Quagga and Zebra Mussels: Biology, Impacts, and Control, Second Edition, 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Quagga and Zebra Mussels

Biology, Impacts, and Control, Second Edition, 2nd Edition

Edited by Thomas F. Nalepa, Don W. Schloesser

CRC Press

815 pages | 364 B/W Illus.

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The introduction and rapid spread of two Eurasian mussel species, Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) and Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (quagga mussel), in waters of North America has caused great concern among industrial and recreational water users. These invasive species can create substantial problems for raw water users such as water treatment facilities and power plants, and they can have other negative impacts by altering aquatic environments. In the 20 years since the first edition of this book was published, zebra mussels have continued to spread, and quagga mussels have become the greater threat in the Great Lakes, in deep regions of large lakes, and in the southwestern Unites States. Quagga mussels have also expanded greatly in eastern and western Europe since the first book edition was published.

Quagga and Zebra Mussels: Biology, Impacts, and Control, Second Edition provides a broad view of the zebra/quagga mussel issue, offering a historic perspective and up-to-date information on mussel research. Comprising 48 chapters, this second edition includes reviews of mussel morphology, physiology, and behavior. It details mussel distribution and spread in Europe and across North America, and examines policy and regulatory responses, management strategies, and mitigation efforts.

In addition, this book provides extensive coverage of the impact of invasive mussel species on freshwater ecosystems, including effects on water clarity, phytoplankton, water quality, food web changes, and consequences to other aquatic fauna. It also reviews and offers new insights on how zebra and quagga mussels respond and adapt to varying environmental conditions. This new edition includes seven video clips that complement chapter text and, through visual documentation, provide a greater understanding of mussel behavior and distribution.

Table of Contents


Thomas F. Nalepa and Don W. Schloesser


Alfred M. Beeton

Part I: Prelude

My Story on Finding the First Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in North America

Sonya Gutschi Santavy

In Recognition: John Glenn Sparks a Giant Leap for Environmental Protection

Allegra Cangelosi

Part II: Distribution and Spread

Chronological History of Zebra and Quagga Mussels (Dreissenidae) in North America, 1988–2010

Amy J. Benson

Influence of Environmental Factors on Zebra Mussel Population Expansion in Lake Champlain, 1994–2010

J. Ellen Marsden, Pete Stangel, and Angela D. Shambaugh

Replacement of Zebra Mussels by Quagga Mussels in the Erie Canal, New York, USA

Kenton M. Stewart

Invasion of Quagga Mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) to the Mid-Lake Reef Complex in Lake Michigan: A Photographic Montage

Jeffrey S. Houghton, Robert Paddock, and John Janssen

Long-Term Change in the Hudson River’s Bivalve Populations: A History of Multiple Invasions (and Recovery?)

David L. Strayer and Heather M. Malcom

Spread of the Quagga Mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) in Western Europe

Abraham bij de Vaate, Gerard van der Velde, Rob S.E.W. Leuven, and Katharina C.M. Heiler

Origin and Spread of Quagga Mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) in Eastern Europe with Notes on Size Structure of Populations

Marina I. Orlova

Summary of Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in Polish Lakes over the Past 50 Years with Emphasis on Masurian Lakes (Northeastern Poland)

Krzysztof Lewandowski and Anna Stañczykowska

Part III: Response, Management, and Mitigation

One Reporter’s Perspective on the Invasion of Dreissenid Mussels in North America: Reflections on the News Media

Steve Pollick

Early Responses to Zebra Mussels in the Great Lakes: A Journey from Information Vacuum to Policy and Regulation

Ronald W. Griffiths, Don W. Schloesser, and William P. Kovalak

Catalyst for Change: "The Little Dreissenid That Did" (Change National Policy on Aquatic Invasive Species)

David F. Reid and Dean Wilkinson

Invading Dreissenid Mussels Transform the 100-Year-Old International Joint Commission

Mark J. Burrows

Eradication of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from Millbrook Quarry, Virginia: Rapid Response in the Real World

Raymond T. Fernald and Brian T. Watson

Management and Control of Dreissenid Mussels in Water Infrastructure Facilities of the Southwestern United States

Rajat K. Chakraborti, Sharook Madon, Jagjit Kaur, and Dale Gabel

Impact of Dreissenid Mussels on the Infrastructure of Dams and Hydroelectric Power Plants

Thomas H. Prescott, Renata Claudi, and Katherine L. Prescott

Managing Expansion of Dreissenids within Traditional Parameters: The Story of Quagga Mussels in Lake Mead National Recreation Area

