1st Edition

Structures and Architecture - Bridging the Gap and Crossing Borders Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Structures and Architecture (ICSA 2019), July 24-26, 2019, Lisbon, Portugal

Edited By Paulo J.S. Cruz Copyright 2019

    Structures and Architecture – Bridging the Gap and Crossing Borders contains the lectures and papers presented at the Fourth International Conference on Structures and Architecture (ICSA2019) that was held in Lisbon, Portugal, in July 2019. It also contains a multimedia device with the full texts of the lectures presented at the conference, including the 5 keynote lectures, and almost 150 selected contributions.

    The contributions on creative and scientific aspects in the conception and construction of structures, on advanced technologies and on complex architectural and structural applications represent a fine blend of scientific, technical and practical novelties in both fields.

    ICSA2019 covered all major aspects of structures and architecture, including: building envelopes/façades; comprehension of complex forms; computer and experimental methods; futuristic structures; concrete and masonry structures; educating architects and structural engineers; emerging technologies; glass structures; innovative architectural and structural design; lightweight and membrane structures; special structures; steel and composite structures; structural design challenges; tall buildings; the borderline between architecture and structural engineering; the history of the relationship between architects and structural engineers; the tectonic of architectural solutions; the use of new materials; timber structures, among others.

    This set of book and multimedia device is intended for a global readership of researchers and practitioners, including architects, structural and construction engineers, builders and building consultants, constructors, material suppliers and product manufacturers, and other professionals involved in the design and realization of architectural, structural and infrastructural projects.

    Keynote Lectures

    Design for durability                                                                              
    F. Branco

    Builders of ephemeral monumental constructions in cardboard                                        
    O. Grossetête

    Tectonic ecologies in architecture – A critical perspective in a time of transition                
    A. Beim

    Architects + engineers: A very creative and productive collaboration                               
    H. Corres, J. León & L. Todisco

    Design for future: A new way of storytelling on footbridge                                         
    L. Ren & X. Ruan

    Technical Contributions

    Circular Tectonics: Towards ecological continuity, -means, -relations, strategies and -innovation in architectural practice

    Circular Tectonics? – A critical discussion of how the architectural discipline can drive ecological continuity
    M.F. Hvejsel & A. Beim

    Connecting ends with beginnings – Conceptual framework for a circular art of tectonics             
    J. Holst

    The compatibility of architecture and circular economy                                             
    H. Ejstrup & P. Munch-Petersen

    Dialectical Tectonics – Ontology and tectonic ecology of form, material and form without material 
    K. Usto

    Sustainable building renovation: Towards a holistic tectonics thinking framework in sustainable transformation of the built environment by (through) renovation
    A. Kamari & P.H. Kirkegaard

    Isolating the tectonics of insulation                                                              
    H. Ejstrup

    A tectonic approach to energy renovation of dwellings – The case of Gellerup                       
    S.R. Jensen, P.H. Kirkegaard, G. Postiglione & A. Strange

    Transformation of architectural heritage through adaptive modular systems                          
    J. Buthke, S.O.Pedersen, N.M. Larsen & C. Bundgaard

    Building circular economy – Strategies for decoupling in architectural practice                    
    L.K. Frederiksen & P. Munch-Petersen

    Invisible tectonics: Nano materials, chemical synthesis, and human health                          
    F. Trubiano

    Beautiful tectonics – Corporeal aesthetic in tectonics as sustainable parameter                    
    N.B. Andersen

    The presence of timber – Oral history versus architectural theory                                  
    U. Groba

    Circular tectonics, users, and local culture                                                       
    J. Johansson

    Tectonic learning ecologies: Elements for a circular architecture pedagogy in the work of Fernando Távora
    M.F. Hvejsel

    Special Sessions

    Wood: Structure and expression
    Crafting Spatiality: Explorations with components and connections for spatial architectural structures

    A Universe of Wood Joinery                                                                         
    M. Spaan

    Tectonic in the education                                                                          
    C. Rist-Stadelmann

    Connected Knowledge                                                                                
    B.O. Braaten, J. Siem & A. Gilberg

    Full-scale wood architecture as educational tool                                                   
    J. Siem, B.O. Braaten & A. Gilberg

    Optimization and shaping of indeterminate frame structures                                         
    P. Mayencourt & C.T. Mueller

