Scaffolding Language Development in Immersion and Dual Language Classrooms: 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Scaffolding Language Development in Immersion and Dual Language Classrooms

1st Edition

By Diane J. Tedick, Roy Lyster


376 pages | 29 B/W Illus.

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This book introduces research-based pedagogical practices for supporting and enhancing language development and use in school-based immersion and dual language programs in which a second, foreign, heritage, or indigenous language is used as the medium of subject-matter instruction. Using counterbalanced instruction as the volume’s pedagogical framework, the authors map out the specific pedagogical skill set and knowledge base that teachers in immersion and dual language classrooms need so their students can engage with content taught through an additional language while continuing to improve their proficiency in that language. To illustrate key concepts and effective practices, the authors draw on classroom-based research and include teacher-created examples of classroom application. The following topics are covered in detail:

  • defining characteristics of immersion and dual language programs and features of well-implemented programs
  • strategies to promote language and content integration in curricular planning as well as classroom instruction and performance assessment
  • an instructional model to counterbalance form-focused and content-based instruction
  • scaffolding strategies that support students’ comprehension and production while ensuring continued language development
  • an approach to creating cross-linguistic connections through biliteracy instruction
  • a self-assessment tool for teachers to reflect on their pedagogical growth

Also applicable to CLIL and other forms of content-based language teaching, this comprehensive volume includes graphics to facilitate navigation and provides Resources for Readers and Application Activities at the end of each chapter.

The book will be a key resource for pre-service and in-service teachers, administrators, and teacher educators.


‘I would highly recommend this book to preservice and in-service K-12 teachers, other educators, and researchers interested in second language education. Tedick and Lyster provide a much-needed research-based presentation of pedagogical practices to enhance language development in dual language and immersion classrooms. Their clear definitions, specific strategies and instructional models, and self-assessment tools add a significant layer of depth to our understanding of how to teach two languages in dual language and immersion classrooms. This book provides important implications for program design, curriculum, and instructional practices in dual language and immersion programs to significantly improve language learning and teaching. Buy it today and use it tomorrow!’Kathryn Lindholm-Leary, Professor Emerita, Child and Adolescent Development, San Jose State University, USA

‘Tedick and Lyster have drawn on decades of research and experience to produce this remarkable book. The authors’ deep knowledge of classroom practices and their respect for teachers’ creativity and hard work are reflected on every page. From reviewing research findings to providing guidance for lesson planning and pedagogy, the book is comprehensive, original, and practical. It will become a foundational text for teacher education and professional development in immersion and dual language education.’Patsy Lightbown, Distinguished Professor Emerita, Education, Concordia University, Canada

Table of Contents



Chapter 1: From Goals and Outcomes to Program Models and Characteristics

Chapter 2: Characteristics of Well-Implemented ImDL Programs


Chapter 3: Counterbalanced Instruction: Its Rationale and Key Characteristics

Chapter 4: Contextualization, Awareness, Practice, and Autonomy (CAPA)


Chapter 5: Effective Scaffolding and Questioning Techniques

Chapter 6: Corrective Feedback


Chapter 7: Unit-Level Instructional Design for Content and Language Integrated Learning

Chapter 8: Module and Lesson Design for Content and Language Integrated Learning

Chapter 9: Scaffolding Biliteracy Development

Chapter 10: Performance Assessment



Appendix A: ImDL Unit Design Template Example

Appendix B: ImDL Module and Lesson Design Template Example

Appendix C: ImDL IPA Example

Appendix D: Self-Assessment Rubric for ImDL Teachers

Appendix E: Answer Keys


About the Authors

Diane J. Tedick is Professor of Second Language Education at the University of Minnesota. Her research interests include student language development in immersion classrooms, content-based language instruction, and immersion/dual language teacher education and professional development. She provides professional development experiences for immersion and bilingual teachers in the U.S. and internationally. She has co-edited two books on immersion, both published by Multilingual Matters: Pathways to Multilingualism: Evolving Perspectives on Immersion Education (2008) and Immersion Education: Practices, Policies, Possibilities (2011). She has twice received the U.S. Paul Pimsleur Award for Research in Foreign Language Education, in 2013 with co-recipient Laurent Cammarata, and in 2016 with Tara Fortune.

Roy Lyster is Professor Emeritus of Second Language Education at McGill University. His research examines content-based second language instruction and the effects of instructional interventions designed to counterbalance form-focused and content-based approaches. He was co-recipient with colleague Leila Ranta of the 1998 Paul Pimsleur Award for Research in Foreign Language Education and was presented the Robert Roy Award by the Canadian Association of Second Language Teachers in 2017. He is author of a module called Content-Based Language Teaching published by Routledge in 2018, and two books: Learning and Teaching Languages Through Content published by Benjamins in 2007 and Vers une approche intégrée en immersion published by Les Éditions CEC in 2016.

About the Series

Routledge Series in Language and Content Integrated Teaching & Plurilingual Education

This series is founded on the principle that research and practice in content-and-language integration must be conceived of as deeply embedded in pluriculturality and plurilingualism. Plurilingualism is the more recent theoretical term used to indicate the fluidity of plurilingual resources. Responding to the latest development in bilingual and multilingual education around the world, this series proposes a paradigmatic shift in research and pedagogy towards plurilingual education which aims at not only fostering learners’ plurilingual competences but also creating and affirming their plurilingual/pluricultural identities and subjectivities.

The Books in the Series fall under three key strands:

  • One key strand of CLIL research this book series seeks to illuminate is fundamental theoretical conceptualizations about CLIL. In doing this, it interplays with the trend of sociolinguistic studies burgeoning in the last decade represented by a series of cutting-edge works. This series also introduces the latest theoretical perspectives impacting research and pedagogies in plurilingual and CLIL education.
  • The second key strand of the book series emphasizes classroom application and pedagogical practice by expounding on the latest practice of content and language integration and experimentation with new approaches to CLIL, but always maintaining an explicit connection to the level of theory. Other examples of such design-based educational research will be included in the series.
  • Key strand number three, which is crucial and fundamental also to the previous strands, is the theme of CLIL teacher education which has often been pointed out as important but continues to be insufficiently researched. This strand of the book series invites readers to reflect on the essential concepts in CLIL teacher professional development including teacher PCK and teacher language awareness. A further issue is that of CLIL teacher identity and teacher language awareness, CLIL teacher education

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
EDUCATION / Bilingual Education
EDUCATION / Teaching Methods & Materials / Language Arts