1st Edition

Potentials, Challenges and Prospects of Halal Tourism Development in Ethiopia

By Mohammed Jemal Ahmed, Atilla Akbaba Copyright 2023
    244 Pages 20 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

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    This book explores the potential of halal tourism development and its implementation in Ethiopia. The insights presented assist key stakeholders to make informed decisions concerning commercial strategy, profitability and feasibility of halal tourism from the secular perspective.

    This innovative book offers a unique contribution to halal tourism, being the first of its kind to assess halal tourism development in developing countries. It provides a clear understanding of what halal tourism means, how it has evolved and the current status of the industry. The book considers the prospects of halal tourism, including the conceptual and practical challenges of halal tourism development. The example of halal tourism in Ethiopia is explored to provide a lens through which deeper understandings can be drawn on where and how to develop halal tourism

    This book will be of interest to, researchers, students in the disciplines of tourism, anthropology, geography, business administration and sociology. It also provides useful insights for policy makers, planners and professionals in the hospitality and tourism industry.

    Introduction: Halal Tourism Development: Ethiopia In Focus


    1.1. Defining Tourism, Halal Tourism and Islamic Tourism

    1.1.1. Defining Tourism

    1.1.2. Defining Halal Tourism

    1.1.3. Defining Islamic Tourism

    1.2. Halal Tourism Vis-à-Vis Islamic Tourism

    1.3. Halal Tourism and the Sharia Law

    1.4. The Birth of Halal Tourism

    1.5. The Birth of Halal Tourism

    1.6. Trends and Prospects of Halal Tourism

    1.7. Halal Tourism and Non-Muslims

    1.8. Halal Standardization and Certification

    1.9. Halal Tourism and Alternative Tourism

    1.11. E-Marketing and Halal Tourism Websites

    1.12. Halal Tourism Products and Services

    1.12.1. Halal Foods and Beverages

    1.12.2. Halal Entertainment Services

    1.12.3. Halal Accommodation and Restaurants

    1.12.4. Sharia-Compliant Airport

    1.12.5. Sharia-Compliant Healthcare Centers

    1.13. Guidelines for Halal-Conscious Muslim Visitors



    2.1. Religious Tourism and Pilgrimages .

    2.2. Religious Tourism in Ethiopia .

    2.3. Islam and Tourism

    2.4. Tourism from the Perspective of the Quran and Sunnah

    2.4.1. Tourism from the Perspective of the Holy Quran .

    2.4.2. Tourism from the Perspective of Sunnah

    2.5. Hajj and Umrah: Pilgrimage to Mecca



    3.1. Tourism Development

    3.2. The Theories of Tourism Development

    3.2.1. Modernization Theory

    3.2.2. Dependency (Underdevelopment) Theory

    3.2.3. Sustainable Development (Alternative Tourism)

    3.3. Global Strategy and Halal Tourism Development

    3.4. Phases of Tourism Development

    3.5. Needs, Principles, and Attributes of Halal Tourism

    3.5.1. Faith-Based Service Needs of Halal tourism

    "Need to Have" Faith-Based Services of Halal Tourism

    "Good to have" Faith-Based Service of Halal Tourism

    "Nice to have" Faith-Based Service of Halal Tourism

    3.5.2. Principles of Halal Tourism

    3.5.3. Attributes of Halal Tourism

    3.6. Characteristics and Motivations of Halal-Conscious Visitors

    3.6.1. Characteristics of Halal-Conscious Visitors

    3.6.2. Motivations of Halal-Conscious Visitors

    3.7. Barriers to Halal Tourism Development

    3.7.1. Lack of Awareness

    3.7.2. The Prevalence of Islamophobia and Xenophobia

    3.7.3. The Perceived Paradox of Islam and Tourism

    3.7.4. Lack of Basic Halal Tourism Infrastructure and Superstructure

    3.7.5. Unavailability of Halal Standardization and Certification

    3.8. Identified Research Gaps and Conceptual Framework

    3.8.1. Identified Research Gaps in the Existing Literature

    3.8.2. Conceptual Framework of the Research



    4.1. An Overview of Ethiopian History

    4.1.1. The Legend of Queen of Sheba and King Solomon

    4.1.2. The Introduction of Religions in Ethiopia

