1st Edition

Talented Children and Adults Their Development and Education

By Jane Piirto Copyright 2007
    752 Pages
    by Routledge

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    This third edition of the widely popular Talented Children and Adults: Their Development and Education has been revised to include the most up-to-date information on talent development. Written by a nationally recognized author in the field of gifted education, this textbook explores the factors that encourage talent development from birth through adulthood, with specific chapters focusing on children from birth to age 2, elementary and middle school students, high school and college students, and adults. Talented Children and Adults includes information for identifying talented students, developing programs for these students, identifying creativity, and creating appropriate curricula. The book also addresses counseling and guidance for talented students, as well as underserved populations.
    Each chapter begins with a vignette, and case studies from students and educators in the field are included at the end of each chapter. This book is a must-read for anyone who works with talented children and adults.

    Chapter 1 Who Are the Talented? Giftedness, Talent, and Intelligence School Definitions of Giftedness The Marland Report 8 1988: The Javits Gifted and Talented Act National Excellence: A New School Definition of Giftedness No Child Left Behind History of Intelligence Testing The g Factor Use of the IQ to Sort and Discriminate Definitions of Intelligence More on General Intelligence (g) Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence: Hierarchical and Taxonomic Theories of Intelligence The Lumpers and the Splitters Heredity or Environment? Darwin and Galton and the Statistical Average What Twin and Adoptive Studies Have Shown About the Heritability of Intelligence Definitions of Giftedness and Talent Etymology of the Word Gifted Issues of Labeling The Social Construction of Giftedness Etymology of the Word Talented Influential Theories of Giftedness, Talent Development, and Intelligence A Need for a Theory-Based Definition A New Paradigm Developmental Theories of Intelligence Cognitive Theories of Intelligence Comprehensive Theories Psychosocial Theories The Pyramid (Piiramid) of Talent Development The Genetic Aspect The Emotional Aspect: Personality Attributes The Cognitive Aspect The Talent Aspect: Talent in Domains Environmental “Suns” Talent Multipotentiality: Feeling the Call, or the “Thorn” Need for a New Giftedness Construct A Proposed Giftedness Construct Case Example: Using the Pyramid of Talent Development in the Inclusionary Classroom Summary End Notes Chapter 2 Getting Started: Developing a Program for the Talented The Need for Awareness History of the Education of the Talented in the U.S. Typical Historical Arrangements for Talented Children Acceleration Grouping Special Schools Zeitgeist and the Education of the Talented State of the States The Law and Academically Talented Students Setting Up a Program The Planning Committee The Necessity of Collaboration Between General Education and Talent Development Education A Program and Not a Provision Standards-Based Education for High-Ability Students Educational Program Options Ability Grouping Acceleration/Enrichment Cooperative Learning Flexible Grouping Teaching, Waiting, and Helping Pull-Out or Self-Contained? Regular Classroom Modifications Resource Rooms Self-Contained Classes and Special Schools Inclusion, Intervention, Consultation, Facilitation Teachers of the Gifted and Talented Program Evaluation Using Longitudinal Data for Evaluation Case Example: Four Years as a Consulting Teacher for the Gifted and Talented Summary Contents Chapter 3 Identification of the Academically Gifted and Talented: High-IQ Talent and Specific Academic Talent Identifying and Serving the Academically Gifted and Talented The Principles and Challenges of Identification The Need for a Guiding Theory Conflicts Between Theory and Practice Multiple Means of Identification Proficiency Tests Behavioral Checklists Superior Documented Performance The Use of Matrices Use of Multiple Means Can Be Discriminatory The Use of Standard Scores The Use of Local Norms in Identification Identifying Personality Variables Once Identified, Always Identified? The Steps of Identification Alternative and Authentic Means of Nomination and Screening Effectiveness and Efficiency The Hazards and Benefits of Teacher Nomination The IQ Test IQ Tests and Socioeconomic Status (SES) Can We Change a Person’s IQ? When to Use an IQ Test Issues of Equity and Testing The Identification of Academic Ability Group Tests Used for Screening Deviation IQs Proficiency Tests Redux Spatial Ability Criteria for Standardized Test Selection and Standards for Testing Is the Test Valid and Reliable? Are There Adequate Ceilings? Authentic Assessment Standards for Teachers Who Use Tests Identification of Predictive Behaviors Leisure and Out-of-School