Skill Acquisition and Training: Achieving Expertise in Simple and Complex Tasks (Paperback) book cover

Skill Acquisition and Training

Achieving Expertise in Simple and Complex Tasks

By Addie Johnson, Robert W. Proctor

© 2017 – Routledge (Textbook (Standard) (DRM-Free))

378 pages

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Description

Skill Acquisition and Training describes the building blocks of cognitive, motor, and teamwork skills, and the factors to take into account in training them. The basic processes of perception, cognition and action that provide the foundation for understanding skilled performance are discussed in the context of complex task requirements, individual differences, and extreme environmental demands. The role of attention in perceiving, selecting, and becoming aware of information, in learning new information, and in performance is described in the context of specific skills.

A theme throughout this book is that much learning is implicit; the types of knowledge and relations that can profitably be learned implicitly and the conditions under which this learning benefits performance are discussed. The question of whether skill acquisition in cognitive domains shares underlying mechanisms with the acquisition of perceptual and motor skills is also addressed with a view to identifying commonalities that allow for widely applicable, general theories of skill acquisition. Because the complexity of real-world environments puts demands on the individual to adapt to new circumstances, the question of how skills research can be applied to organizational training contexts is an important one. To address this, this book dedicates much content to practical applications, covering such issues as how training needs can be captured with task and job analyses and how to maximize training transfer by taking trainee self-efficacy and goal orientation into account.

This comprehensive yet readable textbook is optimized for students of cognitive psychology looking to understand the intricacies of skill acquisition.

Reviews

A book on skill acquisition and training should be written with great skill. This one is. It is a comprehensive, up-to-date rewrite of an earlier classic by the same authors. I recommend it highly.

-David A. Rosenbaum, Distinguished Professor of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, USA

This book by leading experts provides a superlative, up-to-date, and lucid summary of research on skill acquisition and training. Along with insightful consideration of general theories and empirical findings, the book offers astute advice concerning training in the real world.

-Alice F. Healy, College Professor of Distinction, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA

This is the most complete and thorough book I’ve read on skill acquisition and training. It successfully links basic processes such as perception, attention, and action to the acquisition of specialized skills and the development of training systems.

-Jeroen J. G. van Merrienboer, Professor of Learning and Instruction, Maastricht University, the Netherlands

Table of Contents

Skill Acquisition and Training

PREFACE

Chapter 1: Skill Acquisition and Training in Context

Historical Overview of Skills Research

Early Studies of Skill Acquisition

Transfer of Learning

Skilled Action

Information-Processing Approach to Skill Acquisition

Phases of Skill Acquisition

Quantifying Performance Changes

Performance Measures

Verbal Protocol Analysis

Psychophysiological and Neuropsychological Measures

Modeling Skill

Applications of Skills Research

Summary

Chapter 2: Perceptual Learning

Mechanisms of Perceptual Learning

Attention Weighting

Stimulus Imprinting

Differentiation

Perceptual Unitization

Facilitating the Development of Perceptual Skill

Visual Search

Procedural Learning

Adaptive Perception

Summary

Chapter 3: Response Selection and Motor Skill

Response-Selection Skill

Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff

Set-Size Effects and Uncertainty

Stimulus-Response Compatibility Effects

Sequential Effects

Motor Learning

Motor Programming Perspective

Dynamic Systems Approach

Problems of Movement Control

Factors Influencing Motor Skill Acquisition

Feedback

Schedules of Practice

Summary

Chapter 4: Attention and Skill

Conceptualizing Attention

Attentional Bottlenecks

Attentional Resources

The Psychological Refractory Period Effect

Specificity of Training and Multiple Resources

Attention and Automaticity

Attentional Skill

Timesharing Skill

Enhancing Attention through Training

Intelligence and Cognitive Control

Mind Wandering and Executive Attention

Implicit Learning

Summary

Chapter 5: Cognitive Skill and Instruction

Problem-solving Skill

The Problem Space

Metacognitive Skill

Learning from Examples

Learning and Remembering

Acquiring Knowledge

Second Language Learning

Schemas for Remembering

Learning by Analogy

The Einstellung (Mental-set) Effect

Facilitating the Acquisition of Cognitive Skill

Structuring Practice

Spacing Practice Trials

The Testing Effect

Feedback

Overlearning

User Models and Intelligent Tutors

Summary

Chapter 6: Expertise

The Investigation of Expertise

Understanding Expert Knowledge

Acquisition of Expert Performance

General Characteristics of Experts

Expertise in Three Specific Domains

Interpreting Medical Images

Computer Software Design and Programming

Expert Typing

Skilled Memory Theory

Summary

Chapter 7: Why Errors Occur and their Contributions to Learning

Errors and Action Control

Initiating and Maintaining Action Plans

Effects of Making Errors on Learning

Learning from Errors

Learning from Post-event Reviews

Performance Monitoring

Prediction Error and Learning

Repeating Errors Made During Training

Error Orientation

Summary

Chapter 8: Individual Differences in Skill Acquisition and Maintenance

Intelligence and Aptitudes

Cognitive and Neural Correlates Approaches

Cognitive Components Approach

Aptitude-Treatment Interactions

Task Analysis Based on Individual Difference Variables

Dynamic Accounts of Abilities and Skill

Ackerman’s Modified Radex Model

Norman and Shallice’s Levels of Action Control

Problems of Interpretation in Understanding the Relation between Abilities and Skill Level

Individual Differences in Reading Skill

Skill and Aging

Summary

Chapter 9: Situational Influences on Skilled Performance

Arousal and Performance

Theories Based on General Arousal and the Yerkes-Dodson Law

Arguments Against "General Arousal" and the Yerkes-Dodson Law

Circadian Rhythms

Body Temperature and Performance

Memory and Cognitive Tasks

Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff

Adaptation

Individual Differences

Sleep Deprivation and Fatigue

Stressful Physical Environments

Effects of Noise

Effects of Extreme Temperatures

Drug Use and Performance

Effects of Caffeine

Effects of Nicotine

Effects of Alcohol

Summary

Chapter 10: Designing Effective Training Systems

Assessing Training Requirements

Structuring Training

Simulator Training

Team Training

Crew Resource Management

Implementing and Evaluating Training in Organizations

Transfer Climate

Continuous Learning

Trainee Characteristics

Self-efficacy

Goal Orientation

Transfer Motivation

Evaluating Training Effectiveness

Maximizing the Benefits of Training

National Culture and Training

Summary

About the Authors

Addie Johnson is Professor of Human Performance and Ergonomics at the University of Groningen. She is co-author, with Robert Proctor, of Attention: Theory and Practice, and Neuroergonomics: A Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to Human Factors and Ergonomics. Her research focuses on the intersection of memory and attention.

Robert W. Proctor is Distinguished Professor of Psychological Sciences at Purdue University. In addition to the books with Addie Johnson, he is co-author, with Trisha Van Zandt, of Human Factors in Simple and Complex Systems (2nd ed.) and, with Kim-Phuong L. Vu, of Stimulus-Response Compatibility Principles: Data, Theory, and Application. His research focuses on basic and applied aspects of human performance.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
BUS024000
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Education
BUS059000
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Skills
PSY003000
PSYCHOLOGY / Applied Psychology
PSY008000
PSYCHOLOGY / Cognitive Psychology
PSY012000
PSYCHOLOGY / Education & Training
PSY021000
PSYCHOLOGY / Industrial & Organizational Psychology