Physical Layer Security in Wireless Communications: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Physical Layer Security in Wireless Communications

1st Edition

Edited by Xiangyun Zhou, Lingyang Song, Yan Zhang

CRC Press

314 pages | 105 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2013-11-15
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Physical layer security has recently become an emerging technique to complement and significantly improve the communication security of wireless networks. Compared to cryptographic approaches, physical layer security is a fundamentally different paradigm where secrecy is achieved by exploiting the physical layer properties of the communication system, such as thermal noise, interference, and the time-varying nature of fading channels.

Written by pioneering researchers, Physical Layer Security in Wireless Communications supplies a systematic overview of the basic concepts, recent advancements, and open issues in providing communication security at the physical layer. It introduces the key concepts, design issues, and solutions to physical layer security in single-user and multi-user communication systems, as well as large-scale wireless networks.

The book starts with a brief introduction to physical layer security. The rest of the book is organized into four parts based on the different approaches used for the design and analysis of physical layer security techniques:

  1. Information Theoretic Approaches: introduces capacity-achieving methods and coding schemes for secure communication, as well as secret key generation and agreement over wireless channels
  2. Signal Processing Approaches: covers recent progress in applying signal processing techniques to design physical layer security enhancements
  3. Game Theoretic Approaches: discusses the applications of game theory to analyze and design wireless networks with physical layer security considerations
  4. Graph Theoretic Approaches: presents the use of tools from graph theory and stochastic geometry to analyze and design large-scale wireless networks with physical layer security constraints

Presenting high-level discussions along with specific examples, illustrations, and references to conference and journal articles, this is an ideal reference for postgraduate students, researchers, and engineers that need to obtain a macro-level understanding of physical layer security and its role in future wireless communication systems.