Activities as Predictive Behaviors Case Example: José Summary Chapter 4 Identification of Creativity History of Creativity Training The Necessity of Practice Educators’ Interest in Creativity The Place of Creativity in Education Teachers and Parents Enhancing Creativity Creativity Research That Has Influenced the Field of Talent Development Education The Separation of Creativity From Talent Renzulli’s Definition The Existence of a Creativity Ability Training for Divergent Production Creativity Training Systems Teachers Benefit From Creativity Training A Creativity Course Based on What Creators Really Do Creativity Assessment Reasons for Measuring Creativity Motive to Create Evaluating Creativity Assessment Instruments Studies of Significant Results The Normal Curve Assumption Checklists and Questionnaires Promising Alternative Assessment Practices Interrater Reliability on Storytelling Performance Criteria Observation of Creativity Identification of Creative Thinking Ability Identifying Creative Potential by Product Assessment Portfolios Case Example: Creativity, Inc.: A Program for Developing Creativity in Adolescents Summary Part II Paths of Talent Development Chapter 5 The Young Talented Child From Birth to Grade 2 Characteristics of Young Academically Talented Children Early Reading Cognitive Leaps in Very High-IQ Children Characteristics in Infancy Characteristics of Toddlers Mathematical Ability Dyssynchrony Factors That Enhance or Inhibit Young High-IQ Talent Intensities (Overexcitabilities) as Characteristic of Young Gifted Children Identification of Young Academically Talented Children The Hunter College Elementary School Identification System Identification Through Already-Used Screening Methods The Project Spectrum MI Model of Identification Javits Projects: Alternative Ways to Identify The Case Method for Identifying Extremely Economically Poor Students DISCOVER Assessment Choosing a School Curricula for Young Academically Talented Children Preschool Curricular Scope for Academically Talented Children Preschool and Kindergarten Curricular Scope First Grade Curricular Scope Case Example: A Plan for Scott Summary Chapter 6 The Elementary and Middle School Talented Child Predictive Behaviors and Commonly Observed Characteristics of High-IQ Children A Paradigm Shift Children Talented in Science Fliegler’s Checklist Biographical Examples of Elementary-Age Science Ability Children Talented in Mathematics Biographical Examples of Elementary-Age Mathematical Ability Inventors as Children Businessmen and Entrepreneurs as Children Children Talented in Writing Prose Talent Biographical Indicators of Verbal Talent Children Talented in Visual Arts Characteristics of Artwork of Children Talented in Visual Arts Identification of Children Talented in Visual Arts Children Talented in Music Japanese and Chinese Views of Musical Ability Characteristics of Music Talent in Children Examples and Studies of Musical Talent Children Talented in Acting and Dancing Actors as Children Dancers as Children Identification of Students With Arts Talents Summary Gender Differences in Talent Development The Middle School Challenge Case Example: The School, the Parents, and the Girl Summary Chapter 7 High School and College Gifted and Talented Youth High Scorers on the SAT and ACT Cognitive Components of High Ability Personality Attributes of Gifted and Talented Teenagers Personality Testing and Gifted and Talented Adolescents Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Talented Adolescents Domain-Specific Talents Academic Strengths, Interests, and Self-Concept The Importance of Extracurricular Activities Family Background of Students With Talent Behavioral Rating Scales Science Talent Development Characteristics of Scientists Biographical Example of Science Talent Development—Albert Einstein Other Studies of Scientists Importance of Mentors in Science Women in Science Mathematics Talent Development Verbal Talent Development Performance Talent Development Development of Adolescent Musicians Development of Adolescent Dancers Development of Actors Development of Athletes Visual Arts Talent Development Leadership Talent Development The Importance of Practical (Tacit) Knowledge Case Example: Predictive Behaviors and Crystallizing Experiences in Three Artistic Male College Students Summary Chapter 8 Talented Adults Longitudinal and Follow-Up Studies of High-IQ and Academically Talented Adults The Terman Study The Hollingworth Group The Freeman Follow-Up Study What Makes for Eminence? The Quantitative Work of Dean Keith Simonton Adult Talent Development by Domain Multipotentiality Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Personality Preferences of Talented Adults Adult Characteristics of People With Science Talent Adult Research Neurologists Adult Characteristics of People With Mathematical Talent Math Olympians Studies of Talented Women Creative Female Mathematicians Social Science Talent: Creative Women Psychologists Longitudinal Studies of Talented