Physical Layer Security in Wireless Communications  book cover
1st Edition

Physical Layer Security in Wireless Communications

ISBN 9781466567009
Published November 15, 2013 by CRC Press
314 Pages 105 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Physical layer security has recently become an emerging technique to complement and significantly improve the communication security of wireless networks. Compared to cryptographic approaches, physical layer security is a fundamentally different paradigm where secrecy is achieved by exploiting the physical layer properties of the communication system, such as thermal noise, interference, and the time-varying nature of fading channels.

Written by pioneering researchers, Physical Layer Security in Wireless Communications supplies a systematic overview of the basic concepts, recent advancements, and open issues in providing communication security at the physical layer. It introduces the key concepts, design issues, and solutions to physical layer security in single-user and multi-user communication systems, as well as large-scale wireless networks.

The book starts with a brief introduction to physical layer security. The rest of the book is organized into four parts based on the different approaches used for the design and analysis of physical layer security techniques:

  1. Information Theoretic Approaches: introduces capacity-achieving methods and coding schemes for secure communication, as well as secret key generation and agreement over wireless channels
  2. Signal Processing Approaches: covers recent progress in applying signal processing techniques to design physical layer security enhancements
  3. Game Theoretic Approaches: discusses the applications of game theory to analyze and design wireless networks with physical layer security considerations
  4. Graph Theoretic Approaches: presents the use of tools from graph theory and stochastic geometry to analyze and design large-scale wireless networks with physical layer security constraints

Presenting high-level discussions along with specific examples, illustrations, and references to conference and journal articles, this is an ideal reference for postgraduate students, researchers, and engineers that need to obtain a macro-level understanding of physical layer security and its role in future wireless communication systems.

Table of Contents

Fundamentals of Physical Layer Security
Information-Theoretic Secrecy
     Shannon’s Cipher System and Perfect Secrecy
     Information-Theoretic Secrecy Metrics
Secret Communication Over Noisy Channels 
     Wiretap Channel Model 
     Coding Mechanisms for Secret Communication
Secret-Key Generation from Noisy Channels
     Channel Model for Secret-Key Generation
     Coding Mechanisms for Secret-Key Generation

Coding for Wiretap Channels
Coding for the Wiretap Channel II
     Basics of Error Correcting Codes 
     Wiretap II Codes
Wiretap Coding with Polar Codes 
     Polar Codes 
     Polar Wiretap Codes
Coding for Gaussian Wiretap Channels 
     Error Probability and Secrecy Gain 
     Unimodular Lattice Codes

LDPC Codes for the Gaussian Wiretap Channel
Channel Model and Basic Notions
Coding for Security
     Asymptotic Analysis
     Optimized Puncturing Distributions 
     Reducing SNR Loss 
     Finite Block Lengths
System Aspects
Concluding Remarks

Key Generation From Wireless Channels

Information Theoretic Models for Key Generation 
     Key Generation via Unlimited Public Discussion 
     Key Generation with Rate Constraint in Public Discussion 
     Key Generation with Side-information at Eve
Basic Approaches for Key Generation via Wireless Networks
A Joint Source-Channel Key Agreement Protocol 
     Key Agreement With a Public Channel 
     Key Agreement Without a Public Channel
Relay-Assisted Key Generation With a Public Channel
     Relay-Assisted Key Generation with One Relay 
     Relay-Assisted Key Generation with Multiple Relays 
     Relay-Oblivious Key Generation
Key Agreement with the Presence of an Active Attacker 
     Training Phase 
     Key Generation Phase

Secrecy With Feedback
The Gaussian Two-Way Wiretap Channel
Achieving Secrecy using Public Discussion
Achieving Secrecy using Cooperative Jamming 
     Full Duplex Node 
     Half Duplex Node
Achieving Secrecy through Discussion and Jamming 
     Jamming with Codewords 
     Secrecy Through Key Generation
     Block Markov Coding Scheme
When the Eavesdropper Channel States Are Not Known
     Outer Bounds 
Proof of Theorem 5.7.5
Proof of Theorem 5.7.6

