Power System Protection in Smart Grid Environment  book cover
1st Edition

Power System Protection in Smart Grid Environment

ISBN 9781138032415
Published December 18, 2018 by CRC Press
636 Pages 432 B/W Illustrations

FREE Standard Shipping
USD $220.00

Prices & shipping based on shipping country


Book Description

With distributed generation interconnection power flow becoming bidirectional, culminating in network problems, smart grids aid in electricity generation, transmission, substations, distribution and consumption to achieve a system that is clean, safe (protected), secure, reliable, efficient, and sustainable. This book illustrates fault analysis, fuses, circuit breakers, instrument transformers, relay technology, transmission lines protection setting using DIGsILENT Power Factory. Intended audience is senior undergraduate and graduate students, and researchers in power systems, transmission and distribution, protection system broadly under electrical engineering.

Table of Contents

Section I Faults Analysis and Power System Protection Devices

1. An Overview of Smart Grid in Protection Perspective

[T. Adefarati and Ramesh Bansal]

2. Fault Analysis

[Patrick T. Manditereza]

3. Fuses and Circuit Breakers

[Abhishek Chauhan, Padmanabh Thakur, and Ramesh Bansal]

4. Instrument Transformers

[Rajiv Singh and Asheesh Kumar Singh]

5. Protective Relaying System

[Senthil Krishnamurthy]

Section II Transmission Line Protection

6. Medium Voltage Phase Overcurrent Feeder Protection

[Martin J. Slabbert, Raj Naidoo, and Ramesh Bansal]

7. Bus-Bar Protection

[Arvind R. Singh, Ranjay Singh, Abhishek Kumar, Raj Naidoo, and Ramesh Bansal]

8. Distance Protective Relaying System for Long Transmission Lines

[Senthil Krishnamurthy]

9. Protection of Reactors and FACTS Devices

[K. A. Nzeba, J. J. Justo, Aishwarya Biju, and Ramesh Bansal]

Section III Equipment Protection: Motor, Transformer, Generator, Substation Automation and Control; Overvoltage and Lightening Protection

10. Transformer Protection

[Patrick T. Manditereza]

11. Generator Protection System

[T. Adefarati and Ramesh Bansal]

12. Induction Motor Protection

[N. T. Mbungu, Ramesh Bansal, Raj Naidoo, and D. H. Tungadio]

13. Substation Automation and Control

[Adeyemi Charles Adewole and Raynitchka Tzoneva]

14. Overvoltage and Earthing Protection

[N. T. Mbungu, J. J. Justo, and Ramesh Bansal]

Section IV Power Quality Issues, Reliability, Wide Area and System Protection; and Renewable DG Protection

15. Power Quality and Equipment Protection

[Abhishek Chauhan, J. J. Justo, T. Adefarati, and Ramesh Bansal]

16. Reliability Assessment of the Distribution System in the Presence of Protective Devices

[T. Adefarati and Ramesh Bansal]

17. Advances in Wide Area Monitoring, Protection and Control

[Adeyemi Charles Adewole and Raynitchka Tzoneva]

18. Protection of Renewable Distributed Generation System

[Rishabh Dev Shukla, Ramesh K. Tripathi, Padmanabh Thakur, and Ramesh Bansal]


1. An Overview of Smart Grid in Protection Perspective

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Major functions of a smart grid system

1.3 Features of the smart grid

1.4 Smart grid technologies

1.5 Sensing and measurement

1.6 Smart meter

1.7 Phasor measurement unit

1.8 Distribution energy resources

1.9 Peak load management

1.10 Smart grid automation

1.11 Grid code

1.12 Protection system in the smart grid

1.13 Importance of protection in the smart grid

1.14 Challenges of protective devices in the smart grid

1.15 Tutorial Problems

1.16 Conclusion


2. Fault analysis

2.1 Introduction

2.2 The Per Unit System – A review

2.3 Synchronous machine reactances

2.4 Effect of large motors on fault level

2.5 Network reduction technique for balanced fault calculation

2.6 Methods of reducing fault levels

2.7 Bus impedance matrix method of fault calculation

2.8 Symmetrical components

2.9 Unsymmetrical Faults

2.10 The bus impedance matrix in unbalanced fault calculation

2.11 Computer simulations

2.12 Tutorial Problems

2.13 Conclusion


3. Fuses and Circuit Breakers

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Fuses

3.3 Circuit breakers

3.4 Tutorial Problems

3.5. Conclusion



4. Instrument Transformers

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Shunts and Multipliers for Range Extension

4.3 Limitations of shunts and multipliers in range extension

4.4 Merits of ITs

4.5 Technical Performance Parameters of ITs

4.6. Current Transformers

4.7 Potential Transformers

4.8 Tutorial Problems

4.9 Conclusion


5. Protective Relaying System

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Over current relays and characteristics

5.3 Differential relaysand their characteristics

5.4 Solved problems on protective relaying system

5.5 Conclusion


Section II: Transmission line protection

6. Medium Voltage phase Over current feeder protection

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Protection philosophy

6.3 MV network layout and components

6.4 Protection elements and functions

6.5 Let-through energy

6.6 Grading

6.7 Settings example (top-down method)

6.8 Interconnected network strategy

6.9 Adaptive Protection requirement

6.10 Worked examples

6.11 Tutorial Problems

6.12 Conclusion


7. Bus Protection

7.1 General considerations of bus protection

7.2 Typical bus-bar arrangements

7.3 Bus faults

7.4 Bus protection requirements

7.5 Bus protection

7.6 CTs for differential protection

7.7 Bus differential protection

7.8 Bus bar differential protection with high impedance

7.9 Percentage restrained differential relay

7.10 Percentage differential bus bar protection technique numerical example

7.11 Partial Differential Protection

7.12 Directional Comparison Bus Protection

7.13 Tutorial Questions

7.14 Conclusion


8 Distance Protective Relaying System for Long Transmission Lines

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Distance relays and characteristics

