1st Edition

Recycling of Plastics, Metals, and Their Composites

Edited By R.A. Ilyas, S.M. Sapuan, E. Bayraktar Copyright 2022
    539 Pages 298 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Having a solid understanding of materials recycling is of high importance, especially due to the growing use of composites in many industries and increasingly strict legislation and concerns about the disposal of composites in landfills or by incineration. Recycling of Plastics, Metals, and Their Composites provides a comprehensive review of the recycling of waste polymers and metal composites. It provides the latest advances and covers the fundamentals of recycled polymers and metal composites, such as preparation, morphology, and physical, mechanical, thermal, and flame-retardancy properties.


    • Offers a state-of-the-art review of the recycling of polymer composites and metal composites for sustainability
    • Describes a life-cycle analysis to help readers understand the true potential value and market for these recycled materials
    • Details potential applications of recycled polymer and metal composites
    • Includes the performance of natural fiber–reinforced recycled thermoplastic polymer composites under aging conditions and the recycling of multi-material plastics
    • Covers recycling technologies, opportunities, and challenges for polymer-matrix composites

    This book targets technical professionals in the metal and polymer industries as well as researchers, scientists, and advanced students. It is also of interest to decision makers at material suppliers, recycled metal and polymer product manufacturers, and governmental agencies working with recycled metal and polymer composites.

    1. Introduction to Recycling of Polymers and Metal Composites

    R.A. Ilyas, S.M. Sapuan, Abdul Kadir Jailani, Amir Hamzah Mohd Yusof, Mohd Nurazzi Norizan, Mohd Nor Faiz Norrrahim, M.S.N. Atikah, A. Atiqah, and Emin Bayraktar

    2. Preparation of Metal Matrix Composites by Solid-State Recycling from Waste Metal/Alloy Chips

    Debasis Chaira

    3. A Comprehensive Study on the Recycled Aluminum Matrix Composites Reinforced with NiAl Intermetallics and TiB2–TiC Ceramic Powders

    H. Murat Enginsoy, Özgür Aslan, Emin Bayraktar, Dhurata Katundi, and Fabio Gatamorta

    4. Recycling for a Sustainable World with Metal Matrix Composites

    Uğur Aybarç and M. Özgür Seydibeyoğlu

    5. Properties of Recycled Metal Matrix Composites

    A. Atiqah, N. Ismail, K.K. Lim, A. Jalar, M.A. Bakar, M.A. Maleque, R.A. Ilyas, and A.B.M. Supian

    6. Morphology of Recycled Metal Composites

    V. Anandakrishnan and S. Sathish

    7. Performance of Natural Fiber Reinforced Recycled Thermoplastic Polymer Composites under Aging Conditions

    M. Chandrasekar, T. Senthil Muthu Kumar, K. Senthilkumar, Sabarish Radoor, R.A. Ilyas, S.M. Sapuan, J. Naveen, and Suchart Siengchin

    8. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Recycled Metal Matrix Composites

    Pradeepkumar Krishnan and Ramanathan Arunachalam

    9. Thermal Properties of Recycled Polymer Composites

    Marwah Rayung, Min Min Aung, and Hiroshi Uyama

    10. Thermal Properties of Recycled Polymer Composites

    Havva Hande Cebeci, Korkut Açıkalin, and Aysel Kantürk Figen

    11. Flame Retardancy of Recycled Polymer Composites

    Maryam Jouyandeh, Henri Vahabi, Fouad Laoutid, Navid Rabiee, and Mohammad Reza Saeb

    12. Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Scrap Rubber/Epoxy-Based Composites

    L.M.P. Ferreira, I. Miskioglu, E. Bayraktar, and D. Katundi

    13. Design for Recycling Polymer Composites

    Siti Norasmah Surip, Hakimah Osman, and Engku Zaharah Engku Zawawi

    14. Effect of Heat Treatment Modification on the Tensile Strength and Microstructure of X7475 Al-Alloy Fabricated from Recycled Beverage Cans (RBCs) for Bumper Beam Applications

    A. Kazeem, N.A. Badarulzaman, W.F.F. Wan Ali, M.Z. Dagaci, and S.S. Jikan

    15. Recycling of Multi-Material Plastics in the Example of Sausage Casings Wastes

    Marek Szostak and Pawel Brzek

    16. Influence of Recycled Steel Scrap in Nodular Casting Iron Properties

    Marcelo Luis Siqueira, Sebastião Bruno Vilas Boas, Fabio Gatamorta, Claudney de Sales Pereira Mendonça, and Mirian de Lourdes Noronha Motta Melo

