2nd Edition

Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine

By Max H. Lombardi Copyright 2007
    256 Pages 120 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Recent advances in the field of nuclear medicine (NM) are expanding the role and responsibilities of the nuclear medicine technologist (NMT) to include more complex and detailed tasks. New technologies are making the diagnosis, management, and treatment of illnesses more sensitive, more specific, more accurate, and ultimately safer for both the patient and the technologist.

    Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine, Second Edition provides the latest technological advances and expanded responsibilities of today’s NMT while laying a solid foundation for understanding the basic physics behind the technology. As with the original, this edition teaches the units of radioactivity, exposure, and dosimetry, along with the principles of instrumentation needed for detection and measurement. Focusing on the issues of safety, this volume devotes considerable attention to the science and practice of safety techniques and includes information on rules and regulations.

    In keeping with the expanding nature of the field, the second edition incorporates many updates and additions such as,

  • Recent modifications to the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations specific to the use of radiopharmaceuticals in medicine
  • The growing popularity of metabolic imaging with positron emissions tomography (PET)
  • The benefits of merging two modalities, namely, the images of PET and computerized tomography (CT) into one short scanning procedure
  • The new role of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals that use molecular targeting as a method of localization
  • Providing a basic understanding of nuclear medicine, its scientific basis, diagnostic and therapeutic applications, safety practices and regulations, and future directions, Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine, Second Edition is the comprehensive reference for technologists, students, researchers, and other professionals in the Nuclear Medicine.

    Principles of Radiation Physics

    Brief History of Radiation Science
    Matter and Energy
    Atomic Structure and Radioactivity
    Particle Interactions
    Gamma Ray Interactions
    Gamma Ray Interactions with Lead and Water

    Units of Radiation Exposure and Dose

    Basic Concepts
    Other Concepts
    Specific Gamma Constant
    About S.I. Units

    Guidelines for Radiation Protection

    National and International Agencies
    Radiation Safety and the Law
    Types of Radiation Effects
    Recommended Dose Limits
    Radiation Safety Practice

    Radiation Detection and Measurement

    Gas Detectors
    Scintillation Detectors
    Imaging Instrumentation
    Statistics of Counting
    Making Decisions
    Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA)
    Quality Assurance of Radiation Counters

    Radiation Safety in the Nuclear Medicine Department

    Design of the NM Department
    Description of Some Areas
    Molecular Medicine
    The Radiation Safety Program (RSP)
    Radiation Safety Committee (RSC)
    Radiation Safety Officer (RSO)
    Radioactive Materials License
    Quality Management Program (QMP)
    The ALARA Program
    The Practice of Radiation Safety

    Safe Handling of Radioactivity

    Minimizing External Exposures
    Preventing Internal Contamination
    Laboratory Rules
    Radiation Hazards
    Radionuclide Therapy
    Other Radionuclide Therapies

    Radiation Surveys and Waste Disposal

    Radiation Surveys
    Survey Instruments
    Accidental Contamination
    Radioactive Wastes
    Disposal of Radioactive Wastes
    Occupational Exposures
    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

    Monitoring of Personnel Exposures

    Monitoring of Occupational Exposures
    Reminder of Dose Limits
    Monitoring Methods
    Records of Personnel Dosimetry
    Reportable Events

    Internal Dosimetry and Bioassays

    Historical Review
    Internal Doses from Radiopharmaceuticals
    Bioassay of Radioactivity
    Biological Half-Times

    Introduction to Radiobiology

    Review of Basic Concepts
    The Study of Radiobiology
    Types of Exposure
    Theories of Radiation Injury
    DNA: The Most Sensitive Target
    Quantitative Radiobiology
    Survival Curves
    Tissue Sensitivities
    Types of Damage
    Radiation Injury Modifiers
    Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS)
    Late Effects of Radiation
    Genetic Effects
    Effects of Prenatal Irradiation

    Appendix A — Properties of Medical Radionuclides

    Negatron Emitters
    Gamma (X-Rays) Emitters
    Positron Emitters (Annihilation Radiation)

    Appendix B — Symbols and Abbreviations

    Appendix C — Interconversion of Units

    Appendix D — Answers to Problems



    Max H. Lombardi, Lynda Sutton, Allen Cato III

    “...very readable format ... numerous tables, figures, and sample problems. Each chapter concludes with problems for the student to solve. ...offers extensive coverage of the subject. ...The chapters on radiatiosn physics, units of radiation exposure and dose, and radiobiology are thorough and well written.’
    — Jeffry A. Siegel, writing in International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics 2007, 69(4)

    “Although the target audience consists of nuclear medicine technologist students, the basic physics and radiobiology make this book a good secondary review for nuclear cardiologists and radiologists preparing for their boards. ... easy to follow. Well done tables and Diagrams ... .  Radiobiology and internal dosimetry are presented well and the coverage of radiation physics adequately meets the training levelfor nuclear medicine technologists.”
    Weighted Numerical Score: 95 - 4 Stars!
    Doody’s Notes, June 2008