Table of Contents

Fundamentals of Physical Layer Security

Information-Theoretic Secrecy

Shannon’s Cipher System and Perfect Secrecy

Information-Theoretic Secrecy Metrics

Secret Communication Over Noisy Channels

Wiretap Channel Model

Coding Mechanisms for Secret Communication

Secret-Key Generation from Noisy Channels

Channel Model for Secret-Key Generation

Coding Mechanisms for Secret-Key Generation



Coding for Wiretap Channels

Coding for the Wiretap Channel II

Basics of Error Correcting Codes

Wiretap II Codes

Wiretap Coding with Polar Codes

Polar Codes

Polar Wiretap Codes

Coding for Gaussian Wiretap Channels

Error Probability and Secrecy Gain

Unimodular Lattice Codes



LDPC Codes for the Gaussian Wiretap Channel

Channel Model and Basic Notions

Coding for Security

Asymptotic Analysis

Optimized Puncturing Distributions

Reducing SNR Loss

Finite Block Lengths

System Aspects

Concluding Remarks


Key Generation From Wireless Channels


Information Theoretic Models for Key Generation

Key Generation via Unlimited Public Discussion

Key Generation with Rate Constraint in Public Discussion

Key Generation with Side-information at Eve

Basic Approaches for Key Generation via Wireless Networks

A Joint Source-Channel Key Agreement Protocol

Key Agreement With a Public Channel

Key Agreement Without a Public Channel

Relay-Assisted Key Generation With a Public Channel

Relay-Assisted Key Generation with One Relay

Relay-Assisted Key Generation with Multiple Relays

Relay-Oblivious Key Generation

Key Agreement with the Presence of an Active Attacker

Training Phase

Key Generation Phase




Secrecy With Feedback


The Gaussian Two-Way Wiretap Channel

Achieving Secrecy using Public Discussion

Achieving Secrecy using Cooperative Jamming

Full Duplex Node

Half Duplex Node

Achieving Secrecy through Discussion and Jamming

Jamming with Codewords

Secrecy Through Key Generation

Block Markov Coding Scheme

When the Eavesdropper Channel States Are Not Known


Outer Bounds



Proof of Theorem 5.7.5

Proof of Theorem 5.7.6


MIMO Signal Processing Algorithms for Enhanced Physical Layer Security


Physical-Layer Security

Signal Processing Aspects

Secrecy Performance Metrics

The Role of CSI

MIMO Wiretap Channels

Complete CSI

Partial CSI

MIMO Wiretap Channel with an External Helper

MIMO Broadcast Channel

MIMO Interference Channel

MIMO Relay Wiretap Networks

Relay-Aided Cooperation

Untrusted Relaying



Discriminatory Channel Estimation for Secure Wireless Communication


Discriminatory Channel Estimation – Basic Concept

DCE via Feedback and Retraining

Two-Stage Feedback-and-Retraining

Multiple Stage Feedback and Retraining

Simulation Results and Discussions

Discriminatory Channel Estimation via Two-Way Training

Two-Way DCE Design for Reciprocal Channels

Two-Way DCE Design for Non-Reciprocal Channels

Simulation Results and Discussions

Conclusions and Discussions



Physical Layer Security in OFDMA Networks


Related Works on Secure OFDM/OFDMA Networks

Secure OFDM Channel

Secure OFDMA Cellular Networks

Secure OFDMA Relay Networks

Secure OFDM with Implementation Issues

Basics of Resource Allocation for Secret Communications

Power Allocation Law for Secrecy

Multiple Eavesdroppers

Resource Allocation for Physical Layer Security in OFDMA Networks

Problem Formulation

Optimal Policy

Suboptimal Algorithm


Numerical Examples

Discussion on False CSI Feedback

Conclusions and Open Issues


The Application of Cooperative Transmissions to Secrecy Communications


When all Nodes are Equipped with a Single Antenna

Cooperative Jamming

Relay Chatting

MIMO Relay Secrecy Communication Scenarios

When CSI of eavesdroppers Is known

When CSI of eavesdroppers Is unknown




Game Theory for Physical Layer Security on Interference Channels


System Models and Scenarios

Standard MISO Interference Channel

MISO Interference Channel with Private Messages

MISO Interference Channel with Public Feedback and Private Messages

Discussion and Comparison of Scenarios

Non-Cooperative Solutions

Non-Cooperative Games in Strategic Form

Solution for the MISO Interference Channel Scenarios

Cooperative Solutions

Bargaining Solutions

Nash Bargaining Solution

Bargaining Algorithm in the Edgeworth-Box

Walras Equilibrium Solution

Illustrations and Discussions

Comparison of Utility Regions

Non-Cooperative and Cooperative Operating Points

Bargaining Algorithm Behaviour


Appendix: Proofs

Proof of Theorem 10.3.1

Proof of Theorem 10.4.1

Proof of Theorem 10.4.2

Proof of Theorem 10.4.3


Ascending Clock Auction for Physical Layer Security


Cooperative Jamming for Physical Layer Security

Game Theory Based Jamming Power Allocation

Ascending Auctions

Chapter Outline

System Model and Problem Formulation

System Model

Source’s Utility Function

Jammer’s Utility Function

Auction-Based Jamming Power Allocation Schemes

Power Allocation Scheme based on Single Object Pay-as-Bid Ascending Clock Auction (P-ACA-S)

Power Allocation Scheme based on Traditional Ascending Clock Auction (P-ACA-T)

Power Allocation Scheme based on Alternative Ascending Clock Auction (P-ACA-A)

