Score reporting research is no longer limited to the psychometric properties of scores and subscores. Today, it encompasses design and evaluation for particular audiences, appropriate use of assessment outcomes, the utility and cognitive affordances of graphical representations, interactive report systems, and more. By studying how audiences understand the intended messages conveyed by score reports, researchers and industry professionals can develop more effective mechanisms for interpreting and using assessment data.
Score Reporting Research and Applications brings together experts who design and evaluate score reports in both K-12 and higher education contexts and who conduct foundational research in related areas. The first section covers foundational validity issues in the use and interpretation of test scores; design principles drawn from related areas including cognitive science, human-computer interaction, and data visualization; and research on presenting specific types of assessment information to various audiences. The second section presents real-world applications of score report design and evaluation and of the presentation of assessment information. Across ten chapters, this volume offers a comprehensive overview of new techniques and possibilities in score reporting.
Table of Contents
List of Contributors. Foreword, Irvin R. Katz. Acknowledgments. Introduction: Why Is Score Reporting Relevant? Diego Zapata-Rivera I. Foundational Work 1. Validity Aspects of Score Reporting, Richard J. Tannenbaum 2. Advances in Cognitive Science and Information Visualization, Mary Hegarty 3. Subscores: When to Communicate Them, What Are Their Alternatives, and Some Recommendations, Sandip Sinharay, Gautam Puhan, Shelby J. Haberman, and Ronald K. Hambleton 4. Reporting Student Growth: Challenges and Opportunities, April L. Zenisky, Lisa A. Keller, and Yooyoung Park 5. Communicating Measurement Error Information to Teachers and Parents, Diego Zapata-Rivera, Priya Kannan, and Rebecca Zwick II. Practical Applications 6. Score Reporting Issues for Licensure, Certification, and Admissions Programs, Francis O’Donnell and Stephen G. Sireci 7. Score Reports for Large-scale Testing Programs: Managing the Design Process, Sharon Slater, Samuel A. Livingston, and Marc Silver 8. Effective Reporting for Formative Assessment: The asTTle Case Example, Gavin T. L. Brown, Timothy M. O’Leary, and John A. C. Hattie 9. Applying Learning Analytics to Support Instruction, Mingyu Feng, Andrew Krumm, and Shuchi Grover 10. Evaluating Students’ Interpretation of Feedback in Interactive Dashboards, Linda Corrin
Diego Zapata-Rivera is Principal Research Scientist in the Cognitive and Technology Sciences Center at Educational Testing Service, USA. He is a member of the Editorial Board of User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction and Associate Editor of IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies.
"For tests to be used most effectively, there must be a dialog between those who develop and administer tests and those who use the test scores to substantiate claims. Score reports are one-half of this dialog—missives from the former to the latter. Score Reporting Research and Applications is a must-read compendium of the challenges faced by those who prepare such reports and of practical solutions to those challenges. This volume leaves us ready to begin the second half of the conversation: how developers can improve tests by responding to users’ needs."
—Howard Wainer, statistician and author of Truth or Truthiness: Distinguishing Fact from Fiction by Learning to Think Like a Data Scientist