solution

Acids and Bases: The Brønsted–Lowry Concept

The Self-Dissociation of Water

Neutral Solutions

ACID AND BASE DISSOCIATION

Acid Dissociation Constants, Ka

Dissociation of a Weak Acid

Polyprotic Acid Calculation: Charge and Mass Balances

Simplified Approach

BASES AND THEIR SALTS

Weak Bases: B or BOH

The Salt of a Weak Acid: Hydrolysis

The Rigorous Method

The Salt of a Weak Base

Acid-Base Titrations

BUFFER SOLUTIONS

Buffer Solutions

Buffer of a Weak Acid and its Salt: HA + NaA

Rigorous Derivation: HA/NaA Buffer

Buffer of a Weak Base and Its Salt: BOH + BCl

Rigorous Expression for BOH/BCl Buffer

Acid-Base Indicators: HIn

SOLUBILITY EQUILIBRIA

Solubility Equilibria

Relationship Between KSP and Solubility for Different Salt Types

Activity Effects and Solubility

The Common Ion Effect

Salting In

Selective Precipitation

OXIDATION–REDUCTION REACTIONS

Oxidation–Reduction (Redox) Reactions

Rules for Assignment of Oxidation Numbers

Steps for Balancing Redox Reactions

ELECTROCHEMISTRY

Half-Reactions, Electrodes, and Electrochemical Cells

Electrical Work

Types of Cells

Liquid Junctions and Salt Bridges

Equilibrium Voltages

The Nernst Equation

Single Electrode Potentials

Calculation of Equilibrium Cell Voltages from Half-Cell Potentials

Equilibrium Constants from Cell Voltages

Thermodynamic Functions from Cell Voltages

Concentration Cells

CHEMICAL REACTION KINETICS

Rates of Reactions: Chemical Kinetics

Concentration Profiles

Expression of Reaction Rates

Differential Rate Laws

First Order Reactions

Half-Lives

Second Order Reactions

Zeroth Order Reactions

Experimental Determination of k, m, and n

Reaction Mechanisms

The Rate-Determining Step

Reaction Rates and Equilibrium

Reaction Intermediates

Effect of Temperature

Rates of Ionic Reactions

APPENDICES

Properties of the Elements

Thermodynamic Data for Selected Gases and Vapors

Thermodynamic Data for Selected Liquids

Thermodynamic Data for Selected Solids

Thermodynamic Data for Selected Aqueous Ions

Analytical Solution of a Cubic Equation

The Newton-Raphson Method

Understanding Basic Integration

Understanding Logarithms, Exponentials, and the Integral of 1/x

Standard Reduction Potentials

Answers to Exercises

Answers to Problems

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MED009000
MEDICAL / Biotechnology
SCI013050
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Physical & Theoretical
SCI065000
SCIENCE / Mechanics / Dynamics / Thermodynamics