    17. Optimization of Surface Integrity of Recycled Ti-Al Intermetallic-Based Composite on the Machining by Water Jet Cutting via Taguchi and Response Surface Methodology

    M. Douiri, M. Boujelbene, E. Bayraktar, and S. Ben Salem

    18. Wear Behavior Analysis of a AlMg1SiCu Matrix Syntactic Foam Reinforced with Boron Carbide Particles and Recycled Fly Ash Balloons

    J.P. Paschoal, J.J. Thottathil, E. Daniel, R.C. Moraes, F. Gatamorta, E. Bayraktar, and T.V. Christy

    19. Procedures for Additions of Wastes to Cementitious Composites – A Review

    M.A. de B. Martins, F.B. Pinto, D. Werdine, L. Ramon, C.V. Santos, P.C. Gonçalves, M.L.M. Melo, and R.M. Barros

    20. Analysis of the Scientific Production of Cementitious Composites with Recycled Polymeric Materials

    L.R. Roque-Silva, P.M. Alves, M.H.B. Souza, G.Z. Costal, R.M. Martins, P.C. Gonçalves, P. Capellato, M.G.A. Ranieri, R.G. Torres, M.L.N.M. Melo, and V.C. Santos

    21. Cementitious Composites for Civil Construction Made with Marble and Granite Waste

    M.G.A. Ranieri, P. Capellato, M.A. de B. Martins, V.C. dos Santos, P.C. Gonçalves, L.R.R. da Silva, M.L.M. Melo, and A. da S. Mello

    22. Influences of the Ceramic Inclusions on the Toughening Effects of Devulcanized Recycled Rubber-Based Composites

    A.B. Irez and Emin Bayraktar

    23. Evaluation of Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of Low-Density Concrete with Residual (Scrap) Vegetable Fiber and Blast Furnace Slag

    K.M.A. Silva, C. Alves, L.M.P. Ferreira, and E. Bayraktar

    24. Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete (RC) with Different Scrap Coarse Aggregates

    E.S. Fonseca, K.M.A. Silva, S.H.S. Santana, L. M. Policarpio, and E. Bayraktar

    25. Influence of Iron Content on the Microstructure and Properties of Recycled Al–Si–Cu–Mg Alloys

    A.J. Vasconcelos, R.S.M. Silva, P.J. Oliveira, M.L.N.M. Melo, and O.F.L. Rocha

    26. Polymer Recycling in Malaysia: The Supply Chain and Market Analysis

    K. Norfaryanti and Z.M.A. Ainun

    27. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Recycled Polymer Composites

    H.N. Salwa, S.M. Sapuan, M.T. Mastura, M.Y.M. Zuhri, and R.A. Ilyas


    R.A. Ilyas received his Diploma in Forestry at Universiti Putra Malaysia, Bintulu Campus (UPMKB), Sarawak, Malaysia from Mei 2009 to April 2012. In 2012, he was awarded the Public Service Department (JPA) scholarship to pursue his Bachelor’s Degree (BSc) in Chemical Engineering at Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). Upon completing his BSc. programme in 2016, he was again awarded the Graduate Research Fellowship (GRF) by the Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) to undertake a PhD degree in the field of Biocomposite Technology & Design at Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP) UPM. R.A. Ilyas was the recipient of Gold Medal Malaysian Vaccines & Pharmaceuticals (MVP) Doctor of Philosophy 2019, and Top Student Award (Institute of Tropical Forest and Forest Products (INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Malaysia). In 2018, he was awarded with Outstanding reviewer by Carbohydrate Polymers, Elsevier United Kingdom, Best Paper Award (11th AUN/SEED-Net R egional Conference on Energy Engineering), Best Paper Award (Seminar Enau Kebangsaan 2019, Persatuan Pembangunan dan Industri Enau Malaysia), and National Book Award 2018. His main research interests are: (1) Polymer Engineering (Biodegradable Polymers, Biopolymers, Polymer composites, Polymer-gels) and (2) Material Engineering (Natural fiber reinforced polymer composites, Biocomposites, Cellulose materials, Nano-composites). He has authored and published more than 34 citation-indexed journals on green materials related subjects. To date he has authored or co-authored more than 133 publications (40 papers published/accepted/submitted in national and international journals, 1 authored books, 7 edited books, 48 chapters in books, 10 conference papers, 2 research bulletin and editor/co-editor more than 3 conference/seminar proceeding and 22 conference proceedings/seminar papers/presentation.

