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1st Edition

Remediation Hydraulics




ISBN 9780849372490
Published March 27, 2008 by CRC Press
432 Pages 13 Color & 248 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

In situ treatments involving the arrangement of contact between prospective reactants in complex porous media require a refined understanding of solute migration. However, the tools and methods used to predict and control fluid movement in the subsurface need significant improvement. Practitioners and regulators must develop novel methods to achieve an advanced understanding of treatment mechanisms.

Remediation Hydraulics addresses the need to predict and control fluid movement in the subsurface. It demonstrates how to conduct realistic assessments of contaminant plume structure and achieve contact between injected reagents and target compounds. The book describes both the advection-dispersion and continuous random walk theories of mass transport as well as explains the practical implications of each theory in remedial system design. In addition, it devotes an entire section to the development of conceptual site models and hydrostratigraphic characterization techniques that will aid practitioners in assessing the role of depositional environments in patterning groundwater flows and containment distributions.

Based the authors’ sound experience at over one hundred groundwater treatment projects, this bookprovides an arsenal of relevant theories and practical applications to aid practitioners and regulators in the prediction of fluid movement in the subsurface as well as in the design of pilot to full-scale remediation systems.

Table of Contents

Fluids and Surfaces
Cohesion and Surface Tension
Surface Energy and Wetting
Interfacial Tension, Capillarity and Entry Pressure
Surfactants
Viscosity
Laminar and Turbulent Flows 
Friction Factors and Pipe Pressure Loss
Density and Compressibility
Impacts of Temperature and Dissolved Solids on Fluid Properties
Properties of Porous Media  
Skeletal Matrix
Composition 
Effective Stress
Porosity
Compressibility and Consolidation 
Aquifer Storage Concepts
Aquifer Heterogeneity
Groundwater Flow Concepts  
Viscous Flow
Darcy’s Law 
Hydraulic Conductivity and Permeability
Equivalent Hydraulic Conductivity 
Mobile and Immobile Porosities
Anisotropy and Structure 
Darcy’s Law in Radial Flow
Concentration of Flow
Multi-Fluid and Non-Aqueous Flow
Intrinsic Permeability and Saturated Conductivity
Relative Permeability and Conductivity in Two-Fluid Systems
Entry Pressures and Vertical Non-Aqueous Liquid Mobility
Impact of Site Activities on Vertical NAPL Mobility
Gas Induced Groundwater Conductivity Decreases 
Solute Dispersion in Porous Media
Definitions
Advection-Dispersion
Reconsideration of the Dispersivity Term 
Fundamentals of Molecular Diffusion
Molecular Diffusion in Heterogeneous Porous Media
An Applications Based Outlook on Dispersivity and Diffusivity
Reactive and Sorptive Processes
Sorptive Processes
Precipitation
Gas-Generating Reactions 
Mobilization of Colloids
Contaminant and Reagent Mass Transport
Aquifer Mass Storage Capacities
Solute Transfers between Mobile and Immobile Porosities 
Steady-State Concepts
Plume Development and Retreat
Conceptual Site Models
Elements of the Site Concept
Accounting for Realistic Aquifer Behaviors
Testing Conceptual Site Models 
Hydrostratigraphic Characterization
Soil Classification Systems
Stratigraphic Logging Technique
Sampling Methods
Coordinated Hydrostratigraphic and Groundwater Sampling
Stratigraphic Contrast
Principles of Well Design  
Elements of Well Design and Construction
Screen and Filter Pack Design and Construction
Well Development 
Well Economics 
Design and Interpretation of Aquifer Characterization Tests  
Methods for Estimating Hydraulic Conductivity
Slug Testing 
Pumping Tests
Monitoring Approaches – What a Monitoring Well Sees
Tracer Study Design and Interpretation
Tracer Study Design and Layout 
Tracer Profiles and Breakthrough Curves
Tracer Volumes and Estimates of Mobile Porosity
Calculating the Center of Mass
Tracer Selection Criteria and Available Tracers 
Controlling Tracer Distribution
Tracer Case Studies
Using Tracers to Detect Displacement 
Injection Based Reactive Zone Design
How an Aquifer Accommodates Injected Fluid
Pressure Limits and Formation Failure
Creating Reactive Zones through Reagent Injection
Flow Controlling Reactive Zone Designs
Funnel and Gate 
Permeable Reactive Barriers
Hydraulic Fracturing
Clay – Zero Valent Iron Systems
Summary of New Developments and Their Implications
A Shifting Model of the Sub-Surface
Mapping Heterogeneities – Toward a Quantitative
Developing Methods in Quantitative Hydrogeology
Adaptive Design and Other Closing Points For Consideration
References
Plates

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Reviews

"The book reflects a realistic and successful approach to remediation. It is well researched and detailed enough to provide practical knowledge for engineers, scientists, and regulators in the prediction of fluid movement in the subsurface as well as in the design of pilot to full-scale remediation systems."

– Laura L. Sanders, Book Editor, in Ground Water, 2009