8.3 Communication assisted protection schemes

8.4 Distance protection setting on DigSilent Power Factory simulation tool

8.5 Distance protection setting on numerical relay

8.6 Solved problems on distance protective relaying system

8.7 Conclusion



9. Protection of Reactors and FACTS Devices

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Principle of operation of reactors, SVC and STATCOM

9.3 Principles of Protection Strategies

9.4 Tutorial Problems

9.5 Conclusion



Section III: Equipment Protection: Motor, Transformer, Generator, Substation Automation & Control; Overvoltage & Lightening Protection

10 Transformer Protection

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Origins of transformer faults

10.3 Magnetising inrush

10.4 Overcurrent Protection

10.5 Earth fault protection

10.6 Differential protection

10.7 Differential protection types

10.8 Restricted earth fault (REF) protection

10.9 Transformer differential protection

10.10 Combined differential and REF protection

10.11 Differential protection application with an earthing transformer

10.12 Buchholz protection

10.13 Transformer winding temperature

10.14 Pressure release valve

10.15 Tutorial Problems

10.16 Conclusion


11 Generator Protection

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Generator protection functions

11.3 Generator stator protection

11.4 Rotor protection

11.5 Protection for other systems

11.6 Conclusion

11.7 Tutorial Problems


12 Induction Motor Protection

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Induction Motor Analysis

12.3 Equivalent circuit of Induction Motor

12.4 Overload/thermal protection

12.5 Start/stall protection

12.6 Short-circuit protection,

12.7 Earth fault protection,

12.8 Negative phase sequence protection

12.9 Protection of rotor windings

12.10 Under voltage/overvoltage protection, loss-of-load, protection

12.11 Motor protection solved and unsolved examples

12.12 Conclusion

13 Substation Automation & Control

13.1. Introduction

13.2. Substation Automation and Control using the IEC 61850 Standard

13.3. Communication Networks

13.4. Wide Area Data Exchange

13.5. System Engineering

13.6. Testing

13.7. Cyber Security

13.8. IEC 61850 Use Cases

13.9 Tutorial Problems

13.10 Conclusion


14. Overvoltage and Earthing Protection

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Overvoltage

14.3 Insulation co-ordination,

14.4 Overvoltages Protection

14.5 Grounding system

14.6 Solved Problems

14.7 Tutorial Problems

14.8 Conclusion



Section IV: Power quality issues, reliability, Wide Area and System Protection; and Renewable DG Protection

15. Power Quality and Equipment Protection

15.1 Power Quality

15.2 Need of Power Quality Assessment

15.3 Evaluation of Power Quality

15.4 Frequency Variation as Power Quality Issue

15.5 Unbalance Voltage as Power Quality Issue

15.6 Harmonics

15.7 Solved Problems

15.8 Tutorial Problems

15.9 Conclusion


16. Reliability aspects of Power System Protection

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Distribution power system

16.3 Protection system

16.4 Protective devices in the distribution power system

16.5 Power interruption

16.6 Reliability

16.7 Reliability indices

16.8 Concept of reliability

16.9 Reliability indices of the distribution system

16.10 Objective function

16.11 Results and discussions

16.12 Tutorial Problems

16. 13 Conclusion


17 Advances in Wide Area Monitoring, Protection and Control

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Synchrophasor Technology

17.3 System Planning and Functional Requirements

17.4 Real-Time Wide Area Monitoring Systems

17.5 Wide Area Protection and Control Schemes (System Integrity Protection Scheme)

17.6 Cyber Security in Synchrophasor-Based Systems

17.7 Example of a Cyber-Security Attack

17.8 Tutorial Problems

17.9 Conclusion



18. The impact of DG penetration on protection & current protection practices

18.1 The impact of RDG/DG penetration on protection & Current protection practices

18.2 Factors affecting RDGs/DGs Protection

18.3 Protection with islanding operation (Anti-islanding)

18.4 Protection of Microgrids

18.5 Protection of Wind Energy Generation Systems

18.6 Protection of PV systems

18.7 Protection aspects for the future distribution network/system

18.9 Tutorial Problems

18.9 Conclusion


View More



Professor Ramesh Bansal, who has more than 25 years’ experience in teaching, research and industry, is currently based in College of Engineering, University of Sharjah, UAE. Prior to this, he was a a professor and Group Head (Power) in the Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering at University of Pretoria, and niversity of Queensland in Australia, the University of the South Pacific in Fiji, the Birla Institute of Technology and Science in Pilani, India, and the Civil Construction Wing of All-India Radio. He has worked with Powerlink, an Australian government-owned corporation responsible for Queensland’s high-voltage electricity transmission network.

Prof. Bansal has significant industrial experience of collaborating with power utilities around word which includes NTPC (A 40 GW Indian Power Generation Company), Powerlink, & ESKOM. Professor Bansal has published more than 300 journal articles, presented papers at conferences, and has contributed to books and chapters in books. He has supervised 18 PhD students and currently supervising several PhDs students. His diversified research interests are in the areas of renewable energy and conventional power systems which include wind, photovoltaics (PV), hybrid power systems, distributed generation, grid integration of renewable energy, power systems analysis and Power System Protection. Professor Bansal is an Editor/Associate Editor of the highly regarded journals, IET-Renewable Power Generation (regional editor for Africa) Electric Power Components and Systems, and Technology and Economics of Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy. He is a fellow and a chartered engineer of the Institution of Engineering and Technology, UK, a fellow of Engineers Australia, a fellow of the Institution of Engineers (India) and a senior member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).