    The aspect of craftmanship: Innovation and Expression                                              
    U. Meister

    Bending-active kit-of-parts systems: Uniformity generating complexity                              
    S. Brancart, N. De Temmerman, L. De Laet & O. Popovic-Larsen

    Exploration of spatial structures made from reused elements and the design of optimal kits-of-parts
    J. Brütting, C. Fivet & G. Senatore

    Rotational stiffness in timber joinery connections: Analytical and experimental characterizations of the Nuki joint
    D.L. Fang, C.T. Mueller, J. Brütting, C. Fivet & J. Moradei

    A Tectonic methodology for timber joints. The excellence of detail in the era of technology        
    throughout an experimental investigation
    L. Catalá Bustos, P. H. Kirkegaard, P.F. Sonne-Frederiksen & J. Buthke

    General Contributions
    Building envelopes

    Strategies for the refurbishment of heritage-listed post-war facades                               
    I. Sörensen & F. Mähl

    Wrapping up and weaving buildings: Handcrafted techniques in contemporary architecture
    I. Curiel Peraza

    A hybrid adaptive composite based auxiliary envelope                                               
    I.W. Foged, A. Pasold & T. Pelosini

    Structural adhesive connections for building façade applications 
    K.V. Machalická, M. Vokáč, M. Zikmundová & M. Eliášová

    Good looking and safe: “Heavy” façades in seismic zones
    M. Roik

    Energy efficiency study applied on a monumental building                                           
    D. Bocan, C. Bocan & A. Keller

    Fastening technology as an interface and integration element of architectural, structural, and building engineering
    P. Spyridis

    Comprehension of complex forms

    Complex geometries of environmentally sensitive Forms                                              
    M.G. Fineout

    Multi-dimensional form finding: Structure, construction and sustainability                         
    D. Parigi & L. Damkilde

    Computer and experimental methods

    Conceptual design in the years of the numerical revolution: Risks and perspectives                 
    L. Kubiak & L. Sgambi

    Self-supporting ceramic wall system: Challenges of additive manufacturing of architectural ceramic components
    J. Moreira, L. Ferreira, B. Figueiredo, P.J.S. Cruz, A.M. Sampaio, R. Gonçalves & A.J. Pontes

    Design exploration of architectural geometries and structural performance for sports arenas based on SOM-clustering and structural performance simulation
    W. Pan, Y. Sun, M. Turrin, C. Louter & I. S. Sariyildiz

    Experimental dynamic behavior of an of an historical thin shell structure in concrete: The Paraboloide of Casale Monferrato
    E. Lenticchia, R. Ceravolo & S. Invernizzi

    Concept architectural buildings

    Materials science, spanning the divide between architecture and structural engineering             
    F.A. Veer, L. van Ellen & M. Nazari

    Digital fascinations versus constructed reality: Towards achieving excellence in execution, a practical approach
    T.M. Boake

    Concrete and masonry structures

    Concrete masonry units: Innovation design strategies through architecture and building technology integration
    C. Manrique, D. Armpriest, S. He & G. Florenca

    Rehabilitation of trumpeters’ Tower of the Saint Margaret Evangelical Church of Medias             
    V. Ungureanu, M. Georgescu & L. Gligor

    A Platform of design strategies for the optimization of concrete floor systems in India            
    M.A. Ismail & C.T. Mueller

    A prototype for precast covers. An optimal solution by Torroja                                     
    J. Antuña & B. Orta

    Research into the response of segmental masonry barrel vaults to dynamic loading effects           
    J. Witzany, R. Zigler, T. Čejka, J. Karas, J. Kubát, M. Pirner & S. Urushadze

    The Sorolla Institute of Valencia (Spain). A project by J.R. Azpiazu                               
    E. Fenollosa, I. Cabrera & B. Serrano

    Masonry tectonics: Craft, labor, & structural innovation in architectural education                
    F. Trubiano, J. Dessi-Olive & R. Gentry

    Educating architects and structural engineers

    It’s all structural: Teaching construction logic with parametric modeling                          
    A.C. Harfmann

    Draw first, ask questions later: The value of manual sketching in elementary architectural structures education
    D.J. Oakley

    Structures and architecture integration in a best use of wood design competition studio            
    D. Armpriest & C. Manrique

    SIXXIGames: Serious games to educate young architects and structural engineers                     
    T. Iori, I. Giannetti & G. Capurso

