2nd Edition

Quagga and Zebra Mussels Biology, Impacts, and Control, Second Edition

Edited By Thomas F. Nalepa, Don W. Schloesser Copyright 2014
    815 Pages 364 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    The introduction and rapid spread of two Eurasian mussel species, Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) and Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (quagga mussel), in waters of North America has caused great concern among industrial and recreational water users. These invasive species can create substantial problems for raw water users such as water treatment facilities and power plants, and they can have other negative impacts by altering aquatic environments. In the 20 years since the first edition of this book was published, zebra mussels have continued to spread, and quagga mussels have become the greater threat in the Great Lakes, in deep regions of large lakes, and in the southwestern Unites States. Quagga mussels have also expanded greatly in eastern and western Europe since the first book edition was published.

    Quagga and Zebra Mussels: Biology, Impacts, and Control, Second Edition provides a broad view of the zebra/quagga mussel issue, offering a historic perspective and up-to-date information on mussel research. Comprising 48 chapters, this second edition includes reviews of mussel morphology, physiology, and behavior. It details mussel distribution and spread in Europe and across North America, and examines policy and regulatory responses, management strategies, and mitigation efforts.

    In addition, this book provides extensive coverage of the impact of invasive mussel species on freshwater ecosystems, including effects on water clarity, phytoplankton, water quality, food web changes, and consequences to other aquatic fauna. It also reviews and offers new insights on how zebra and quagga mussels respond and adapt to varying environmental conditions. This new edition includes seven video clips that complement chapter text and, through visual documentation, provide a greater understanding of mussel behavior and distribution.

    Thomas F. Nalepa and Don W. Schloesser

    Alfred M. Beeton

    Part I: Prelude

    My Story on Finding the First Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in North America
    Sonya Gutschi Santavy

    In Recognition: John Glenn Sparks a Giant Leap for Environmental Protection
    Allegra Cangelosi

    Part II:
    Distribution and Spread

    Chronological History of Zebra and Quagga Mussels (Dreissenidae) in North America, 1988–2010
    Amy J. Benson

    Influence of Environmental Factors on Zebra Mussel Population Expansion in Lake Champlain, 1994–2010
    J. Ellen Marsden, Pete Stangel, and Angela D. Shambaugh

    Replacement of Zebra Mussels by Quagga Mussels in the Erie Canal, New York, USA
    Kenton M. Stewart

    Invasion of Quagga Mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) to the Mid-Lake Reef Complex in Lake Michigan: A Photographic Montage
    Jeffrey S. Houghton, Robert Paddock, and John Janssen

    Long-Term Change in the Hudson River’s Bivalve Populations: A History of Multiple Invasions (and Recovery?)
    David L. Strayer and Heather M. Malcom

    Spread of the Quagga Mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) in Western Europe
    Abraham bij de Vaate, Gerard van der Velde, Rob S.E.W. Leuven, and Katharina C.M. Heiler

    Origin and Spread of Quagga Mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) in Eastern Europe with Notes on Size Structure of Populations
    Marina I. Orlova

    Summary of Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in Polish Lakes over the Past 50 Years with Emphasis on Masurian Lakes (Northeastern Poland)
    Krzysztof Lewandowski and Anna Stañczykowska

    Part III:
    Response, Management, and Mitigation

    One Reporter’s Perspective on the Invasion of Dreissenid Mussels in North America: Reflections on the News Media
    Steve Pollick

    Early Responses to Zebra Mussels in the Great Lakes: A Journey from Information Vacuum to Policy and Regulation
    Ronald W. Griffiths, Don W. Schloesser, and William P. Kovalak

    Catalyst for Change: "The Little Dreissenid That Did" (Change National Policy on Aquatic Invasive Species)
    David F. Reid and Dean Wilkinson

    Invading Dreissenid Mussels Transform the 100-Year-Old International Joint Commission
    Mark J. Burrows

    Eradication of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from Millbrook Quarry, Virginia: Rapid Response in the Real World
    Raymond T. Fernald and Brian T. Watson

    Management and Control of Dreissenid Mussels in Water Infrastructure Facilities of the Southwestern United States
    Rajat K. Chakraborti, Sharook Madon, Jagjit Kaur, and Dale Gabel

    Impact of Dreissenid Mussels on the Infrastructure of Dams and Hydroelectric Power Plants
    Thomas H. Prescott, Renata Claudi, and Katherine L. Prescott

    Managing Expansion of Dreissenids within Traditional Parameters: The Story of Quagga Mussels in Lake Mead National Recreation Area
    Valerie Hickey

