1st Edition

Power System Protection in Smart Grid Environment

By Ramesh Bansal Copyright 2019
    636 Pages 432 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    With distributed generation interconnection power flow becoming bidirectional, culminating in network problems, smart grids aid in electricity generation, transmission, substations, distribution and consumption to achieve a system that is clean, safe (protected), secure, reliable, efficient, and sustainable. This book illustrates fault analysis, fuses, circuit breakers, instrument transformers, relay technology, transmission lines protection setting using DIGsILENT Power Factory. Intended audience is senior undergraduate and graduate students, and researchers in power systems, transmission and distribution, protection system broadly under electrical engineering.

    Section I Faults Analysis and Power System Protection Devices

    1. An Overview of Smart Grid in Protection Perspective

    [T. Adefarati and Ramesh Bansal]

    2. Fault Analysis

    [Patrick T. Manditereza]

    3. Fuses and Circuit Breakers

    [Abhishek Chauhan, Padmanabh Thakur, and Ramesh Bansal]

    4. Instrument Transformers

    [Rajiv Singh and Asheesh Kumar Singh]

    5. Protective Relaying System

    [Senthil Krishnamurthy]

    Section II Transmission Line Protection

    6. Medium Voltage Phase Overcurrent Feeder Protection

    [Martin J. Slabbert, Raj Naidoo, and Ramesh Bansal]

    7. Bus-Bar Protection

    [Arvind R. Singh, Ranjay Singh, Abhishek Kumar, Raj Naidoo, and Ramesh Bansal]

    8. Distance Protective Relaying System for Long Transmission Lines

    [Senthil Krishnamurthy]

    9. Protection of Reactors and FACTS Devices

    [K. A. Nzeba, J. J. Justo, Aishwarya Biju, and Ramesh Bansal]

    Section III Equipment Protection: Motor, Transformer, Generator, Substation Automation and Control; Overvoltage and Lightening Protection

    10. Transformer Protection

    [Patrick T. Manditereza]

    11. Generator Protection System

    [T. Adefarati and Ramesh Bansal]

    12. Induction Motor Protection

    [N. T. Mbungu, Ramesh Bansal, Raj Naidoo, and D. H. Tungadio]

    13. Substation Automation and Control

    [Adeyemi Charles Adewole and Raynitchka Tzoneva]

    14. Overvoltage and Earthing Protection

    [N. T. Mbungu, J. J. Justo, and Ramesh Bansal]

    Section IV Power Quality Issues, Reliability, Wide Area and System Protection; and Renewable DG Protection

    15. Power Quality and Equipment Protection

    [Abhishek Chauhan, J. J. Justo, T. Adefarati, and Ramesh Bansal]

    16. Reliability Assessment of the Distribution System in the Presence of Protective Devices

    [T. Adefarati and Ramesh Bansal]

    17. Advances in Wide Area Monitoring, Protection and Control

    [Adeyemi Charles Adewole and Raynitchka Tzoneva]

    18. Protection of Renewable Distributed Generation System

    [Rishabh Dev Shukla, Ramesh K. Tripathi, Padmanabh Thakur, and Ramesh Bansal]


    1. An Overview of Smart Grid in Protection Perspective

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Major functions of a smart grid system

    1.3 Features of the smart grid

    1.4 Smart grid technologies

    1.5 Sensing and measurement

    1.6 Smart meter

    1.7 Phasor measurement unit

    1.8 Distribution energy resources

    1.9 Peak load management

    1.10 Smart grid automation

    1.11 Grid code

    1.12 Protection system in the smart grid

    1.13 Importance of protection in the smart grid

    1.14 Challenges of protective devices in the smart grid

    1.15 Tutorial Problems

    1.16 Conclusion


    2. Fault analysis

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 The Per Unit System – A review