    Experience-based learning in construction education. Testing the effectiveness of the product-oriented learning situation
    I. Vrouwe & L. Luyten

    MERGE: Exploring new paradigms for educating architects, engineers and builders                    
    J. Kansler & J. Doerfler

    The structural depth of the masonry antidome and ambidome                                          
    L. Luyten & E. Jannasch

    From abstract construction to community integration                                                
    L.H. Hansen

    Integrating design science and systems thinking for active learning                                
    M.M. Laboy

    Teaching reflection: The unrealized potential of log construction                                  
    J.X. Zhu, P. Ghelichi & R.S. Diedering

    Parametric design and analysis of building structures in the Architecture School of A Coruña       
    J. Vázquez-Rodríguez, D. Otero-Chans, J. Estévez-Cimadevila, E. Martín-Gutiérrez & F. Suarez-Riestra

    Structural integrity and functionality of form; exploring relations of load-bearing elements and architectural form in the education of engineers
    A. Rønnquist, B. Manum & N. Labonnote

    Transforming structure: The metaphorical construction process and structural design                
    E.V. Ellis & D.A. Kratzer

    Teaching construction thinking in architecture through materiality and craftsmanship               
    M. Rinke

    Adaptation of a monument building for accessibility of disabled persons, a case study              
    C. Bocan, D. Bocan & A. Keller

    Timber tectonics in the digital age: Interdisciplinary learning for data-driven wood architecture  
    M. Riggio & N.Y. Cheng

    Research initiatives: Structural application into design process                                   
    M. Callahan, S. Shadravan & Y. Obasade

    Aspects of the integral teaching of structures and architectural design                            
    M. Blenkuš & T. Krušec

    Advanced structural integration collaboratory model for architecture students                      
    T. Fowler & S. Rihal

    Education on structural glass design: Redefining glass through the design of innovative, full-glass  structures
    F. Oikonomopoulou, T. Bristogianni, C. Louter, F.A. Veer & R. Nijsse

    Exploring experimental methods on teaching structures for architects: first results of a new course at FAUP
    E. Brito & R.F. Póvoas

    Glass structures

    Performance of the compressed pillar made of solid glass bricks in comparison with other materials
    J. Fíla, M. Eliášová & Z. Sokol

    Current analytical computational methods of laminated glass panels in comparison to FEM simulation
    T. Hána, K. V. Machalická, M. Vokáč & M. Eliášová

    On configuration and structural design of frameless glass structures                               
    P.-S. Chen & M.-T. Tsai

    Performance of glass brick wall exposed to fire                                                    
    Z. Sokol & M. Eliášová

    Innovative architectural and structural design

    Housing experiments of the 1920s fuelling innovation. The multicellular construction system       
    A. Cel Mare

    Modularity in architectural design: Lessons from a housing case                                    
    A.L. Correia, L. Simões da Silva &V. Murtinho

    Shape of arch – Is it important?                                                                   
    E. Järvenpää, A.H. Niemi & J. Tervaoja

    Prefabricated ultracompact module for steel framed structures                                      
    F. Suárez-Riestra & J. Estévez-Cimadevila

    Non-cartesian geometry through hybrid workflows                                                    
    Y. Zavoleas

    Dynamic shelter structure                                                                          
    F. Maden, D. Ölmez, Ş. Gür, M.Y. Uncu & C. Mitropoulou

    Configuration and mechanical characteristics of 1.5-Layer Space Frames                             
    P.-S. Chen

    Innovative daylight structures for airport terminal and concourse buildings 
    W. Place, M. Salamati & J. Hu

    Deployable structures of reciprocal crossed arches                                                 
    M. Muñoz-Vidal, I. López-César, J. Pérez-Valcárcel & F. Suárez-Riestra

    Innovative bridges over Bega                                                                       
    L. Toduți, E. Meteș, E. Petzek, M. Toduți, G. Ispășoiu & B. Zaha

    Flex Skin: Developing a material system based on interlocking wooden panels                        
    F. Fotouhi, M. Hudert, G. Kayo & T. Kotnik

    Structural innovation in the architecture of Thomas Jefferson                                      
    H. Rodríguez-Camilloni

    Lightweight and membrane structures

    Inflatable structures and digital fabrication                                                      
    O. Iuorio & H.S. Matharou