    Dreissenid Mussels as Sentinel Biomonitors for Human and Zoonotic Pathogens
    David Bruce Conn, Frances E. Lucy, and Thaddeus K. Graczyk

    Contaminant Concentrations in Dreissenid Mussels from the Laurentian Great Lakes: A Summary of Trends from the Mussel Watch Program
    Kimani L. Kimbrough, W. Edward Johnson, Annie P. Jacob, and Gunnar G. Lauenstein

    Part IV:
    Morphology, Physiology, and Behavior

    Morphological Variability of Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (Mollusca: Bivalvia)
    Vera Pavlova and Yuri Izyumov

    Variation of the Quagga Mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) with Emphasis on the Deepwater Morphotype in Lake Michigan
    Thomas F. Nalepa, Vera Pavlova, Wai H. Wong, John Janssen, Jeffrey S. Houghton, and Kerrin Mabrey

    Behavior of Juvenile and Adult Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)
    Jaroslaw Kobak

    Antipredator Strategy of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha): From Behavior to Life History
    Marcin Czarnoleski and Tomasz Müller

    Variation in Predator–Prey Interactions between Round Gobies and Dreissenid Mussels
    Christopher J. Houghton and John Janssen

    Density, Growth, and Reproduction of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in Two Oklahoma Reservoirs
    Chad J. Boeckman and Joseph R. Bidwell

    Limiting Environmental Factors and Competitive Interactions between Zebra and Quagga Mussels in North America
    David W. Garton, Robert McMahon, and Ann M. Stoeckmann

    Evolutionary, Biogeographic, and Population Genetic Relationships of Dreissenid Mussels, with Revision of Component Taxa
    Carol A. Stepien, Igor A. Grigorovich, Meredith A. Gray, Timothy J. Sullivan, Shane Yerga-Woolwine, and Gokhan Kalayci

    Effects of Algal Composition, Seston Stoichiometry, and Feeding Rate on Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) Nutrient Excretion in Two Laurentian Great Lakes
    Thomas H. Johengen, Henry A. Vanderploeg, and James R. Liebig

    Chemical Regulation of Dreissenid Reproduction
    Donna R. Kashian and Jeffrey L. Ram

    Role of Fluid Dynamics in Dreissenid Mussel Biology
    Josef Daniel Ackerman

    Part V:

    Meta-Analysis of Dreissenid Effects on Freshwater Ecosystems
    Scott N. Higgins

    Effects of Invasive Quagga Mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) on Chlorophyll and Water Clarity in Lakes Mead and Havasu of the Lower Colorado River Basin, 2007–2009
    Wai H. Wong, G. Chris Holdren, Todd Tietjen, Shawn Gerstenberger, Bryan Moore, Kent Turner, and Doyle C. Wilson

    Role of Selective Grazing by Dreissenid Mussels in Promoting Toxic Microcystis Blooms and Other Changes in Phytoplankton Composition in the Great Lakes
    Henry A. Vanderploeg, Alan E. Wilson, Thomas H. Johengen, Julianne Dyble Bressie, Orlando Sarnelle, James R. Liebig, Sander D. Robinson, and Geoffrey P. Horst

    Trends in Phytoplankton, Zooplankton, and Macroinvertebrates in Saginaw Bay Relative to Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) Colonization: A Generalized Linear Model Approach
    Sara Adlerstein, Thomas F. Nalepa, Henry A. Vanderploeg, and Gary L. Fahnenstiel

    Lake Michigan after Dreissenid Mussel Invasion: Water Quality and Food Web Changes during the Late Winter/Spring Isothermal Period
    Steven A. Pothoven and Gary L. Fahnenstiel

    Nutrient Cycling by Dreissenid Mussels: Controlling Factors and Ecosystem Response
    Harvey A. Bootsma and Qian Liao

    Benthification of Freshwater Lakes: Exotic Mussels Turning Ecosystems Upside Down
    Christine M. Mayer, Lyubov E. Burlakova, Peter Eklöv, Dean Fitzgerald, Alexander Y. Karatayev, Stuart A. Ludsin, Scott Millard, Edward L. Mills, A. P. Ostapenya, Lars G. Rudstam, Bin Zhu, and Tataina V. Zhukova

    Variability of Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) Impacts in the Shannon River System, Ireland
    Dan Minchin and Anastasija Zaiko

    Impacts of Dreissena on Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities: Predictable Patterns Revealed by Invasion History
    Jessica M. Ward and Anthony Ricciardi