    S.M. Sapuan is a professor of composite materials at Universiti Putra Malaysia. He earned his B.Eng degree in Mechanical Engineering from University of Newcastle, Australia in 1990, MSc from Loughborough University, UK in 1994 and Ph.D from De Montfort University, UK in 1998. His research interests include natural fiber composites, materials selection and concurrent engineering. To date he has authored or co-authored more than 1521 publications (730 papers published/accepted in national and international journals, 16 authored books, 25 edited books,153 chapters in books and 597 conference proceedings/seminar papers/presentation (26 of which are plenary and keynote lectures and 66 of which are invited lectures). S.M. Sapuan was the recipient of Rotary Research Gold Medal Award 2012, The Alumni Medal for Professional Excellence Finalist, 2012 Alumni Awards, University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia, Khwarizmi International Award (KIA). In 2013 he was awarded with 5 Star Role Model Supervisor award by UPM. He has been awarded "Outstanding Reviewer" by Elsevier for his contribution in reviewing journal papers. He received Best Technical Paper Award in UMIMAS STEM International Engineering Conference in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. S.M. Sapuan was recognized as the first Malaysian to be conferred Fellowship by the US-based Society of Automotive Engineers International (FSAE) in 2015. He was the 2015/2016 recipient of SEARCA Regional Professorial Chair. In 2016 ranking of UPM researchers based on the number of citations and h-index by SCOPUS, he is ranked the 6th from 100 researchers. In 2017, he was awarded with IOP Outstanding Reviewer Award by Institute of Physics, UK, National Book Award, The Best Journal Paper Award, UPM, Outstanding Technical Paper Award, Society of Automotive Engineers International, Malaysia, and Outstanding Researcher Award, UPM. He also received in 2017 Citation of Excellence Award from Emerald, UK, SAE Malaysia the Best Journal Paper Award, IEEE/TMU Endeavour Research Promotion Award, Best Paper Award by Chinese Defence Ordnance and Malaysia’s Research Star Award (MRSA), from Elsevier. Besides, in 2019, he was awarded with Top Research Scientist Malaysia (TRMS 2019) and Professor of Eminence Award from AMU, India. Emin Bayraktar is Full Professor, Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering at SUPMECA/Paris. He received B.Sc., M.Sc. and PhD in materials science and manufacturing engineering, CNAM - Arts et Métiers/Paris and Habilitation (HDR) in mechanical and materials science engineering, University Pierre & Marie Curie, Paris VI. He has served as Visiting Professor at Nanyang Technology University, Singapore, 2012; Xi’an Northwestern Technical University, 2016, and University of Campinas, UNICAMP-Brazil, 2013-2023. He has advised & co-advised 32 PhD and more than 120 MSc theses. He has published more than 200 publications in international journals and conferences and 90 research reports.

    Professor Emin Bayraktar (Habil., Dr (PhD), DSc- Dr es Science) is an academic & research staff-member at Mechanical & Manufacturing engineering at SUPMECA/Paris, France. His research areas include Manufacturing Techniques of new materials (basically composites – hybrid), Metal Forming of thin sheets (Design + test + FEM), Static & Dynamic behaviour and optimisation of materials (Experimental & FEM – Utilisation and design of composites based metallic & non-metallic, powder metallurgy, energetic materials aeronautical applications) based metallic, non metallic, powder metallurgy and Metallurgy of steels, welding, heat treatment as well as processing of new composites, Sintering techniques, Sinter –Forging, thixoforming, etc. He has authored more than 200 publications in the International Journals and International Conference Proceedings, and has also authored more than 90 research reports (European = Steel Committee projects, Test + Simulation). He already advised 32 PhD, and 120 MSc Thesis already advised and 7 is going on. He is a Fellow of WAMME (World Academy of Science in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering), Editorial Board - Member of JAMME (International Journal of Achievement in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering), Advisory board member of AMPT-2009 (Advanced Materials Processing technologies), APCMP-2008 and APCMP-2010. He was Visiting Professor at Nanyang Technology University, Singapore in 2012, Xi’an Northwestern Technical University, Aeronautical Engineering, in 2016, University of Campinas, UNICAMP-Brazil in 2013 until 2023. He is recipient of Silesian University Prix pour "FREDERIK STAUB Golden Medal-2009" by Academy of WAMME, «World Academy of Science» -Poland, materials science section, and recipient of William Johnson International Gold Medal -2014, AMPT academic association.