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Production Chemicals for the Oil and Gas Industry




ISBN 9781439873793
Published March 13, 2014 by CRC Press
454 Pages 259 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Production chemistry issues result from changes in well stream fluids, both liquid and gaseous, during processing. Since crude oil production is characterized by variable production rates and unpredictable changes to the nature of the produced fluids, it is essential for production chemists to have a range of chemical additives available for rectifying issues that would not otherwise be fully resolved. Modern production methods, the need to upgrade crude oils of variable quality, and environmental constraints demand chemical solutions. Thus, oilfield production chemicals are necessary to overcome or minimize the effects of the production chemistry problems.

Production Chemicals for the Oil and Gas Industry, Second Edition discusses a wide variety of production chemicals used by the oil and gas industry for down-hole and topside applications both onshore and offshore. Incorporating the large amount of research and applications since the first edition, this new edition reviews all past and present classes of production chemicals, providing numerous difficult-to-obtain references, especially SPE papers and patents. Unlike other texts that focus on how products perform in the field, this book focuses on the specific structures of chemicals that are known to deliver the required or desired performance—information that is very useful for research and development.

Each updated chapter begins by introducing a problem, such as scale or corrosion, for which there is a production chemical. The author then briefly discusses all chemical and nonchemical methods to treat the problem and provides in-depth descriptions of the structural classes of relevant production chemicals. He also mentions, when available, the environmental properties of chemicals and whether the chemical or technique has been successfully used in the field. This edition includes two new chapters and nearly 50 percent more references.

Table of Contents

Control of Naphthenate and Other Carboxylate Fouling
Introduction
Naphthenate Deposition Control Using Acids
Low-Dosage Naphthenate Inhibitors
References

Corrosion Control during Production
Introduction
Methods of Corrosion Control
Corrosion Inhibitors
Film-Forming Corrosion Inhibitors
References

Gas Hydrate Control
Introduction
Chemical Prevention of Hydrate Plugging
Gas Hydrate Plug Removal
References

Wax (Paraffin Wax) Control
Introduction
Wax Control Strategies
Chemical Wax Removal
Chemical Wax Prevention
References

Demulsifiers
Introduction
Methods of Demulsification
Water-in-Oil Demulsifiers
References

Foam Control
Introduction
Defoamers and Antifoams
References

Flocculants
Introduction
Theory of Flocculation
Flocculants
References

Biocides
Introduction
Chemicals for Control of Bacteria
Biocides
Biostats (Control "Biocides" or Metabolic Inhibitors)
Summary
References

Hydrogen Sulfide Scavengers
Introduction
Nonregenerative H2S Scavengers
Summary
References

Oxygen Scavengers
Introduction
Classes of Oxygen Scavengers
References

Drag-Reducing Agents
Introduction
Drag-Reducing Agent Mechanisms
Oil-Soluble DRAs
Water-Soluble DRAs
References

Chemicals for Hydrotesting
Introduction
Hydrotesting Formulations
References

Foamers for Gas Well Deliquification
Introduction
Properties and Classes of Foamers
References

Appendix 1: OSPAR Environmental Regulations for Oilfield Chemicals
Index

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Author(s)

Biography

Malcolm A. Kelland obtained a first class honors degree in chemistry and a DPhil in organometallic chemistry from Oxford University, UK. He worked at RF-Rogaland Research (now the International Research of Stavanger, IRIS), Norway, from 1991 to 2000 mostly on production chemistry projects. He moved to the University of Stavanger (UiS), Norway, in 2001, where he is currently professor of inorganic chemistry. His current research is in designing and testing more environmentally friendly LDHIs as well as other projects on new scale inhibitors and other crystal growth inhibitors in and outside the oil industry. He is also the chief scientific officer for Eco Inhibitors, a spin-off company from UiS that consults on oilfield chemicals and licenses several new LDHIs.