    Interactions between an Exotic Ecosystem Engineers (Dreissena spp.) and Native Burrowing Mayflies (Hexagenia spp.) in Soft Sediments of Western Lake Erie
    Kristen M. DeVanna, Don W. Schloesser, Jonathan M. Bossenbroek, and Christine M. Mayer

    Zebra Mussel Impacts on Unionids: A Synthesis of Trends in North America and Europe
    Frances E. Lucy, Lyubov E. Burlakova, Alexander Y. Karatayev, Sergey E. Mastitsky, and David T. Zanatta

    Impacts of Dreissenid Mussels on the Distribution and Abundance of Diving Ducks on Lake St. Clair
    David R. Luukkonen, Ernest N. Kafcas, Brendan T. Shirkey, and Scott R. Winterstein

    Context-Dependent Changes in Lake Whitefish Populations Associated with Dreissenid Invasion
    Michael D. Rennie

    Effects of Dreissenids on Monitoring and Management of Fisheries in Western Lake Erie
    Martin A. Stapanian and Patrick M. Kocovsky

    Part VI:

    General Overview of Zebra and Quagga Mussels: What We Do and Do Not Know
    Alexander Y. Karatayev, Lyubov E. Burlakova, and Dianna K. Padilla

    Comparative Role of Dreissenids and Other Benthic Invertebrates as Links for Type-E Botulism Transmission in the Great Lakes
    Alicia Pérez-Fuentetaja, Mark D. Clapsadl, and W. Theodore Lee

    A Comparison of Consumptive Demand of Diporeia spp. and Dreissena in Lake Michigan Based on Bioenergetics Models
    Daniel J. Ryan, Thomas F. Nalepa, Lori N. Ivan, Maria S. Sepúlveda, and Tomas O. Höök

    Variation in Length–Frequency Distributions of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) within and between Three Baltic Sea Subregions: Szczecin Lagoon, Curonian Lagoon, and Gulf of Finland
    Christiane Fenske, Anastasija Zaiko, Adam Wozn´ iczka, Sven Dahlke, and Marina I. Orlova

    A Note on Dreissenid Mussels and Historic Shipwrecks
    Russ Green

    Part VII:
    Appendix: Narratives for Video Clips

    Video Clip 1: A Visual Documentation of the Eradication of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from Millbrook Quarry, Virginia
    Raymond T. Fernald and Brian T. Watson

    Video Clip 2: Invasion of Quagga Mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) to the Midlake Reef Complex in Lake Michigan: A Video Montage
    Jeffrey S. Houghton, Robert Paddock, and John Janssen

    Video Clip 3: Close-Up View of Inhalant Siphons of Quagga Mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, Deepwater Morph) on the Midlake Reef Complex in Lake Michigan
    Thomas F. Nalepa, Jeffrey S. Houghton, Robert Paddock, and John Janssen

    Video Clip 4: Visual Documentation of Quagga Mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) at Two Depths in Southeastern Lake Michigan
    Russ Miller, Nathan Hawley, and Steven A. Ruberg

    Video Clip 5: Zebra Mussel Movements on the Bottom of Lake Michigan
    Barry M. Lesht and Nathan Hawley

    Video Clip 6: Behavior of Zebra Mussels Exposed to Microcystis Colonies from Natural Seston and Laboratory Cultures
    Henry A. Vanderploeg and J. Rudi Strickler

    Video Clip 7: Visual Evidence a Native Mussel Population (Unionidae: Bivalvia) in the St. Clair River (Laurentian Great Lakes) Has Survived Despite the Presence of Dreissena
    Greg Lashbrook and Kathy Johnson

    Thomas F. Nalepa and Don W. Schloesser



    Thomas F. Nalepa was a research biologist with the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Ann Arbor, Michigan, for 37 years before retiring from federal service in 2011. He is now a part-time research scientist with the Graham Environmental Sustainability Institute, University of Michigan, and also maintains an emeritus position with NOAA.

    Don W. Schloesser is a fisheries scientist with the Great Lakes Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Ann Arbor, Michigan. He has been at the center since 1977.

    Tom and Don shared a mutual interest in benthic communities long before the first zebra mussel was reported in the Great Lakes in 1988, but it was the discovery of this organism that initiated joint collaborations and research projects. Both attended the first organized meeting on zebra mussels in North America in 1989, and in 1993 co-edited the first edition of this book. Since then, they have continued to share ideas, assess research needs, and pool resources. Joint projects on dreissenids have focused on long-term trends and spread, population dynamics, biology, and impacts on the ecosystem, particularly impacts on other components of the benthic community.