Valerie Hickey

Dreissenid Mussels as Sentinel Biomonitors for Human and Zoonotic Pathogens

David Bruce Conn, Frances E. Lucy, and Thaddeus K. Graczyk

Contaminant Concentrations in Dreissenid Mussels from the Laurentian Great Lakes: A Summary of Trends from the Mussel Watch Program

Kimani L. Kimbrough, W. Edward Johnson, Annie P. Jacob, and Gunnar G. Lauenstein

Part IV: Morphology, Physiology, and Behavior

Morphological Variability of Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

Vera Pavlova and Yuri Izyumov

Variation of the Quagga Mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) with Emphasis on the Deepwater Morphotype in Lake Michigan

Thomas F. Nalepa, Vera Pavlova, Wai H. Wong, John Janssen, Jeffrey S. Houghton, and Kerrin Mabrey

Behavior of Juvenile and Adult Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

Jaroslaw Kobak

Antipredator Strategy of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha): From Behavior to Life History

Marcin Czarnoleski and Tomasz Müller

Variation in Predator–Prey Interactions between Round Gobies and Dreissenid Mussels

Christopher J. Houghton and John Janssen

Density, Growth, and Reproduction of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in Two Oklahoma Reservoirs

Chad J. Boeckman and Joseph R. Bidwell

Limiting Environmental Factors and Competitive Interactions between Zebra and Quagga Mussels in North America

David W. Garton, Robert McMahon, and Ann M. Stoeckmann

Evolutionary, Biogeographic, and Population Genetic Relationships of Dreissenid Mussels, with Revision of Component Taxa

Carol A. Stepien, Igor A. Grigorovich, Meredith A. Gray, Timothy J. Sullivan, Shane Yerga-Woolwine, and Gokhan Kalayci

Effects of Algal Composition, Seston Stoichiometry, and Feeding Rate on Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) Nutrient Excretion in Two Laurentian Great Lakes

Thomas H. Johengen, Henry A. Vanderploeg, and James R. Liebig

Chemical Regulation of Dreissenid Reproduction

Donna R. Kashian and Jeffrey L. Ram

Role of Fluid Dynamics in Dreissenid Mussel Biology

Josef Daniel Ackerman

Part V: Impacts

Meta-Analysis of Dreissenid Effects on Freshwater Ecosystems

Scott N. Higgins

Effects of Invasive Quagga Mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) on Chlorophyll and Water Clarity in Lakes Mead and Havasu of the Lower Colorado River Basin, 2007–2009

Wai H. Wong, G. Chris Holdren, Todd Tietjen, Shawn Gerstenberger, Bryan Moore, Kent Turner, and Doyle C. Wilson

Role of Selective Grazing by Dreissenid Mussels in Promoting Toxic Microcystis Blooms and Other Changes in Phytoplankton Composition in the Great Lakes

Henry A. Vanderploeg, Alan E. Wilson, Thomas H. Johengen, Julianne Dyble Bressie, Orlando Sarnelle, James R. Liebig, Sander D. Robinson, and Geoffrey P. Horst

Trends in Phytoplankton, Zooplankton, and Macroinvertebrates in Saginaw Bay Relative to Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) Colonization: A Generalized Linear Model Approach

Sara Adlerstein, Thomas F. Nalepa, Henry A. Vanderploeg, and Gary L. Fahnenstiel

Lake Michigan after Dreissenid Mussel Invasion: Water Quality and Food Web Changes during the Late Winter/Spring Isothermal Period

Steven A. Pothoven and Gary L. Fahnenstiel

Nutrient Cycling by Dreissenid Mussels: Controlling Factors and Ecosystem Response

Harvey A. Bootsma and Qian Liao

Benthification of Freshwater Lakes: Exotic Mussels Turning Ecosystems Upside Down

Christine M. Mayer, Lyubov E. Burlakova, Peter Eklöv, Dean Fitzgerald, Alexander Y. Karatayev, Stuart A. Ludsin, Scott Millard, Edward L. Mills, A. P. Ostapenya, Lars G. Rudstam, Bin Zhu, and Tataina V. Zhukova

Variability of Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) Impacts in the Shannon River System, Ireland

Dan Minchin and Anastasija Zaiko

Impacts of Dreissena on Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities: Predictable Patterns Revealed by Invasion History

Jessica M. Ward and Anthony Ricciardi

Interactions between an Exotic Ecosystem Engineers (Dreissena spp.) and Native Burrowing Mayflies (Hexagenia spp.) in Soft Sediments of Western Lake Erie