Women The Path of Adult Creative Writers The Path of Adult Visual Artists The Path of Adult Musicians and Composers Other Studies of Adults The Importance of Mentors Fulfillment of Potential, Life Satisfaction, and Competence in Women Fulfillment of Potential, Life Satisfaction, and Competence in Men The Blurring of Traditional Gender Lines in Adulthood Consequences of Being a Gifted and Talented Adult Spiritual Growth Case Example: Engineer as High School Teacher Summary Part III Curriculum, Counseling, and At-Risk Talented Students Chapter 9 Precepts for Curriculum for the Academically Talented A Definition of Curriculum Differentiation Precept 1: Base Curriculum on Learning Characteristics of the Academically Talented Students in Their Areas of Strength Pace Depth Learning Through Reading Precept 2: Strive for Academic Rigor in the Curriculum Assessment in the Context of Academic Rigor The “Dumbed-Down” Curriculum What the TIMSS Studies Showed Academic Rigor: Alternative Assessment High School Graduation Outcomes Precept 3: Plan Thematic and Interdisciplinary Curricula Precept 4: Five Curriculum Orientations Should Be Considered Curriculum as Personal Relevance Curriculum as Technology Curriculum as Academic Rationalism Curriculum as Social Adaptation and Social Reconstruction Curriculum as the Development of Cognitive Processes Precept 5: Plan a Balanced and Articulated Curriculum General Education and Gifted Education Case Example: Twelve Issues: Implications of Postmodern Curriculum Theory for The Education of the Talented Summary Chapter 10 Curriculum Practices: In and Out of the Classroom Principles of Curriculum Development Differentiation as a Result of Different Interests Independent Study as Differentiation Differentiation in Pace Differentiation in Depth Guidance Issues for Talented Youth Course Taking Acceleration Career Development Finding Mentors Multipotentiality Differences Between Highly Talented and Moderately Talented Learning Styles of Talented Youth Concerns About Learning Style Theorizing Brain-Based Learning Testing Program Articulation Vocational Guidance Volunteerism and Service Gender Difference Concerns for Guidance Intervention Gender Differences in Testing Counseling Issues Among Talented Youth Anger Attention Disorders and Other Medical Conditions Genuine Boredom Bullying Creativity Delinquency Depression Dropping Out of School Gender-Related Issues Very High IQ Introversion Intuition Meeting the Expectations of Others Motivation Overexcitabilities: The Dabrowski Theory and Emotional Intensity Peer Relations Perfectionism and the Talented Overachievement Resilience and Its Relationship to Achievement Self-Concept/Self-Esteem Stress Sexual Identity Underachievement An Individual and Group Educational Guidance Plan (IEP) Conclusion Case Example: Judith Resnik Summary Chapter 12 Children of the American Dream: Populations of Talented Children Who Need Special Attention Definitions of “At Risk” and the Challenge of Identification Multicultural Assessment and Identification The Challenge of Identification Identification Rural Students Students From Low-Income Families Urban Students English-Speaking Students From Various Racial Backgrounds African Americans American Indians Students With Limited English Proficiency (LEP) Hispanics (Latinos) Pacific Islanders and Asians: Emerging Minorities Other Immigrants Students With Physical or Learning Disabilities Talented Children With Learning Disabilities Talented Children With Physical Disabilities ADHD/ADD and the Gifted and Talented Students From Troubled Family Situations Students Possessing a Combination of Characteristics Case Example: Charlayne Hunter-Gault, Civil-Rights Heroine Summary Appendix: Comparison of Standardized Tests References Name Index Subject Index About the Author


    Besides this book, currently in its third edition, Jane Piirto is the author of Understanding Those Who Create (two editions); Understanding Creativity; Luovuus; "My Teeming Brain": Understanding Creative Writers; A Location in the Upper Peninsula (collected poems, stories, and essays); The Three-Week Trance Diet (novel); Postcards from the Upper Peninsula, and several poetry and prose chapbooks. An award-winning poet, novelist, and scholar, she is a Trustees' Professor at Ashland University in Ohio, where she is Director of Talent Development Education. She is a former member of the board of directors of the National Association for Gifted Children, and has been in the field of the education of the gifted and talented since 1977 as a program coordinator, principal of the Hunter College Elementary School in New York City, and teacher trainer. She is a national and international speaker and consultant. In August of 2007, Dr. Jane Piirto was awarded the Lifetime Achievement Award by the Mensa Education and Research Foundation. The award, only the fifth given, recognizes outstanding professionals who have contributed a lifetime to scholarly pursuits in intelligence, giftedness, or creativity.