1st Edition

Physical Layer Security in Wireless Communications

Edited By Xiangyun Zhou, Lingyang Song, Yan Zhang Copyright 2014
    314 Pages 105 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Physical layer security has recently become an emerging technique to complement and significantly improve the communication security of wireless networks. Compared to cryptographic approaches, physical layer security is a fundamentally different paradigm where secrecy is achieved by exploiting the physical layer properties of the communication system, such as thermal noise, interference, and the time-varying nature of fading channels.

    Written by pioneering researchers, Physical Layer Security in Wireless Communications supplies a systematic overview of the basic concepts, recent advancements, and open issues in providing communication security at the physical layer. It introduces the key concepts, design issues, and solutions to physical layer security in single-user and multi-user communication systems, as well as large-scale wireless networks.

    The book starts with a brief introduction to physical layer security. The rest of the book is organized into four parts based on the different approaches used for the design and analysis of physical layer security techniques:

    1. Information Theoretic Approaches: introduces capacity-achieving methods and coding schemes for secure communication, as well as secret key generation and agreement over wireless channels
    2. Signal Processing Approaches: covers recent progress in applying signal processing techniques to design physical layer security enhancements
    3. Game Theoretic Approaches: discusses the applications of game theory to analyze and design wireless networks with physical layer security considerations
    4. Graph Theoretic Approaches: presents the use of tools from graph theory and stochastic geometry to analyze and design large-scale wireless networks with physical layer security constraints

    Presenting high-level discussions along with specific examples, illustrations, and references to conference and journal articles, this is an ideal reference for postgraduate students, researchers, and engineers that need to obtain a macro-level understanding of physical layer security and its role in future wireless communication systems.

    Fundamentals of Physical Layer Security
    Information-Theoretic Secrecy
         Shannon’s Cipher System and Perfect Secrecy
         Information-Theoretic Secrecy Metrics
    Secret Communication Over Noisy Channels 
         Wiretap Channel Model 
         Coding Mechanisms for Secret Communication
    Secret-Key Generation from Noisy Channels
         Channel Model for Secret-Key Generation
         Coding Mechanisms for Secret-Key Generation

    Coding for Wiretap Channels
    Coding for the Wiretap Channel II
         Basics of Error Correcting Codes 
         Wiretap II Codes
    Wiretap Coding with Polar Codes 
         Polar Codes 
         Polar Wiretap Codes
    Coding for Gaussian Wiretap Channels 
         Error Probability and Secrecy Gain 
         Unimodular Lattice Codes

    LDPC Codes for the Gaussian Wiretap Channel
    Channel Model and Basic Notions
    Coding for Security
         Asymptotic Analysis
         Optimized Puncturing Distributions 
         Reducing SNR Loss 
         Finite Block Lengths
    System Aspects
    Concluding Remarks

    Key Generation From Wireless Channels

    Information Theoretic Models for Key Generation 
         Key Generation via Unlimited Public Discussion 
         Key Generation with Rate Constraint in Public Discussion 
         Key Generation with Side-information at Eve
    Basic Approaches for Key Generation via Wireless Networks
    A Joint Source-Channel Key Agreement Protocol 
         Key Agreement With a Public Channel 
         Key Agreement Without a Public Channel
    Relay-Assisted Key Generation With a Public Channel
         Relay-Assisted Key Generation with One Relay 
         Relay-Assisted Key Generation with Multiple Relays 
         Relay-Oblivious Key Generation
    Key Agreement with the Presence of an Active Attacker 
         Training Phase 
         Key Generation Phase

    Secrecy With Feedback
    The Gaussian Two-Way Wiretap Channel
    Achieving Secrecy using Public Discussion
    Achieving Secrecy using Cooperative Jamming 
         Full Duplex Node 
         Half Duplex Node
    Achieving Secrecy through Discussion and Jamming 
         Jamming with Codewords 
         Secrecy Through Key Generation
         Block Markov Coding Scheme
    When the Eavesdropper Channel States Are Not Known
         Outer Bounds 
    Proof of Theorem 5.7.5
    Proof of Theorem 5.7.6

