1st Edition

Risk Assessment and Security for Pipelines, Tunnels, and Underground Rail and Transit Operations

By Anna M. Doro-on Copyright 2014
    414 Pages 39 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Risk Assessment and Security for Pipelines, Tunnels, and Underground Rail and Transit Operations details a quantitative risk assessment methodology for systematically analyzing various alternatives for protecting underground rail, oil and gas pipelines, pipeline freight transportation, and other tunnel systems from terrorism threats and other disasters. It examines the engineering, environmental, and economic impacts and addresses both direct and collateral damage.

    The book describes how to employ the methodology of quantitative psychology for effectively assessing risk in homeland security, defense actions, and critical infrastructure protection. Using pipelines, tunnels, underground rapid rail, and transit systems as examples, it maintains an emphasis on applying quantitative psychology to risk management in the areas of homeland security and defense.

    • Outlines the background and system operations of pipelines, tunnels, underground rail, and transit systems as well as other super-speed futuristic trains
    • Covers materials used for fabricating weapons of mass destruction and operations for terrorism
    • Deals with the probabilistic risk estimation process, event tree analysis, and fault tree analysis
    • Discusses the risk and vulnerability assessment tools and methodologies used by experts and governmental agencies

    Approved for public release by the U.S. Federal Government, this book presents regulations, standard processes, and risk assessment models recommended by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and other federal and state agencies. Describing how to evaluate terrorism threats and warnings, it details protocols for preventive measures and emergency preparedness plans that are based on economic analysis.

    With comprehensive coverage that includes risk estimation and risk acceptability analysis, the book provides a foundational understanding of risk and the various defensive systems that can improve safety and security as well as thwart terrorists’ efforts to sabotage critical infrastructure.

    Risk Acceptability of Terrorism and Disaster

    Hazards, Terrorism, and Weapons of Mass Destruction on Pipelines, Tunnels, and Underground Rail and Transit Systems
         Terrorism and Disasters against Pipelines, Tunnels, Underground Rail, and Transit Systems
    Understanding the Basic Structure of Terror Organization
         Basic Recruitment Operations
         Terror Aspirant and Self-Radicalization
         Terror Member
         Terror-Suicide Bomber
         Technical Bomb and Improvised Explosive Devices Developer
         Terrorists Specializing in Chemical Threat
         Terrorists Specializing in Biological Threat
         Terrorists Specializing in Radiological and Nuclear Weapons
         Terrorist Intelligence Information and Reconnaissance Operation
         Terror Planner and Military Operation Planner
    Weapons of Mass Destruction
    Chemical Explosives
         Acetone Peroxide
         Ammonium Nitrate
         Ammonium Nitrate–Fuel Oil
         Cyclonite (RDX)
         Dingu and Sorguyl
         Hexamethylenetetramine Dinitrate
         Lead Azide
         Lead Styphnate
         Mercury(II) Fulminate
         Octagen (HMX)
         Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate
         Picric Acid
         Plastic Explosives
    Mechanical Components and Applications of Chemical Explosives
         Aluminum Powder
         Base Charge
         Blasting Caps
         Blasting Galvanometer
         Blasting Machine
         Blast Meters and Boosters
         Bridgewire Detonator
         Delay Time and Element
              Shock Wave
              Detonation Wave Theory
              Selective Detonation
              Sympathetic Detonation
              Detonation Development Distance
         Electroexplosive Device
         Oxidizer and Oxygen Balance of Explosives 
         Heat of Explosion
         Underwater Detonation
              Shock Wave of Underwater Detonation
              Gas Bubble
         Calculation of Explosives
         Hazards of Explosives
    Chemical Threats as Poisonous Weapons and Lethal Dose (LD50)
         Chemicals’ LD50
              Cyanide LD50
         Mustard Agents
         Nerve Agents
         Toxic Industrial Agents
              Arsenic LD50
         Inorganic Contaminants
         Organic Contaminants
    Biological Weapons
    Radiological and Nuclear Threats
         Radiological Dispersion Device
         Improvised Nuclear Device
         Nuclear Reactor Accident
          Nuclear Weapon
    Natural Disaster and Hazard
         Extreme Heat
         Landslides and Mudslides
         Winter Weather
         Space Weather