Kristen M. DeVanna, Don W. Schloesser, Jonathan M. Bossenbroek, and Christine M. Mayer

Zebra Mussel Impacts on Unionids: A Synthesis of Trends in North America and Europe

Frances E. Lucy, Lyubov E. Burlakova, Alexander Y. Karatayev, Sergey E. Mastitsky, and David T. Zanatta

Impacts of Dreissenid Mussels on the Distribution and Abundance of Diving Ducks on Lake St. Clair

David R. Luukkonen, Ernest N. Kafcas, Brendan T. Shirkey, and Scott R. Winterstein

Context-Dependent Changes in Lake Whitefish Populations Associated with Dreissenid Invasion

Michael D. Rennie

Effects of Dreissenids on Monitoring and Management of Fisheries in Western Lake Erie

Martin A. Stapanian and Patrick M. Kocovsky

Part VI: General

General Overview of Zebra and Quagga Mussels: What We Do and Do Not Know

Alexander Y. Karatayev, Lyubov E. Burlakova, and Dianna K. Padilla

Comparative Role of Dreissenids and Other Benthic Invertebrates as Links for Type-E Botulism Transmission in the Great Lakes

Alicia Pérez-Fuentetaja, Mark D. Clapsadl, and W. Theodore Lee

A Comparison of Consumptive Demand of Diporeia spp. and Dreissena in Lake Michigan Based on Bioenergetics Models

Daniel J. Ryan, Thomas F. Nalepa, Lori N. Ivan, Maria S. Sepúlveda, and Tomas O. Höök

Variation in Length–Frequency Distributions of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) within and between Three Baltic Sea Subregions: Szczecin Lagoon, Curonian Lagoon, and Gulf of Finland

Christiane Fenske, Anastasija Zaiko, Adam Wozn´ iczka, Sven Dahlke, and Marina I. Orlova

A Note on Dreissenid Mussels and Historic Shipwrecks

Russ Green

Part VII: Appendix: Narratives for Video Clips

Video Clip 1: A Visual Documentation of the Eradication of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from Millbrook Quarry, Virginia

Raymond T. Fernald and Brian T. Watson

Video Clip 2: Invasion of Quagga Mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) to the Midlake Reef Complex in Lake Michigan: A Video Montage

Jeffrey S. Houghton, Robert Paddock, and John Janssen

Video Clip 3: Close-Up View of Inhalant Siphons of Quagga Mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, Deepwater Morph) on the Midlake Reef Complex in Lake Michigan

Thomas F. Nalepa, Jeffrey S. Houghton, Robert Paddock, and John Janssen

Video Clip 4: Visual Documentation of Quagga Mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) at Two Depths in Southeastern Lake Michigan

Russ Miller, Nathan Hawley, and Steven A. Ruberg

Video Clip 5: Zebra Mussel Movements on the Bottom of Lake Michigan

Barry M. Lesht and Nathan Hawley

Video Clip 6: Behavior of Zebra Mussels Exposed to Microcystis Colonies from Natural Seston and Laboratory Cultures

Henry A. Vanderploeg and J. Rudi Strickler

Video Clip 7: Visual Evidence a Native Mussel Population (Unionidae: Bivalvia) in the St. Clair River (Laurentian Great Lakes) Has Survived Despite the Presence of Dreissena

Greg Lashbrook and Kathy Johnson


Thomas F. Nalepa and Don W. Schloesser


About the Editors

Thomas F. Nalepa was a research biologist with the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Ann Arbor, Michigan, for 37 years before retiring from federal service in 2011. He is now a part-time research scientist with the Graham Environmental Sustainability Institute, University of Michigan, and also maintains an emeritus position with NOAA.

Don W. Schloesser is a fisheries scientist with the Great Lakes Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Ann Arbor, Michigan. He has been at the center since 1977.

Tom and Don shared a mutual interest in benthic communities long before the first zebra mussel was reported in the Great Lakes in 1988, but it was the discovery of this organism that initiated joint collaborations and research projects. Both attended the first organized meeting on zebra mussels in North America in 1989, and in 1993 co-edited the first edition of this book. Since then, they have continued to share ideas, assess research needs, and pool resources. Joint projects on dreissenids have focused on long-term trends and spread, population dynamics, biology, and impacts on the ecosystem, particularly impacts on other components of the benthic community.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
NATURE / Ecology
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Biology / Marine Biology
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply