Sediment and Contaminant Transport in Surface Waters  book cover
1st Edition

Sediment and Contaminant Transport in Surface Waters

ISBN 9781420059878
Published September 18, 2008 by CRC Press
416 Pages 174 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Contaminated bottom sediments and their negative impacts on water quality are a major problem in surface waters throughout the United States as well as in many other parts of the world. Even after elimination of the primary contaminant sources, these bottom sediments will be a main source of contaminants for many years to come. In order to determine environmentally-effective and cost-effective remedial actions, the transport and fate of these sediments and associated contaminants must be understood and quantified. This book details how to best approach contaminated sediments, allowing readers to better assess and address water quality and health issues, water body management, and potential remediation methods.

Understand and Address Major Environmental Threats to Our Water

Sediment and contaminant transport is an enormously rich and complex field that involves physical, chemical, and biological processes as well as the mathematical modeling of these processes. While many books have been written on these broad topics, Sediment and Contaminant Transport in Surface Waters takes a more focused approach, highlighting areas that have been investigated but not covered thoroughly elsewhere.

This volume emphasizes the erosion, deposition, flocculation, and transport of fine-grained, cohesive sediments; the effects of finite rates of sorption on the transport and fate of hydrophobic contaminants; and the effects of major events such as floods and storms. Despite these emphases, the overall goal of the text is to present a general description and understanding of the transport of sediments and contaminants in surface waters as well as procedures to quantitatively predict this transport.


Table of Contents


Examples of Contaminated Sediment Sites

Hudson River

Lower Fox River

Passaic River/Newark Bay

Palos Verdes Shelf

Modeling, Parameterization, and Non-Unique Solutions


Parameterization and Non-Unique Solutions

The Importance of Big Events

Overview of Book

General Properties of Sediments

Particle Sizes

Classification of Sizes

Measurements of Particle Size

Size Distributions

Variations in Size of Natural Sediments throughout a System

Settling Speeds


Flocculation of Suspended Sediments

Bulk Densities of Bottom Sediments

Measurements of Bulk Density

Variations in Bulk Density

Sediment Erosion

Devices for Measuring Sediment Resuspension/Erosion

Annular Flumes

The Shaker


A Comparison of Devices

Results of Field Measurements

Detroit River

Kalamazoo River

Effects of Bulk Properties on Erosion Rates

Bulk Density

Particle Size


Organic Content



Comparison of Erosion Rates

Benthic Organisms and Bacteria

Initiation of Motion and a Critical Shear Stress for Erosion

Theoretical Analysis for Noncohesive Particles

Effects of Cohesive Forces

Effects of Bulk Density

Effects of Clay Minerals

Approximate Equations for Erosion Rates

Cohesive Sediments

Noncohesive Sediments

A Uniformly Valid Equation

Effects of Clay Minerals

Effects of Surface Slope

Noncohesive Sediments

Critical Stresses for Cohesive Sediments

Experimental Results for Cohesive Sediments

Flocculation, Settling, Deposition, and Consolidation

Basic Theory of Aggregation

Collision Frequency

Particle Interactions

Results of Flocculation Experiments

Flocculation due to Fluid Shear

Flocculation due to Differential Settling

Settling Speeds of Flocs

Flocs Produced in a Couette Flocculator

Flocs Produced in a Disk Flocculator

An Approximate and Uniformly Valid Equation for the Settling Speed of a Floc

Models of Flocculation

General Formulation and Model

A Simple Model

A Very Simple Model

An Alternate Derivation

Fractal Theory


Processes and Parameters That Affect Deposition

Fluid Turbulence

Particle Dynamics

Particle Size Distribution


Bed Armoring/Consolidation

Partial Coverage of Previously Deposited Sediments by Recently Deposited Sediments