    Introduction to Pipelines, Tunnels, Underground Rail and Transit Operations, Terrorism, and Disasters
    Disaster and Acts of Terrorism against Pipelines, Tunnels, Underground Rail, and Transit Systems
         Security for Hazardous and Radioactive Material Transport Systems
         Fire, Explosion, and Detonation
              Vapor Cloud Explosion and Jet Flames
              Flash Point
              Flammability Range
              Autoignition Temperature
              Flame Speed and Burning Velocity
              Pool Fires
         Emission and Dispersion
              Dispersion Situation: Buoyancy Effects
              Dispersion Situation: Momentum Effects
              Dispersion Situation: Source Terms
              Dispersion Situation: Source Elevation
              Dispersion Situation: Meteorology and Topography
              Dispersion Situation: Building and Obstructions
         High Toxic Release
         Dust and Fragment Explosion
              Explosion Process3.2.6 Freight Capsule or Vessel Burst Pressure and Energy Distribution
         Explosion Destruction by Missiles
              Sources, Types, and Propagation of Missiles
              Number and Size of Missiles
              Velocity of Missiles
              Angle of Departure of Missiles
              Shape, Air Resistance, and Flight of Missiles
              Flying Glass
              Falling Masonry and Glass
    Underground Freight Transportation through Pipelines, Tubular Rail, and Magnetic Levitation
         Automated Transportation System
         Automated Transportation Logistic System
         Underground Transportation Logistic System
         Pneumatic Capsule Pipeline for Underground Freight 
         Underground Container and Capsule Transport Systems
         Tubular Rail
         Magnetic Levitation Transportation System
    Railroad and Railway Systems
    Oil, Gas, and Other Hazardous Liquid Pipelines
         Unregulated Hazardous Material Liquid Pipelines
    Underwater/Immersed Tunnel and Cross-River Tunnel
    Transportation Tunnels
         Road Tunnels
         Transit and Rail Tunnels
    Mine Tunnel
    Drainage Tunnel
    Defense and Warfare Tunnels
    Illegal Underground Tunnels

    Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Risk Analysis and Management
         Risk Matrices
         FMECAs, FMEAs, and Fault Trees
         NASA Probabilistic Risk Assessment
    Standard Homeland Security Risk Assessment and RAMCAP Plus Processes
         Fatalities and Serious Injuries
         Financial and Economic Impacts
         Vulnerability Analysis
         Threat Assessment
         Risk and Resilience Assessment
         Risk and Resilience Management
    Department of Defense Risk Assessment and Management
         Risk Reporting Matrix
         Security Risk Categories
    CARVER Matrix
    CARVER + Shock
    Model-Based Vulnerability Analysis
    Freight Assessment System
    Federal Emergency Management Agency HAZUS-MH
    Security Vulnerability Assessment
    Automated Targeting System
         ATS-Trend Analysis and Analytical Selectivity
    Sandia National Laboratories Security Risk Assessment Methods
    ASME RA-S Probabilistic Risk Assessment
    Development of Prospect Theory
         Expected Utility Theory
         Prospect Theory
    Cumulative Prospect Theory
         Framing Effects
         Nonlinear Preferences
         Source Dependence
         Risk Seeking
         Loss Aversion
         Cumulative Prospect Theory
    Author’s Thoughts

    Quantitative Risk Estimation Model for Pipelines, Tunnels, Underground Rapid Rail, and Transit Systems
    Elements of Risk Assessment
         Risk Estimation Development for Terrorism against Pipelines, Rails, and Tunnels
         Risk Estimation Development for Clandestine Fabrication and Transshipment of Weapons of Mass Destruction by Terrorists and Rebellious States to Endangering Homeland Security
    Event Tree Analysis
    Estimation of Risk and Risk Factors
         Calculation of Risk Rate
         Life Expectancy Models
    Fault Tree Analysis
         Example of Event Tree Analysis
    Identification of Hazards
    Terrorism Intrusion
    Flash Fire Probability
    Flash Fire: Ignition of Flammable Materials
    Detonation of Explosive Devices
    Large-Scale WMD Detonation
    Pipelines, Tunnels, Underground Rail, and Transit Systems Adjacent to Human Population
    Guideway Short Circuit
    Pipelines, Tunnels, Underground Rail, and Transit Systems Adjacent to Critical Assets
    Pipelines, Tunnels, Underground Rail, and Transit System Rupture
    Sensor Failure
    Mechanical and Electrical Failure
    Capsules, Underground Rail, and Transit System Derailment and Collision
    HAZMAT Freight Container and Pipeline Damage, Collapse, and Spill
    Risk Index Matrix
    Human Injury Risk

    Risk Acceptability Analysis Based on Quantitative Psychology of Intuitive Judgments
         Public Perception of Risk: Quantitative
    Psychology of Intuitive Judgment and Cumulative Prospect Theory
              Voluntary or Involuntary
              Discounting Time
              Identifiability of Taking a Statistical Risk
              Avoidability of Risks
              Position in Hierarchy of Consequence
              Ordinary or Catastrophic
              Natural or Man-Originated
              Magnitude of Probability of Occurrence
    Strategic Determination of Risk Acceptability
    Quantitative Revealed Societal Preference Method
         Behavior and Risk Attitude
         Establishing Risk Comparison Factors
         Controllability of Risks
         Perceived Degree of Control
         System Control in Risk Reduction
              Systemic Control of Risk
              Control Factors
         Controllability of New Technological Systems
         Cost–Benefit Analysis
         Prerequisites for Risk Acceptance of Terrorist Attacks and Disaster
              Requirement for a Methodology
    Establishing the Risk Referent
         Multiple Risk Referents
         Risk Proportionality Factor Derivation from Risk
         Risk Proportionality Derating Factors
         Degree of Systemic Control
         Conversion of a Risk Reference to a Risk Referent

    Strategic Intelligence Analysis, Military Support, and Military Intuitive Judgment in Safeguarding Pipelines, Tunnels, Underground Rail and Transit Operations and Homeland
    Intelligence Analysis
    Standard Intelligence Analysis Cycle
    Quantitative Risk Estimation for the Intelligence Analysis of Infrastructure Protection and WMD Mitigation
    Intelligence Analysis Development: Risk Estimation Models for Rail System Threat and Intuitive Predictions for the Smuggle of WMD Components and Clandestine Terror-Military Operations
    Intelligence Analysis: Event Tree Analysis Model
    Perspectives of Risk Acceptability in Strategic Intelligence Analysis
         Risk Estimation and Risk Acceptability
    Perspectives of Risk Acceptability Analysis for Pipelines, Tunnels, Underground Rail, and Transit Systems
    Military Intuitive Judgment and Decision-Making Process
         Command of the Armed Forces and the Chain of Command
         Understanding Military Operations
    Requirement of Military Support for Critical Infrastructure and Homeland Security
         Northern Command
         Department of Defense: Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Incident Response
              US Army Chemical Material Agency
              US Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command
              US Army—20th Support Command Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and High-Yield Explosives Analytical Remediation Activity
              US Army: 20th Support Command Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives
              Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical and Biological Defense
              National Guard Weapons of Mass Destruction: Civil Support Teams
              US Army Special Operations Command
         Posse Comitatus Act: USC Title 18, §1385
         Insurrection Act: USC Title 10, §331–335, Chapter 15
         Military Support to Civilian Authorities: USC Title 10, §371–382, Chapter 18
         Military Support: Maintenance of Other Troops: USC Title 32, §109, Chapter 1
         National Guard for Homeland Defense Duty: USC Title 32, §904, Chapter 9
         Response to Threats of Terrorist Use of Weapons of Mass Destruction: USC Title 50, §2311, Chapter 40
         Presidential Policy Directive 8
         Manual for Civil Emergencies: DoD3025.1M
         Military Support to Civilian Authorities: DoDD 3025.1
         Military Assistance to Civilian Authorities: DoDD 3025.15

