Power-Switching Converters: 3rd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Power-Switching Converters

3rd Edition

By Simon Ang, Alejandro Oliva

CRC Press

654 pages | 488 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781439815335
pub: 2010-12-20
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Description

Significantly expanded and updated with extensive revisions, new material, and a new chapter on emerging applications of switching converters, Power-Switching Converters, Third Edition offers the same trusted, accessible, and comprehensive information as its bestselling predecessors. Similar to the two previous editions, this book can be used for an introductory as well as a more advanced course.

Chapters begin with an introduction to switching converters and basic switching converter topologies. Entry level chapters continue with a discussion of resonant converters, isolated switching converters, and the control schemes of switching converters. Skipping to chapters 10 and 11, the subject matter involves an examination of interleaved converters and switched capacitor converters to round out and complete the overview of switching converter topologies.

More detailed chapters include the continuous time-modeling and discrete-time modeling of switching converters as well as analog control and digital control. Advanced material covers tools for the simulation of switching converters (including both PSpice and Matlab simulations) and the basic concepts necessary to understand various actual and emerging applications for switching converters, such as power factor correction, LED drivers, low-noise converters, and switching converters topologies for solar and fuel cells.

The final chapter contains several complete design examples, including experimental designs that may be used as technical references or for class laboratory projects. Supplementary information is available at crcpress.com including slides, PSpice examples (designed to run on the OrCAD 9.2 student version and PSIM software) and MATLAB scripts.

Continuing the august tradition of its predecessors, Power-Switching Converters, Third Edition provides introductory and advanced information on all aspects of power switching converters to give students the solid foundation and applicable knowledge required to advance in this growing field.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION TO SWITCHING CONVERTERS

Introduction

Industry trends

Linear converter

Linear series-pass regulator

Linear shunt regulator

Switching converters

Basic switching converter with resistive load

Basic switching converter with RL load

Principles of steady state converter analysis

Inductor volt-second balance

Capacitor charge balance

Problems

BASIC SWITCHING CONVERTER TOPOLOGIES

Introduction

Buck converter

Continuous mode

Discontinuous mode

Synchronous rectifier

Ripple steering

Boost converter

Continuous mode

Discontinuous mode

Buck-boost converter

Continuous mode

Discontinuous mode

Cûk converter

SEPIC converter

Continuous conduction mode

Design considerations

Zeta converter

Converter realization with non-ideal components

Inductor model

Capacitor model

Semiconductor losses

Effect of semiconductor losses on the output voltage

Problems

RESONANT CONVERTERS

Introduction

Parallel resonant circuit - A review

Series resonant circuit - A review

Classification of quasi-resonant switches

Zero-current-switching quasi-resonant buck converter

Zero-current-switching quasi-resonant boost converter

Zero-voltage-switching quasi-resonant buck converter

Zero-voltage-switching quasi-resonant boost converter

Series-loaded resonant converter

Discontinuous mode ( < fs < fn)

Continuous mode (fs > fn or above-resonant mode)

Continuous mode (fn < fs < fn or below-resonant mode)

Parallel-loaded resonant converter

Discontinuous mode ( < f < fn)

Continuous mode (fs > f or above-resonant mode)

Continuous mode (fn < fs < fn or below-resonant mode)