    MIMO Signal Processing Algorithms for Enhanced Physical Layer Security
    Physical-Layer Security 
         Signal Processing Aspects 
         Secrecy Performance Metrics 
         The Role of CSI
    MIMO Wiretap Channels 
         Complete CSI
         Partial CSI
    MIMO Wiretap Channel with an External Helper
    MIMO Broadcast Channel
    MIMO Interference Channel
    MIMO Relay Wiretap Networks 
         Relay-Aided Cooperation 
         Untrusted Relaying

    Discriminatory Channel Estimation for Secure Wireless Communication
    Discriminatory Channel Estimation – Basic Concept
    DCE via Feedback and Retraining 
         Two-Stage Feedback-and-Retraining 
         Multiple Stage Feedback and Retraining
         Simulation Results and Discussions
    Discriminatory Channel Estimation via Two-Way Training 
         Two-Way DCE Design for Reciprocal Channels 
         Two-Way DCE Design for Non-Reciprocal Channels 
         Simulation Results and Discussions
    Conclusions and Discussions

    Physical Layer Security in OFDMA Networks
    Related Works on Secure OFDM/OFDMA Networks 
         Secure OFDM Channel 
         Secure OFDMA Cellular Networks 
         Secure OFDMA Relay Networks 
         Secure OFDM with Implementation Issues
    Basics of Resource Allocation for Secret Communications 
         Power Allocation Law for Secrecy 
         Multiple Eavesdroppers
    Resource Allocation for Physical Layer Security in OFDMA Networks
         Problem Formulation 
         Optimal Policy 
         Suboptimal Algorithm 
         Numerical Examples 
         Discussion on False CSI Feedback
    Conclusions and Open Issues

    The Application of Cooperative Transmissions to Secrecy Communications
    When all Nodes are Equipped with a Single Antenna 
         Cooperative Jamming 
         Relay Chatting
    MIMO Relay Secrecy Communication Scenarios 
         When CSI of eavesdroppers Is known 
         When CSI of eavesdroppers Is unknown

    Game Theory for Physical Layer Security on Interference Channels
    System Models and Scenarios 
         Standard MISO Interference Channel 
         MISO Interference Channel with Private Messages 
         MISO Interference Channel with Public Feedback and Private Messages 
         Discussion and Comparison of Scenarios
    Non-Cooperative Solutions 
         Non-Cooperative Games in Strategic Form 
         Solution for the MISO Interference Channel Scenarios
    Cooperative Solutions 
         Bargaining Solutions 
         Nash Bargaining Solution 
         Bargaining Algorithm in the Edgeworth-Box 
         Walras Equilibrium Solution
    Illustrations and Discussions 
         Comparison of Utility Regions 
         Non-Cooperative and Cooperative Operating Points 
         Bargaining Algorithm Behaviour
    Appendix: Proofs 
         Proof of Theorem 10.3.1 
         Proof of Theorem 10.4.1 
         Proof of Theorem 10.4.2 
         Proof of Theorem 10.4.3

    Ascending Clock Auction for Physical Layer Security
         Cooperative Jamming for Physical Layer Security 
         Game Theory Based Jamming Power Allocation 
         Ascending Auctions 
         Chapter Outline
    System Model and Problem Formulation 
         System Model 
         Source’s Utility Function 
         Jammer’s Utility Function
    Auction-Based Jamming Power Allocation Schemes 
         Power Allocation Scheme based on Single Object Pay-as-Bid Ascending Clock Auction (P-ACA-S)
         Power Allocation Scheme based on Traditional Ascending Clock Auction (P-ACA-T) 
         Power Allocation Scheme based on Alternative Ascending Clock Auction (P-ACA-A)
    Properties of the Proposed Auction-Based Power Allocation Schemes
         Optimal Jamming Power for Each Source 
         Social Welfare Maximization 
         Complexity and Overhead
    Conclusions and Open Issues