MIMO Signal Processing Algorithms for Enhanced Physical Layer Security
Physical-Layer Security 
     Signal Processing Aspects 
     Secrecy Performance Metrics 
     The Role of CSI
MIMO Wiretap Channels 
     Complete CSI
     Partial CSI
MIMO Wiretap Channel with an External Helper
MIMO Broadcast Channel
MIMO Interference Channel
MIMO Relay Wiretap Networks 
     Relay-Aided Cooperation 
     Untrusted Relaying

Discriminatory Channel Estimation for Secure Wireless Communication
Discriminatory Channel Estimation – Basic Concept
DCE via Feedback and Retraining 
     Two-Stage Feedback-and-Retraining 
     Multiple Stage Feedback and Retraining
     Simulation Results and Discussions
Discriminatory Channel Estimation via Two-Way Training 
     Two-Way DCE Design for Reciprocal Channels 
     Two-Way DCE Design for Non-Reciprocal Channels 
     Simulation Results and Discussions
Conclusions and Discussions

Physical Layer Security in OFDMA Networks
Related Works on Secure OFDM/OFDMA Networks 
     Secure OFDM Channel 
     Secure OFDMA Cellular Networks 
     Secure OFDMA Relay Networks 
     Secure OFDM with Implementation Issues
Basics of Resource Allocation for Secret Communications 
     Power Allocation Law for Secrecy 
     Multiple Eavesdroppers
Resource Allocation for Physical Layer Security in OFDMA Networks
     Problem Formulation 
     Optimal Policy 
     Suboptimal Algorithm 
     Numerical Examples 
     Discussion on False CSI Feedback
Conclusions and Open Issues

The Application of Cooperative Transmissions to Secrecy Communications
When all Nodes are Equipped with a Single Antenna 
     Cooperative Jamming 
     Relay Chatting
MIMO Relay Secrecy Communication Scenarios 
     When CSI of eavesdroppers Is known 
     When CSI of eavesdroppers Is unknown

Game Theory for Physical Layer Security on Interference Channels
System Models and Scenarios 
     Standard MISO Interference Channel 
     MISO Interference Channel with Private Messages 
     MISO Interference Channel with Public Feedback and Private Messages 
     Discussion and Comparison of Scenarios
Non-Cooperative Solutions 
     Non-Cooperative Games in Strategic Form 
     Solution for the MISO Interference Channel Scenarios
Cooperative Solutions 
     Bargaining Solutions 
     Nash Bargaining Solution 
     Bargaining Algorithm in the Edgeworth-Box 
     Walras Equilibrium Solution
Illustrations and Discussions 
     Comparison of Utility Regions 
     Non-Cooperative and Cooperative Operating Points 
     Bargaining Algorithm Behaviour
Appendix: Proofs 
     Proof of Theorem 10.3.1 
     Proof of Theorem 10.4.1 
     Proof of Theorem 10.4.2 
     Proof of Theorem 10.4.3

Ascending Clock Auction for Physical Layer Security
     Cooperative Jamming for Physical Layer Security 
     Game Theory Based Jamming Power Allocation 
     Ascending Auctions 
     Chapter Outline
System Model and Problem Formulation 
     System Model 
     Source’s Utility Function 
     Jammer’s Utility Function
Auction-Based Jamming Power Allocation Schemes 
     Power Allocation Scheme based on Single Object Pay-as-Bid Ascending Clock Auction (P-ACA-S)
     Power Allocation Scheme based on Traditional Ascending Clock Auction (P-ACA-T) 
     Power Allocation Scheme based on Alternative Ascending Clock Auction (P-ACA-A)
Properties of the Proposed Auction-Based Power Allocation Schemes
     Optimal Jamming Power for Each Source 
     Social Welfare Maximization 
     Complexity and Overhead
Conclusions and Open Issues