    2.3 Synchronous machine reactances

    2.4 Effect of large motors on fault level

    2.5 Network reduction technique for balanced fault calculation

    2.6 Methods of reducing fault levels

    2.7 Bus impedance matrix method of fault calculation

    2.8 Symmetrical components

    2.9 Unsymmetrical Faults

    2.10 The bus impedance matrix in unbalanced fault calculation

    2.11 Computer simulations

    2.12 Tutorial Problems

    2.13 Conclusion


    3. Fuses and Circuit Breakers

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Fuses

    3.3 Circuit breakers

    3.4 Tutorial Problems

    3.5. Conclusion



    4. Instrument Transformers

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Shunts and Multipliers for Range Extension

    4.3 Limitations of shunts and multipliers in range extension

    4.4 Merits of ITs

    4.5 Technical Performance Parameters of ITs

    4.6. Current Transformers

    4.7 Potential Transformers

    4.8 Tutorial Problems

    4.9 Conclusion


    5. Protective Relaying System

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Over current relays and characteristics

    5.3 Differential relaysand their characteristics

    5.4 Solved problems on protective relaying system

    5.5 Conclusion


    Section II: Transmission line protection

    6. Medium Voltage phase Over current feeder protection

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Protection philosophy

    6.3 MV network layout and components

    6.4 Protection elements and functions

    6.5 Let-through energy

    6.6 Grading

    6.7 Settings example (top-down method)

    6.8 Interconnected network strategy

    6.9 Adaptive Protection requirement

    6.10 Worked examples

    6.11 Tutorial Problems

    6.12 Conclusion


    7. Bus Protection

    7.1 General considerations of bus protection

    7.2 Typical bus-bar arrangements

    7.3 Bus faults

    7.4 Bus protection requirements

    7.5 Bus protection

    7.6 CTs for differential protection

    7.7 Bus differential protection

    7.8 Bus bar differential protection with high impedance

    7.9 Percentage restrained differential relay

    7.10 Percentage differential bus bar protection technique numerical example

    7.11 Partial Differential Protection

    7.12 Directional Comparison Bus Protection

    7.13 Tutorial Questions

    7.14 Conclusion


    8 Distance Protective Relaying System for Long Transmission Lines

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Distance relays and characteristics

    8.3 Communication assisted protection schemes

    8.4 Distance protection setting on DigSilent Power Factory simulation tool

    8.5 Distance protection setting on numerical relay

    8.6 Solved problems on distance protective relaying system

    8.7 Conclusion



    9. Protection of Reactors and FACTS Devices

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Principle of operation of reactors, SVC and STATCOM

    9.3 Principles of Protection Strategies

    9.4 Tutorial Problems

    9.5 Conclusion



    Section III: Equipment Protection: Motor, Transformer, Generator, Substation Automation & Control; Overvoltage & Lightening Protection

    10 Transformer Protection

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Origins of transformer faults

    10.3 Magnetising inrush

    10.4 Overcurrent Protection

    10.5 Earth fault protection

    10.6 Differential protection

    10.7 Differential protection types

    10.8 Restricted earth fault (REF) protection

    10.9 Transformer differential protection

    10.10 Combined differential and REF protection

    10.11 Differential protection application with an earthing transformer

    10.12 Buchholz protection

    10.13 Transformer winding temperature

    10.14 Pressure release valve

    10.15 Tutorial Problems

    10.16 Conclusion


    11 Generator Protection

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Generator protection functions