Experimental Results and Analyses

Implications for Modeling Deposition


Experimental Results

Basic Theory of Consolidation

Consolidation Theory Including Gas

Appendix A

Appendix B

Hydrodynamic Modeling

General Considerations in the Modeling of Currents

Basic Equations and Boundary Conditions

Eddy Coefficients

Bottom Shear Stress

Effects of Currents

Effects of Waves and Currents

Wind Stress

Sigma Coordinates

Numerical Stability

Two-Dimensional, Vertically Integrated, Time-Dependent Models

Basic Equations and Approximations

The Lower Fox River

Wind-Driven Currents in Lake Erie

Two-Dimensional, Horizontally Integrated, Time-Dependent Models

Basic Equations and Approximations

Time-Dependent Thermal Stratification in Lake Erie

Three-Dimensional, Time-Dependent Models

Lower Duwamish Waterway

Numerical Error Due to Use of Sigma Coordinates

Model of Currents and Salinities

Flow around Partially Submerged Cylindrical Bridge Piers

Wave Action

Wave Generation

Lake Erie

A Southwest Wind

A North Wind

Relation of Wave Action to Sediment Texture

Modeling Sediment Transport

Overview of Models


Quantities That Significantly Affect Sediment Transport

Erosion Rates

Particle/Floc Size Distributions

Settling Speeds

Deposition Rates

Flocculation of Particles


Erosion into Suspended Load and/or Bedload

Bed Armoring

Transport as Suspended Load and Bedload

Suspended Load


Erosion into Suspended Load and/or Bedload

Bed Armoring

Simple Applications

Transport and Coarsening in a Straight Channel

Transport in an Expansion Region

Transport in a Curved Channel

The Vertical Transport and Distribution of Flocs


Sediment Transport in the Lower Fox River

Model Parameters

A Time-Varying Flow

Upstream Boundary Condition for Sediment Concentration

Use of Sedflume Data in Modeling Erosion Rates

Effects of Grid Size

Sediment Transport in the Saginaw River

Sediment Transport during Spring Runoff

Long-Term Sediment Transport Predictions

Lakes and Bays

Modeling Big Events in Lake Erie

Transport due to Uniform Winds

The 1940 Armistice Day Storm


Comparison of Sediment Transport Models for Green Bay

Formation of a Turbidity Maximum in an Estuary

Numerical Model and Transport Parameters

Numerical Calculations

A Constant-Depth, Steady-State Flow

A Variable-Depth, Steady-State Flow

A Variable-Depth, Time-Dependent Tidal Flow

The Sorption and Partitioning of Hydrophobic Organic


Experimental Results and Analyses

Basic Experiments

Parameters That Affect Steady-State Sorption and Partitioning

Colloids from the Sediments

Colloids from the Water

Organic Content of Sediments

Sorption to Benthic Organisms and Bacteria

Nonlinear Isotherms

Modeling the Dynamics of Sorption

A Diffusion Model

A Simple and Computationally Efficient Model

Calculations with the General Model and Comparisons with Experimental Results



Short-Term Adsorption Followed by Desorption

Effects of Chemical Properties on Adsorption

Modeling the Transport and Fate of Hydrophobic Chemicals

Effects of Erosion/Deposition and Transport

The Saginaw River

Green Bay, Effects of Finite Sorption Rates

The Diffusion Approximation for the Sediment-Water Flux

Simple, or Fickian, Diffusion

Sorption Equilibrium

A Mass Transfer Approximation

The Sediment-Water Flux due to Molecular Diffusion

Hexachlorobenzene (HCB)


Theoretical Models

Diffusion of Tritiated Water

HCB Diffusion and Sorption

Additional HOCs

Experimental Results

Theoretical Model

Numerical Calculations

Long-Term Sediment-Water Fluxes

Related Problems

Flux from Contaminated Bottom Sediments to Clean Overlying Water

Flux Due to a Contaminant Spill

The Sediment-Water Flux Due to Bioturbation

Physical Mixing of Sediments by Organisms

The Flux of an HOC Due to Organisms

Experimental Procedures

Theoretical Model

Experimental and Modeling Results

Modeling Bioturbation as a Diffusion with Finite-Rate Sorption Process

The Sediment-Water Flux Due to "Diffusion"

The Flux and the Formation of Sediment Layers Due to Erosion/Deposition

Comparison of "Diffusive" Fluxes and Decay Times

Observations of Well-Mixed Layers

The Determination of an Effective h

Environmental Dredging: A Study of Contaminant Release and Transport

Transport of Dredged Particles

Transport and Desorption of Chemical Initially Sorbed to Dredged Particles

Diffusive Release of Contaminant from the Residual Layers


Water Quality Modeling, Parameterization, and Non-Unique Solutions

Process Models

Sediment Erosion

Sediment Deposition

Bed Armoring

The Sediment-Water Flux of HOCs Due to "Diffusion"

Equilibrium Partitioning

Numerical Grid

Parameterization and Non-Unique Solutions

Implications for Water Quality Modeling




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