    Preparedness, Preventive, and Defensive Measures
    National Response Framework
         Local Governments
              Roles of Chief Elected or Appointed Officials
              Roles of Emergency Managers
              Roles of Department and Agency Heads
               Roles of Individuals and Households
         States, Territories, and Tribal Governments
              Roles of the Governor
              Roles of the State Homeland Security Adviser
              Roles of the Director of the State Emergency Management Agency
              Roles of Other State Departments and Agencies
              Roles of Indian Tribes
              Roles of Tribal Leaders
         Federal Government
              Role of the Secretary of Homeland Security
              Law Enforcement
              National Defense and Defense Support of Civil Authorities
              International Coordination
              Private Sector and Nongovernmental Organizations
              Roles of Private Sector
              Roles of Nongovernmental Organizations
              Roles of Volunteers and Donors
    Emergency Preparedness
          Exercises, Evaluation, and Improvement
         Baseline Priorities
         Local, Tribal, and State Actions
         Federal Actions
         Operations Center
    Activate and Deploy Resources
    Proactive Response to Catastrophic Incidents
    Preventive and Defensive Measures
         Oil and Gas Pipeline Protection
         Road, Highway, and Rail Tunnel Protection
              Fire and Emergency Response
              Preventive Systems for Road and Highway Tunnels
              Preventive Measures for Terrorism
              Minimum Standard Preventive Measures
              High Standard Preventive Measures
         System Protection Interoperability for Road, Highway, and Rail Tunnels
              Emergency Responders and Operating Procedures
              Engineering and Salient Features of Technological Systems
    Mine Tunnels Hazard Prevention
         Lighting in Mine Tunnel
         Emergency Supply Facilities
         Thermal Stress
         Well-Being Monitoring
         Personal Safety Devices and Accessories
         Surface Area Boundary Planning and Design
         Hazard, Vulnerability, and Risk Management of Mine Tunnels
         Hazardous Substances
         Fire and Explosion
         Heating and Inundation
         Outburst and Rockburst
         Strata Control in Mine Tunnel
         Mine Tunnel Explosive Materials Handling
         Mine Tunnel Ventilation
         Mine Tunnel Ventilation System Planning
         Airways, Air Crossings, and Stoppings
         Mine Tunnel Emergency Response: Fire Control and General Emergency Systems
    Approaches for the Detection of Illegal Tunnels by Other Experts
         Ground-Penetrating Radar 
         Seismic Waves
         Electrical Resistivity
         Microgravity and Gravity Surveying
         Cosmic Rays
         Cross-Well Radar
         High-Resolution Seismic Methods
         Approach to the Tunnel Detection Agent-Based Model
         Electromagnetic Induction
         Tunnel Detection Using Forward Scatter between Borehole Signal Sources
         Fiber-Based Brillouin Optical Time Domain Reflectometry
    Approaches for the Detection of Land Mines and Improvised Explosive Devices by Other Experts
         Weapons Technological Intelligence
         Ultra-Wideband Microwave Technology
         Foot Patrols
         Lasers to Find Land Mines and IEDs
         Laser Drilling and Analyzing System
         Terahertz Quantum Cascade Lasers
         Dogs for IED Detectors
         Radio Signal
         Talon II Remote-Controlled Robot/Intelligent Robots
         Mine Clearing Line Charge
    Countering Nuclear and Radiological Threats
    Mother Nature and Intelligent-Improvised Explosive Devices to Defeat the Low-Tech IEDs, Land Mines, Other Hidden Weapons, and the Enemy
    Author’s Thoughts


    Anna M. Doro-on