Polarimetric Radar Imaging : From Basics to Applications book cover
1st Edition

Polarimetric Radar Imaging
From Basics to Applications

ISBN 9781420054972
Published February 2, 2009 by CRC Press
438 Pages - 197 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

The recent launches of three fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) satellites have shown that polarimetric radar imaging can provide abundant data on the Earth’s environment, such as biomass and forest height estimation, snow cover mapping, glacier monitoring, and damage assessment. Written by two of the most recognized leaders in this field, Polarimetric Radar Imaging: From Basics to Applications presents polarimetric radar imaging and processing techniques and shows how to develop remote sensing applications using PolSAR imaging radar.

The book provides a substantial and balanced introduction to the basic theory and advanced concepts of polarimetric scattering mechanisms, speckle statistics and speckle filtering, polarimetric information analysis and extraction techniques, and applications typical to radar polarimetric remote sensing. It explains the importance of wave polarization theory and the speckle phenomenon in the information retrieval problem of microwave imaging and inverse scattering. The authors demonstrate how to devise intelligent information extraction algorithms for remote sensing applications. They also describe more advanced polarimetric analysis techniques for polarimetric target decompositions, polarization orientation effects, polarimetric scattering modeling, speckle filtering, terrain and forest classification, manmade target analysis, and PolSAR interferometry.

With sample PolSAR data sets and software available for download, this self-contained, hands-on book encourages you to analyze space-borne and airborne PolSAR and polarimetric interferometric SAR (Pol-InSAR) data and then develop applications using this data.

Table of Contents

Overview of Polarimetric Radar Imaging

Brief History of Polarimetric Radar Imaging

SAR Image Formation: Summary

Airborne and Space-Borne PolSAR Systems

Description of the Remaining Chapters

Electromagnetic Vector Wave and Polarization Descriptors

Monochromatic Electromagnetic Plane Wave

Polarization Ellipse

Jones Vector

Stokes Vector

Wave Covariance Matrix

Electromagnetic Vector Scattering Operators

Polarimetric Back Scattering Sinclair S Matrix

Scattering Target Vectors k and Omega

Polarimetric Coherency T and Covariance C Matrices

Polarimetric Mueller M and Kennaugh K Matrices

Change of Polarimetric Basis

Target Polarimetric Characterization

PolSAR Speckle Statistics

Fundamental Property of Speckle in SAR Images

Speckle Statistics for Multilook-Processed SAR Images

Texture Model and K Distribution

Effect of Speckle Spatial Correlation

Polarimetric and Interferometric SAR Speckle Statistics

Phase Difference Distributions of Single-Look and Multilook PolSAR Data

Multilook Product Distribution

Joint Distribution of Multilook Si2 and Sj2

Multilook Intensity and Amplitude Ratio Distributions

Verifications of Multilook PDFs

K Distribution for Multilook Polarimetric Data



PolSAR Speckle Filtering

Introduction to Speckle Filtering of SAR Imagery

Filtering of Single Polarization SAR Data

Review of Multipolarization Speckle Filtering Algorithms

PolSAR Speckle Filtering

Scattering Model-Based PolSAR Speckle Filter

Introduction to the Polarimetric Target Decomposition Concept


Dichotomy of the Kennaugh Matrix K

Eigenvector-Based Decompositions

Model-Based Decompositions

Coherent Decompositions

The H/A/a Polarimetric Decomposition Theorem


Pure Target Case

Probabilistic Model for Random Media Scattering

Roll Invariance Property

Polarimetric Scattering a Parameter

Polarimetric Scattering Entropy (H)

Polarimetric Scattering Anisotropy (A)

Three-Dimensional H/A/a Classification Space

New Eigenvalue-Based Parameters

Speckle Filtering Effects on H/A/a

PolSAR Terrain and Land-Use Classification


Maximum Likelihood Classifier Based on Complex Gaussian Distribution

Complex Wishart Classifier for Multilook PolSAR Data

Characteristics of Wishart Distance Measure

Supervised Classification Using Wishart Distance Measure

Unsupervised Classification Based on Scattering Mechanisms and Wishart Classifier

Scattering Model-Based Unsupervised Classification

Quantitative Comparison of Classification Capability: Fully PolSAR versus Dual- and Single-Polarization SAR

Pol-InSAR Forest Mapping and Classification


Pol-InSAR Scattering Descriptors

Forest Mapping and Forest Classification


Selected PolSAR Applications

Polarimetric Signature Analysis of Manmade Structures

Polarization Orientation Angle Estimation and Applications

Ocean Surface Remote Sensing with PolSAR

Ionosphere Faraday Rotation Estimation

PolSAR Interferometry for Forest Height Estimation

Nonstationary Natural Media Analysis from PolSAR Data Using a Two-Dimensional Time-Frequency Approach

Appendix A: Eigen Characteristics of Hermitian Matrix

Appendix B: PolSARpro Software: The Polariemtric SAR Data Processing and Educational Toolbox


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"… This very concise book covering basics to applications will serve as a fundamental hands-on book for years to come. … we congratulate the authors for their diligence, oversight, and sincere dedication for assembling such a well-organized and long overdue book on the basics and applications of polarimetric radar imaging. …"
—Wolfgang-Martin Boerner, University of Illinois, Chicago, USA

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