Properties of the Proposed Auction-Based Power Allocation Schemes

Optimal Jamming Power for Each Source



Social Welfare Maximization

Complexity and Overhead

Conclusions and Open Issues


Relay and Jammer Cooperation as a Coalitional Game


Cooperative Relaying and Cooperative Jamming

Relay and Jammer Selection

Coalitional Game Theory

Chapter Outline

System Model and Problem Formulation

Relay and Jammer Cooperation as a Coalitional Game

Coalitional Game Definition

Properties of the Proposed Coalitional Game

Coalition Formation Algorithm

Coalition Formation Concepts

Merge-and-Split Coalition Formation Algorithm

Conclusions and Open Issues


Stochastic Geometry Approaches to Secrecy in Large Wireless Networks



Stochastic Geometry Approaches

Secrecy Graph

Network and Graph Model

Local Connectivity Properties

Global Connectivity Properties

Connectivity Enhancements

Secrecy Transmission Capacity

Network Model

Capacity Formulation

Illustrative Example

Current Limitations and Future Directions


Physical Layer Secrecy in Large Multi-Hop Wireless Networks


Background: Physical-Layer Security in One-Hop Networks

Secure Connectivity: The Secrecy Graph

Secure Capacity

Background: Throughput Scaling in Large Wireless Networks

Secrecy Scaling with Known Eavesdropper Location

Secrecy Scaling with Unknown Eavesdropper Locations

Conclusion and Future Work



About the Editors

Xiangyun Zhou is a Lecturer at the Australian National University. He received the B.E. (hons.) degree in electronics and telecommunications engineering and the Ph.D. degree in telecommunications engineering from the ANU in 2007 and 2010, respectively. From June 2010 to June 2011, he worked as a postdoctoral fellow at UNIK - University Graduate Center, University of Oslo, Norway. His research interests are in the fields of communication theory and wireless networks, including MIMO systems, relay and cooperative communications, heterogeneous and small cell networks, ad hoc and sensor wireless networks, physical layer security, and wireless power transfer. Dr. Zhou serves on the editorial boards of Security and Communication Networks (Wiley) and Ad Hoc & Sensor Wireless Networks. He was the organizer and chair of the special session on "Stochastic Geometry and Random Networks" in 2013 Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers. He has also served as the TPC member of major IEEE conferences. He is a recipient of the Best Paper Award at the 2011 IEEE International Conference on Communications.

Lingyang Song is a Professor at Peking University, China. He received his PhD from the University of York, UK, in 2007, where he received the K. M. Stott Prize for excellent research. He worked as a postdoctoral research fellow at the University of Oslo, Norway, and Harvard University, until rejoining Philips Research UK in March 2008. In May 2009, he joined the School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, China, as a full professor. His main research interests include MIMO, OFDM, cooperative communications, cognitive radio, physical layer security, game theory, and wireless ad hoc/sensor networks. He is co-inventor of a number of patents (standard contributions), and author or co-author of over 100 journal and conference papers. He is the co-editor of two books, "Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)-Fundamentals and Applications" and "Evolved Network Planning and Optimization for UMTS and LTE", published by Auerbach Publications, CRC Press, USA. Dr. Song received several Best Paper Awards, including one in IEEE International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing (WiCOM 2007), one in the First IEEE International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC 2012), one in the 7th International Conference on Communications and Networking in China (ChinaCom2012), and one in IEEE Wireless Communication and Networking Conference (WCNC2012). Dr. Song is currently on the Editorial Board of IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Journal of Network and Computer Applications, and IET Communications. He is the recipient of 2012 IEEE Asia Pacific (AP) Young Researcher Award.

Yan Zhang received a Ph.D. degree from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Since August 2006 he has been working with Simula Research Laboratory, Norway. He is currently a senior research scientist at Simula Research Laboratory. He is an associate professor (part-time) at the University of Oslo, Norway. He is a regional editor, associate editor, on the editorial board, or guest editor of a number of international journals. He is currently serving as Book Series Editor for the book series on Wireless Networks and Mobile Communications (Auerbach Publications, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group). He has served or is serving as organizing committee chair for many international conferences, including AINA 2011, WICON 2010, IWCMC 2010/2009, BODYNETS 2010, BROADNETS 2009, ACM MobiHoc 2008, IEEE ISM 2007, and CHINACOM 2009/2008. His research interests include resource, mobility, spectrum, energy, and data management in wireless communications and networking.

About the Series

Wireless Networks and Mobile Communications

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Telecommunications
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Mobile & Wireless Communications