Problems

ISOLATED SWITCHING CONVERTERS

Introduction

Forward converter

Two-switch forward converter

Push-pull converter

Half-bridge switching converter

Full-bridge switching converter

Fly back converter

Two-switch fly back converter

Dual active bridge converter

Power flow control

Zero-current-switching quasi-resonant half-bridge converter

Problems

CONTROL SCHEMES OF SWITCHING CONVERTERS

Introduction

Pulse-width modulation

Voltage-mode PWM scheme

Current-mode PWM scheme

Instability for D>%

Compensation with external ramp

Hysteresis control: switching current source

Steady-state analysis during ton

Commercial integrated circuit controllers

Fixed-frequency voltage-mode SG controller

Variable-frequency voltage-mode TL controller

Fixed-frequency current-mode UC PWM controller

TinySwitch-II family of low power off-line switchers

Control schemes for resonant converters

Off-line controllers for resonant converters

L operation

Problems

CONTINUOUS-TIME MODELING OF SWITCHING CONVERTERS

Introduction

Switching converter analysis using classical control techniques

Basic linear model of the open-loop switching converter

PWM modulator model

Averaged switching converter models

Output filter model

Summary of small-signal models of switching converters

Linear model of the voltage regulator including external perturbances

Output impedance and stability

State-space representation of switching converters

State-space averaging

Switching converter transfer functions

Source-to-state transfer functions

Input EMI filters

Stability considerations

Problems

ANALOG CONTROL OF SWITCHING CONVERTERS

Introduction

Review of negative feedback using classical-control techniques

Closed-loop gain

Stability analysis

Relative stability

Linear model of the closed-loop switching converter

Feedback network

Error amplifier compensation networks

PI compensation network

PID compensation network

Proportional control

Feedback compensation in a buck converter with output capacitor ESR

Feedback compensation in a buck converter with no output capacitor ESR

Complete state feedback

Design of a control system with complete state feedback

Pole selection

Feedback gains

Problems

DISCRETE-TIME MODELING OF SWITCHING CONVERTERS

Introduction

Continuous-time systems

Direct discrete model

Linear direct discrete model

Continuous-time averaged state-space model

Averaged discrete-time model of the switching converter

Problems

DIGITAL CONTROL OF SWITCHING CONVERTERS

Introduction

Proportional controller

Digital redesign of a PID controller

Design of a discrete control system with complete state feedback

Pole selection

Feedback gains

Voltage mode control

Current mode control

Problems

INTERLEAVED CONVERTERS

Introduction

Interleaved buck converter

State-space averaged model

Interleaved boost converter

State-space averaged model

Interleaved converter operation based on current-mode

Ripple calculations

Number of converters

Power factor correction

Problems

SWITCHED CAPACITOR CONVERTERS

Introduction

Unidirectional power flow SCC

Basic step-up converter

Basic step-down converter

Basic inverting converter

Alternative switched capacitor converter topologies

Step-down converter

Step-up converter

n-stage step-down SCC

n-stage step-up SCC

Bi-directional power flow SCC

Step-up step-down converter

Luo converter

Resonant converters

Zero-current switching

Losses on switched-capacitor power converters

Problems

SIMULATION OF SWITCHING CONVERTERS

Introduction

SPICE circuit representation

PSPICE simulations using CIR

PSPICE simulations using schematics entry

Small-signal analysis of switching converters

Creating capture symbols for PSPICE simulation

Solving convergence problems

Switching converter simulation using Matlab

Working with transfer functions

Working with matrices

Switching converter simulation using Simulink

Transfer function example using Simulink

State-space example using Simulink

Problems

APPLICATIONS OF SWITCHING CONVERTERS

Power factor correction

Introduction

Review of basic concepts

Principle of power factor correction

Self-power factor correction properties of switching converters

Buck converter

Boost converter

Buck-boost converter

Flyback converter

Control techniques for power factor correctors

Peak current mode control (PCM)

Average current mode control

Hysteresis control

Borderline or boundary control

Discontinuous current PWM control

Power factor correction circuits

Low noise DC-DC converters

Introduction

Techniques to reduce EMI

Capacitive coupling

Inductive coupling

Input filtering

Output Filtering

Slew rate limiting

Switching converters for solar cells

Introduction

Solar cell model

Maximum-power point tracking

Switching converters for solar cells

Switching converters for fuel cells

Switching converters for LED drivers

Buck-based LED drivers

Boost-based LED drivers

Cûk-based LED drivers

SEPIC-based LED drivers

LED drivers for AC input

SWITCHING CONVERTER DESIGN CASE STUDIES

Introduction

Voltage-mode discontinuous-conduction-mode buck converter design

Controller design

Small-signal model

Design of the compensation network and error amplifier

The closed-loop buck converter

Simulation results

Experimental results

Digital control of a voltage-mode synchronous buck converter

Circuit parameters

Closed-loop pole selection

Discrete-time model

Feedback gains

Control strategy

Analog model for PSpice simulations

Simulation results

Sensitivity of the closed-loop poles due to load variations

Experimental results

Digital control of a current-mode synchronous buck converter

Continuous-time state model

Obtaining the discrete-time model

Current-mode instability

Extended-state model for a tracking regulator

Feedback gains

Control strategy

Simulation results

Sensitivity of the closed-loop poles due to load variations

Experimental results

DSP program

UC-based fly back design

Design specifications

Discontinuous conduction mode

Preliminary calculations

Open loop simulations

Current loop

Voltage loop

Small signal model

Frequency compensation

EMI filter design

Printed circuit board design

Experimental results

TopSwitch-based flyback design

Design specifications

Preliminary calculations

Experimental results

TinySwitch-based flyback design

Experimental results

Switching audio amplifier

Case study

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

About the Authors

Simon S. Ang is with the Electrical Engineering Department at the University of Arkansas.

Alejandro R. Oliva is with the Department of Engineering at the Universidad Nacional del Sur, Argentina.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC008000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / General
TEC031020
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Electrical