1st Edition

Physical Metallurgy Principles and Design

By Gregory N. Haidemenopoulos Copyright 2018
    490 Pages 329 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Physical metallurgy is one of the main fields of metallurgical science dealing with the development of the microstructure of metals in order to achieve desirable properties required in technological applications. Physical Metallurgy: Principles and Design focuses on the processing–structure–properties triangle as it applies to metals and alloys. It introduces the fundamental principles of physical metallurgy and the design methodologies for alloys and processing. The first part of the book discusses the structure and change of structure through phase transformations. The latter part of the books deals with plastic deformation, strengthening mechanisms, and mechanical properties as they relate to structure. The book also includes a chapter on physical metallurgy of steels and concludes by discussing the computational tools, involving computational thermodynamics and kinetics, to perform alloy and process design.

    Chapter 1 Introduction

    1.1 What is Physical Metallurgy

    1.2 The Aim of the Book

    1.3 Who Should Read this Book

    1.4 Book Structure

    1.5 How to Read the Book

    Chapter 2 Structure of Metals

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Crystalline vs. Amorphous Materials

    2.3 The Crystal Lattice

    2.4 The Crystal Structure of Metals

    2.5 Allotropy

    2.6 Crystal Structure Effects

    2.7 Solid Solutions

    2.8 Intermetallic Compounds and Intermediate Phases

    2.9 A First Look at the Microstructure of Alloys

    2.10 Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Structure

    2.11 Synopsis

    2.12 Review Questions

    Chapter 3 Structural Imperfections

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Point Defects

    3.3 Linear Imperfections – Dislocations

    3.4 Interfaces

    3.5 Synopsis

    3.6 Review Questions

    Chapter 4 Alloy Thermodynamics and Phase Diagrams

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Free Energy of Pne-component Systems (Pure Metals)

    4.3 Free Energy of Solid Solutions

    4.4 Chemical Potential and Thermodynamic Equilibrium

    4.5 The Gibbs Phase Rule

    4.6 Equilibrium Phase Diagrams in Binary Systems

    4.7 Examples of Phase Diagrams

    4.8 Case study: Solder Alloys – The Pb-Sn Phase Diagram

    4.9 Synopsis

    4.10 Review Questions

    Chapter 5 Diffusion

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Diffusion Mechanisms

    5.3 Fick’s First Law of Diffusion – The Diffusion Coefficient

    5.4 Random Walk and Diffusion

    5.5 Fick’s Second Law of Diffusion

    5.6 Temperature Dependence of Diffusion

    5.7 Thermodynamics and Diffusion

    5.8 Substitutional Diffusion

    5.9 Irreversible Thermodynamics and Diffusion

    5.10 Effects of Diffusion

    5.11 Analytical Solutions to the Diffusion Equation

    5.12 Numerical Methods – Computational Kinetics

    5.13 Synopsis

    5.14 Review Questions

    Chapter 6 Phase Transformations

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Nucleation and Growth Transformations (NGT)

    6.3 Nucleation

    6.4 Growth

    6.5 Overall rate of Concurrent Nucleation and Growth

    6.6 Coarsening

    6.7 Continuous Transformations

    6.8 Martensitic Transformations

    6.9 Effects of Phase Transformations

    6.10 Synopsis

    6.11 Review Questions

    Chapter 7 Plastic Deformation and Annealing

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Mechanisms of Plastic Deformation

    7.3 Deformation of Single Crystals by Slip

    7.4 Deformation in Polycrystals

    7.5 Strain Hardening

    7.6 Mechanical Twinning

    7.7 Annealing

    7.8 Texture in Polycrystalline Metals

    7.9 Synopsis

    7.10 Review Questions

    Chapter 8 Strengthening Mechanisms

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Slip as a Thermally Activated Process

    8.3 Overview of Strengthening Mechanisms

    8.4 Lattice Resistance

    8.5 Solid Solution Strengthening

    8.6 Grain Boundary Strengthening

    8.7 Precipitation Strengthening

    8.8 Implications of Strengthening Mechanisms

    8.9 Synopsis

    8.10 Review Questions

    Chapter 9 Fracture, Fatigue and Creep of Metals

    9.1 Introduction – Mechanical Behavior of Metals

    9.2 Fracture

    9.3 Fatigue

    9.4 Creep

    9.5 Synopsis

    9.6 Review Questions

    Chapter 10 Physical Metallurgy of Steels

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Phases in Steels

    10.3 The Fe-C phase Diagram

    10.4 Alloying Elements in Steels

    10.5 Phase Transformations in Steels

    10.6 Hardenability

    10.7 Tempering of Martensite

    10.8 Heat Treatment of Steel

    10.9 Case Studies in Steels


    10.11Review Questions

    Chapter 11 Alloy Design

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 The Alloyneering Methodology for Alloy Design

    11.3 Simulation Framework

    11.4 Simulation Examples

    11.5 Alloy Design: Medium Mn Steels

    11.6 Process Design: Multi-pass Hot Rolling of Steels

    11.7 Synopsis



    Gregory N. Haidemenopoulos has been Professor of Physical Metallurgy and Director of the Laboratory of Materials (LoM) at University of Thessaly, Greece since 1992. His research is concerned with processing-structure-properties in metallic materials, dealing with transformation kinetics in TRIP steels, corrosion-induced hydrogen trapping in aluminum alloys and rolling contact fatigue in rails. More recent research focuses on computational alloy and process simulation with applications in the design of homogenization of extrudable aluminum alloys, the design of medium-Mn steels and the thermomechanical process design of HSLA steels. In addition to teaching and research, Prof. Haidemenopoulos has provided consulting services to industry in the fields of process design, failure analysis, materials selection and corrosion control.

    Prof. Haidemenopoulos has supervised several PhD students and has earned the University of Thessaly's Mechanical Engineering Departmental Best Teaching Award for the years 2007, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2014, and 2015. He is Member of Editorial Board of The Open Corrosion Journal and International Journal of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, published 10 book chapters, 70 papers in refereed journals, and presented many keynote and invited lectures worldwide. Prof. Haidemenopoulos received his PhD in Metallurgy, MSc in Metallurgy, and MSc in Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering from MIT.

    "The new textbook by Professor Haidemenopoulos serves as a comprehensive introduction to the physical metallurgy of metals. The phenomena are described in a conceptional and demonstrative manner; a link to real materials application is elaborated for many possible applications. It is especially worth mentioning that the consequent numerical description of the fundamental design principles of metals offers the entrance for physics-based modelling of materials and processes."
    —Wolfgang Bleck, RWTH Aachen University, Germany

    "The book by Haidemenopolous is an up-to-date book on the physical metallurgy of metals. It covers the well-known topics of phase transformations under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions, as well as the strengthening mechanism and the way it can be used during metal production or treatment. The last chapter on Alloy Design is a nice integration of the concepts explained and takes the book from the level of explaining what is known already to the level of (the start of) a toolbox to redesign new alloys based on conceptual thinking."
    —Sybrand van der Zwaag, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands

    "Although this specialised text is – first and foremost – aimed at upwardly mobile students studying with a materials science department, the author cordially invites others to read this book and categorically states (page 2) that his aim is to help readers (of other persuasions) to understand the behaviour of metals subjected to mechanical and/or thermomechanical loads.… [a] useful well-organised authoritative book. All who are studying strength of materials as a core subject will also find much in this book that is directly relevant to their studies."

    ––Peter C. Gasson,CEng, MIMechE, FRAeS, The Aeronautical Journal, October 2020