    Deployable structures with straight bars: Design, manufacturing and assembly                       
    O.F. Avellaneda Lopez


    The performance standard - NBR 15575 and the architectural and structural designs                  
    M.A.S. Hippert & O.C. Longo

    A case study of structural monitoring as a control tool in the restoration process of heritage structures: The strengthening of the Vistabella Church’s Tower
    R. Señís

    Modular housing for situations of humanitarian catastrophe                                         
    J. Aragón Fitera, S. Muñiz Gómez, V. Hermo Sanchez, E. Mosquera Rey & A. Casal-Rodríguez

    Special structures

    Parametric description of the movement of reciprocal transformable geometry surfaces, for adaptive environment materialization
    C. Martínez Arias & J. Anaya Díaz

    Drie Fonteinen Bridge Brussels-Charleroi: Lessons learnt form a multidisciplinary design process in a digital design era
    J.E.P. Smits & A.F. Blankenspoor

    Expandable bar structures for emergency situations                                                 
    J. Pérez-Valcárcel, M. Muñoz-Vidal, M. Freire-Tellado, D. Gómez-Magide & A. Casal-Rodríguez

    Scale effect and load-bearing behavior of a reconfigurable hybrid structure                        
    M. Matheou, M.C. Phocas & E.G. Christoforou

    Morphological investigation of a tensegrity helicoid for display during the 2018 Biennale-Architecture in Venice
    K.A. Liapi, A. Papantoniou & A. Ioannidi

    Steel and composite structures

    Symbol and technique of steel domes in Italy                                                       
    R. Morganti, A. Tosone, M. Abita & D. Di Donato

    Structural aluminium in architecture – The history and future of aluminium as a strutural material
    S.H. Dyvik, B. Manum, J. H. Mork & M. Luczkowski

    Structural design challenges

    The ephemeral robustness: Structure for temporary constructions                                    
    A. Bernabeu-Larena, J. Gómez-Mateo & J. Bernabeu-Larena

    From repetition to chaos: Complex fabrications in contemporary steel structures                    
    T. M. Boake

    Structural comparison of scissor-hinge linkages                                                    
    F. Maden, Y. Akgün, K. Yücetürk, E. Aktaş, M.Y. Uncu & C. Mitropoulou

    Tall buildings

    High-rise building modelling: Numerical and analytical approaches                                  
    L. Sgambi & B. Sato

    Towards a design framework for the structural systems of tall buildings that considers embodied greenhouse gas emissions
    J. Helal, A. Stephan & R.H. Crawford

    Design-to-live or Design-to-build? The impact of delegated design responsibility in Melbourne’s high-rise residential buildings
    G. Marfella & A. Martel

    From form-finding to space-making in high-rise designs                                             
    C. Bañón

    The borderline between architecture and structural engineering

    Historic timber roof structures: Value and influence on the seismic behavior of heritage buildings
    A. Keller & M. Mosoarca

    From AgwA to Oversize: From design practice to a pedagogic and research project                    
    B. Burquel, H. Fallon & B. Vandenbulcke

    Multi-criterial vulnerability assessment for Timisoara city, Romania                               
    I. Onescu, E. Onescu & M. Mosoarca

    Task of reinforced concrete in Central European sacral architecture of Roman Catholic church     
    E. Svintekova (Vertatova)

    Partnering without boundaries: Integrating structures, architecture, practice, and education       
    K. Dong & T. Fowler

    From architectural competition to built reality: Predictable failures and serendipitous successes  
    J. Rey-Rey

    Assessing architectural heritage: Identifying and evaluating heritage values for masonry and cast-iron buildings and structures
    S. Eberhardt & M. Pospíšil

    The history of the relationship between architects and structural engineers

    The 1935 Portuguese reinforced concrete code: Background, sources and authors                      
    J.P. Delgado, R.J.G. Ramos & P. Tormenta Pinto

    Steel visions. Fiorini’s “mechanical architectures”                                                
    R. Morganti, A. Tosone, M. Abita & D. Di Donato

    The engineer Emílio H. Baumgart and the Brazilian architecture in reinforced concrete of the first
    half of the twentieth-century
    J.M.M. Sánchez & R.P. da Fonseca

    Walter Gropius & Ove Arup: Collaboration, ‘total design’ & the ‘composite mind’                    
    F. Trubiano