Relay and Jammer Cooperation as a Coalitional Game
     Cooperative Relaying and Cooperative Jamming 
     Relay and Jammer Selection 
     Coalitional Game Theory 
     Chapter Outline
System Model and Problem Formulation
Relay and Jammer Cooperation as a Coalitional Game 
     Coalitional Game Definition 
     Properties of the Proposed Coalitional Game
Coalition Formation Algorithm 
     Coalition Formation Concepts 
     Merge-and-Split Coalition Formation Algorithm
Conclusions and Open Issues

Stochastic Geometry Approaches to Secrecy in Large Wireless Networks
     Stochastic Geometry Approaches
Secrecy Graph 
     Network and Graph Model 
     Local Connectivity Properties 
     Global Connectivity Properties 
     Connectivity Enhancements
Secrecy Transmission Capacity 
     Network Model 
     Capacity Formulation 
     Illustrative Example
Current Limitations and Future Directions

Physical Layer Secrecy in Large Multi-Hop Wireless Networks
Background: Physical-Layer Security in One-Hop Networks
Secure Connectivity: The Secrecy Graph
Secure Capacity 
     Background: Throughput Scaling in Large Wireless Networks 
     Secrecy Scaling with Known Eavesdropper Location 
     Secrecy Scaling with Unknown Eavesdropper Locations
Conclusion and Future Work

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Xiangyun Zhou is a Lecturer at the Australian National University. He received the B.E. (hons.) degree in electronics and telecommunications engineering and the Ph.D. degree in telecommunications engineering from the ANU in 2007 and 2010, respectively. From June 2010 to June 2011, he worked as a postdoctoral fellow at UNIK - University Graduate Center, University of Oslo, Norway. His research interests are in the fields of communication theory and wireless networks, including MIMO systems, relay and cooperative communications, heterogeneous and small cell networks, ad hoc and sensor wireless networks, physical layer security, and wireless power transfer. Dr. Zhou serves on the editorial boards of Security and Communication Networks (Wiley) and Ad Hoc & Sensor Wireless Networks. He was the organizer and chair of the special session on "Stochastic Geometry and Random Networks" in 2013 Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers. He has also served as the TPC member of major IEEE conferences. He is a recipient of the Best Paper Award at the 2011 IEEE International Conference on Communications.

Lingyang Song is a Professor at Peking University, China. He received his PhD from the University of York, UK, in 2007, where he received the K. M. Stott Prize for excellent research. He worked as a postdoctoral research fellow at the University of Oslo, Norway, and Harvard University, until rejoining Philips Research UK in March 2008. In May 2009, he joined the School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, China, as a full professor. His main research interests include MIMO, OFDM, cooperative communications, cognitive radio, physical layer security, game theory, and wireless ad hoc/sensor networks. He is co-inventor of a number of patents (standard contributions), and author or co-author of over 100 journal and conference papers. He is the co-editor of two books, "Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)-Fundamentals and Applications" and "Evolved Network Planning and Optimization for UMTS and LTE", published by Auerbach Publications, CRC Press, USA. Dr. Song received several Best Paper Awards, including one in IEEE International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing (WiCOM 2007), one in the First IEEE International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC 2012), one in the 7th International Conference on Communications and Networking in China (ChinaCom2012), and one in IEEE Wireless Communication and Networking Conference (WCNC2012). Dr. Song is currently on the Editorial Board of IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Journal of Network and Computer Applications, and IET Communications. He is the recipient of 2012 IEEE Asia Pacific (AP) Young Researcher Award.

Yan Zhang received a Ph.D. degree from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Since August 2006 he has been working with Simula Research Laboratory, Norway. He is currently a senior research scientist at Simula Research Laboratory. He is an associate professor (part-time) at the University of Oslo, Norway. He is a regional editor, associate editor, on the editorial board, or guest editor of a number of international journals. He is currently serving as Book Series Editor for the book series on Wireless Networks and Mobile Communications (Auerbach Publications, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group). He has served or is serving as organizing committee chair for many international conferences, including AINA 2011, WICON 2010, IWCMC 2010/2009, BODYNETS 2010, BROADNETS 2009, ACM MobiHoc 2008, IEEE ISM 2007, and CHINACOM 2009/2008. His research interests include resource, mobility, spectrum, energy, and data management in wireless communications and networking.