    The Introduction of Christianity in Ethiopia

    Ethiopia and Islam

    Ethiopia and Its Muslim Sultanates

    Ethiopia and the Ottoman Turk

    4.1.3. The First Hijra towards Ethiopia and the Image of Ethiopia in Islamic Eyes

    The Image of Ethiopia in the Eyes of Outsiders

    4.2. An Overview of Tourism Development in Ethiopia

    4.3. The State of Halal Tourism Development in Ethiopia

    4.4. Inventory and Descriptions of Halal Visitor Attractions in Ethiopia

    4.4.1. The North Cluster

    4.4.2. The Northwest Cluster

    4.4.3. The Eastern Cluster Attractions

    4.4.4. Southeast Cluster: Halal Tourism Resources of Bale Zone

    4.4.5. Southwestern Clusters: Jimma and its Environs

    4.4.6. Islamic Intangible Living Heritages



    5.1. Research Objectives

    5.2. Basic Research Questions

    5.3. Research Methodology

    5.3.1. Participants of the Study

    5.3.2. Sample Size and Sampling Techniques

    5.3.3. Study Area

    5.3.4. Data Collection Procedures

    5.3.5. Ethical Consideration

    5.3.6. Data Collection Techniques


    Focus Group Discussion (FGD)


    Content Analysis

    5.3.7. The Interview Guiding Questions and Checklists.

    5.3.8. Data Interpretation

    5.3.9. Methodological Integrity and Trustworthiness

    5.3.10. Problems Faced During Data Collection

    5.4. Data Interpretation and Findings

    5.4.1. Halal Tourism Knowledge and Awareness

    5.4.2. Tourism in Islam

    5.4.3. Experiences and Reflections of Halal Conscious Travelers

    5.4.4. Identifying and Mapping Potential Routes of Halal Tourism in Ethiopia

    The North Historic Halal Tourism Route (Al-Nejashi Historic Route)

    The Northwest Halal Geo-Route (The Danakil Geo-Route)

    The East Historic Halal Tourism Route

    The Southeast Halal Route (Bale Eco-Route)

    The Southwest Halal Tourism Route (The Aba Jifar Eco-Route)

    5.4.5. Ethiopia’s Comparative Advantages and Opportunities to Develop Halal Tourism

    The Availability of Unique Islamic History: Selling stories and Legends

    The Land of the First Hijra

    The Homeland of Great Muslims: King Al-Nejashi, Bilal Al-Habesha and Baraka

    The Availability of Ancient Islamic Cities and Landscapes

    The Geostrategic Location of Ethiopia to the Muslim World

    The Availability of Conducive weather condition and Fertile Land

    The Availability of Huge Domestic Demand

    The Birthplace of Coffee Arabica

    5.4.6. Barriers to Halal Tourism Development in Ethiopia

    The Perceived Image of Ethiopia as a "Christian Island"

    The Availability of Islamophobia at the National and Global Level……

    The Availability of Tourismophobes

    Lack of Muslim-Friendly Infrastructures

    5.5. SWOT Analysis of Halal Tourism Development in Ethiopia

    Conclusion, Recommendations and Implications



    MOHAMMED JEMAL AHMED earned his first degree from Madawalabu University, Ethiopia in major in history (minor in geography) in 2009 and his second degree from Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia in Tourism and Development in 2012. He earned his Ph.D. from Izmir Katip Celebi University, Turkiye in Tourism Management in 2021. From September 1, 2009, to September 1, 2016, he was a lecturer in Tourism and History at Jigjiga University, Ethiopia. From September 01, 2016, until 2021 he was a lecturer in Tourism Management at Wollo University, Ethiopia. From May 2021 until now, he is an assistant professor in Tourism Management and a researcher at Wollo Unversity, Ethiopia. His research area includes the following: Islamic Tourism, Halal Tourism, Heritage Tourism, Pilgrimage Tourism, Ecotourism, Ethiopian History, Travel and Migration.

    ATILLA AKBABA is a professor at the Faculty of Tourism at İzmir Kâtip Çelebi University (İzmir, Türkiye). He received his M.Sc. from Florida International University and his Ph.D from Dokuz Eylul University with a major in Tourism Management. He teaches hospitality and tourism related courses. His areas of specialization include service quality, organizational culture, and management of tourism businesses. He has published widely in his areas of specialization at national and international levels.