    Arne Johnson’s material research introducing steel frame building in postwar Sweden                
    F. Rosenberg

    The original palaces of Brasília: Architectural composition and structural engineering            
    E.G. da Silva & J.M.M. Sánchez

    The tectonic of architectural solutions

    The construction of the Porto School                                                               
    E. Fernandes

    The tectonic structures of Sverre Fehn                                                             
    J.J. Ferrer Forés

    Temporal reciprocities of building and site: Structural patterns for resilient future-use structures   
    M.M. Laboy

    Low impact spans: Toward emission-based structural optimization                                    
    M. Mayer & L. Echevarría

    1956. American background in Spanish Experimental Housing                                          
    N. Cervero Sánchez

    A new approach to the concept of tectonics                                                         
    N.S. Yordanova

    Fake Structures – Real Architecture? From the Parthenon in Athens, Greece to the Parthenon of banned books in Kassel, Germany
    A.-C. Schultz

    Computational optimization in architectural design and constructive issues. A case study: The canopy of a waste collection center
    P. Trovalusci & R. Panei

    The use of new materials

    Mycelium-based materials at the dawn of the Anthropocene                                           
    E. Elsacker, E. Peeters & L. De Laet

    Use and challenges of new concretes in the 21st century                                            
    G. Rodríguez de Sensale, V. De Lima, J. Borgno & A. Luisi

    Experimental design and building of a cable reinforced plastic brick arch                          
    M. Schneider, S. Tripod, L.T. Houdmont & J.Belis

    Load capacity testing method for non-conventional nodes joining linear structural paper components
    N. Kiziltoprak, E. Kanli, J. Schneider, U. Knaack & R. Bach

    Experimental earth composite shells                                                                
    J. Belis, S. Willaert, K. Martens, B. Van Lancker & M. Achenza

    Vulnerability of earth material to water: A state of the art                                       
    E. Pauporté & L. Sgambi

    Experimental research and evaluation of the application of selected nanosuspensions on in-situ historical material surfaces
    K. Kroftová, J. Witzany, D. Škoda & I. Kuřitka

    Timber structures

    Active bending in timber structures: Case studies in design, development and construction          
    P. Tidwell

    Can timber lower the environmental impact of tall buildings?                                       
    C. De Wolf & C. Fivet

    Timber T-section beams: From pre-tensioning to self-tensioning                                     
    J. Estévez-Cimadevila, D. Otero-Chans, E. Martín-Gutiérrez, F. Suárez-Riestra & J. Vázquez-Rodríguez

    Paper and cardboard as sustainable building materials                                              
    J.F. Łątka

    Making-of Pringle: Hybrid structure from equitangential, bending active, wooden frame and minimal surface robe-net
    G.H. Filz

    Case studies on spatial timber constructions in modern architecture and public art                 
    Y.T. Shi & L.Y. Wu

    The process of rocking CLT into a HOT cabin                                                        
    L.D. Houck


    Paulo J.S. Cruz is Founder and President of the International Association of Structures and Architecture since 2016. Chairman of the former international conferences in this field (ICSA2010, ICSA2013 and ICSA2016).

    Faculty member of the University of Minho since 1989, initially at the Civil Engineering Department, where he was Head of Department from 2003 to 2004. Dean of the School of Architecture from 2004 to 2011. Full Professor of Construction and Technology at the School of Architecture since 2008. Pro-Rector of the University of Minho since 2017.

    Graduated in Civil Engineering by the University of Porto in 1987; MSc in Structures by the University of Porto in 1991, and PhD in Construction Engineering by the Polytechnic University of Catalonia, Barcelona, in 1995; Habilitation in Structures by the University of Minho, in 2005.

    Since 1987 he has conducted research in the domain of special structures. After his PhD he started in the field of steel and composite structures, progressively devoting his research interests to the area of bridges, particularly concerning safety, inspection, assessment and monitoring.

    Since his involvement with the School of Architecture, he has bridged the gap between architecture and structural engineering, promoting the efficient use of the traditional materials and their judicious combination; exploring innovative technological, constructional and structural solutions and establishing effective collaborations with the construction industry.

    He is the President of the Design Institute of Guimarães and Coordinator of the Advanced Ceramics R&D Lab, aiming the application of additive manufacturing techniques to the built environment.