    11.3 Generator stator protection

    11.4 Rotor protection

    11.5 Protection for other systems

    11.6 Conclusion

    11.7 Tutorial Problems


    12 Induction Motor Protection

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Induction Motor Analysis

    12.3 Equivalent circuit of Induction Motor

    12.4 Overload/thermal protection

    12.5 Start/stall protection

    12.6 Short-circuit protection,

    12.7 Earth fault protection,

    12.8 Negative phase sequence protection

    12.9 Protection of rotor windings

    12.10 Under voltage/overvoltage protection, loss-of-load, protection

    12.11 Motor protection solved and unsolved examples

    12.12 Conclusion

    13 Substation Automation & Control

    13.1. Introduction

    13.2. Substation Automation and Control using the IEC 61850 Standard

    13.3. Communication Networks

    13.4. Wide Area Data Exchange

    13.5. System Engineering

    13.6. Testing

    13.7. Cyber Security

    13.8. IEC 61850 Use Cases

    13.9 Tutorial Problems

    13.10 Conclusion


    14. Overvoltage and Earthing Protection

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Overvoltage

    14.3 Insulation co-ordination,

    14.4 Overvoltages Protection

    14.5 Grounding system

    14.6 Solved Problems

    14.7 Tutorial Problems

    14.8 Conclusion



    Section IV: Power quality issues, reliability, Wide Area and System Protection; and Renewable DG Protection

    15. Power Quality and Equipment Protection

    15.1 Power Quality

    15.2 Need of Power Quality Assessment

    15.3 Evaluation of Power Quality

    15.4 Frequency Variation as Power Quality Issue

    15.5 Unbalance Voltage as Power Quality Issue

    15.6 Harmonics

    15.7 Solved Problems

    15.8 Tutorial Problems

    15.9 Conclusion


    16. Reliability aspects of Power System Protection

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Distribution power system

    16.3 Protection system

    16.4 Protective devices in the distribution power system

    16.5 Power interruption

    16.6 Reliability

    16.7 Reliability indices

    16.8 Concept of reliability

    16.9 Reliability indices of the distribution system

    16.10 Objective function

    16.11 Results and discussions

    16.12 Tutorial Problems

    16. 13 Conclusion


    17 Advances in Wide Area Monitoring, Protection and Control

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Synchrophasor Technology

    17.3 System Planning and Functional Requirements

    17.4 Real-Time Wide Area Monitoring Systems

    17.5 Wide Area Protection and Control Schemes (System Integrity Protection Scheme)

    17.6 Cyber Security in Synchrophasor-Based Systems

    17.7 Example of a Cyber-Security Attack

    17.8 Tutorial Problems

    17.9 Conclusion



    18. The impact of DG penetration on protection & current protection practices

    18.1 The impact of RDG/DG penetration on protection & Current protection practices

    18.2 Factors affecting RDGs/DGs Protection

    18.3 Protection with islanding operation (Anti-islanding)

    18.4 Protection of Microgrids

    18.5 Protection of Wind Energy Generation Systems

    18.6 Protection of PV systems

    18.7 Protection aspects for the future distribution network/system

    18.9 Tutorial Problems

    18.9 Conclusion



    Professor Ramesh Bansal, who has more than 25 years’ experience in teaching, research and industry, is currently based in College of Engineering, University of Sharjah, UAE. Prior to this, he was a a professor and Group Head (Power) in the Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering at University of Pretoria, and niversity of Queensland in Australia, the University of the South Pacific in Fiji, the Birla Institute of Technology and Science in Pilani, India, and the Civil Construction Wing of All-India Radio. He has worked with Powerlink, an Australian government-owned corporation responsible for Queensland’s high-voltage electricity transmission network.

    Prof. Bansal has significant industrial experience of collaborating with power utilities around word which includes NTPC (A 40 GW Indian Power Generation Company), Powerlink, & ESKOM. Professor Bansal has published more than 300 journal articles, presented papers at conferences, and has contributed to books and chapters in books. He has supervised 18 PhD students and currently supervising several PhDs students. His diversified research interests are in the areas of renewable energy and conventional power systems which include wind, photovoltaics (PV), hybrid power systems, distributed generation, grid integration of renewable energy, power systems analysis and Power System Protection. Professor Bansal is an Editor/Associate Editor of the highly regarded journals, IET-Renewable Power Generation (regional editor for Africa) Electric Power Components and Systems, and Technology and Economics of Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy. He is a fellow and a chartered engineer of the Institution of Engineering and Technology, UK, a fellow of Engineers Australia, a fellow of the Institution of Engineers (India) and a senior member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).