    Relay and Jammer Cooperation as a Coalitional Game
         Cooperative Relaying and Cooperative Jamming 
         Relay and Jammer Selection 
         Coalitional Game Theory 
         Chapter Outline
    System Model and Problem Formulation
    Relay and Jammer Cooperation as a Coalitional Game 
         Coalitional Game Definition 
         Properties of the Proposed Coalitional Game
    Coalition Formation Algorithm 
         Coalition Formation Concepts 
         Merge-and-Split Coalition Formation Algorithm
    Conclusions and Open Issues

    Stochastic Geometry Approaches to Secrecy in Large Wireless Networks
         Stochastic Geometry Approaches
    Secrecy Graph 
         Network and Graph Model 
         Local Connectivity Properties 
         Global Connectivity Properties 
         Connectivity Enhancements
    Secrecy Transmission Capacity 
         Network Model 
         Capacity Formulation 
         Illustrative Example
    Current Limitations and Future Directions

    Physical Layer Secrecy in Large Multi-Hop Wireless Networks
    Background: Physical-Layer Security in One-Hop Networks
    Secure Connectivity: The Secrecy Graph
    Secure Capacity 
         Background: Throughput Scaling in Large Wireless Networks 
         Secrecy Scaling with Known Eavesdropper Location 
         Secrecy Scaling with Unknown Eavesdropper Locations
    Conclusion and Future Work


    Xiangyun Zhou is a Lecturer at the Australian National University. He received the B.E. (hons.) degree in electronics and telecommunications engineering and the Ph.D. degree in telecommunications engineering from the ANU in 2007 and 2010, respectively. From June 2010 to June 2011, he worked as a postdoctoral fellow at UNIK - University Graduate Center, University of Oslo, Norway. His research interests are in the fields of communication theory and wireless networks, including MIMO systems, relay and cooperative communications, heterogeneous and small cell networks, ad hoc and sensor wireless networks, physical layer security, and wireless power transfer. Dr. Zhou serves on the editorial boards of Security and Communication Networks (Wiley) and Ad Hoc & Sensor Wireless Networks. He was the organizer and chair of the special session on "Stochastic Geometry and Random Networks" in 2013 Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers. He has also served as the TPC member of major IEEE conferences. He is a recipient of the Best Paper Award at the 2011 IEEE International Conference on Communications.

    Lingyang Song is a Professor at Peking University, China. He received his PhD from the University of York, UK, in 2007, where he received the K. M. Stott Prize for excellent research. He worked as a postdoctoral research fellow at the University of Oslo, Norway, and Harvard University, until rejoining Philips Research UK in March 2008. In May 2009, he joined the School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, China, as a full professor. His main research interests include MIMO, OFDM, cooperative communications, cognitive radio, physical layer security, game theory, and wireless ad hoc/sensor networks. He is co-inventor of a number of patents (standard contributions), and author or co-author of over 100 journal and conference papers. He is the co-editor of two books, "Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)-Fundamentals and Applications" and "Evolved Network Planning and Optimization for UMTS and LTE", published by Auerbach Publications, CRC Press, USA. Dr. Song received several Best Paper Awards, including one in IEEE International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing (WiCOM 2007), one in the First IEEE International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC 2012), one in the 7th International Conference on Communications and Networking in China (ChinaCom2012), and one in IEEE Wireless Communication and Networking Conference (WCNC2012). Dr. Song is currently on the Editorial Board of IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Journal of Network and Computer Applications, and IET Communications. He is the recipient of 2012 IEEE Asia Pacific (AP) Young Researcher Award.

    Yan Zhang received a Ph.D. degree from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Since August 2006 he has been working with Simula Research Laboratory, Norway. He is currently a senior research scientist at Simula Research Laboratory. He is an associate professor (part-time) at the University of Oslo, Norway. He is a regional editor, associate editor, on the editorial board, or guest editor of a number of international journals. He is currently serving as Book Series Editor for the book series on Wireless Networks and Mobile Communications (Auerbach Publications, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group). He has served or is serving as organizing committee chair for many international conferences, including AINA 2011, WICON 2010, IWCMC 2010/2009, BODYNETS 2010, BROADNETS 2009, ACM MobiHoc 2008, IEEE ISM 2007, and CHINACOM 2009/2008. His research interests include resource, mobility, spectrum, energy, and data management in wireless communications and networking.