1st Edition

Testing of Genetically Modified Organisms in Foods

Edited By Farid Ahmed Copyright 2004
    338 Pages
    by CRC Press

    318 Pages
    by CRC Press

    Examine several methods of testing for genetically modified organisms and the reasons behind their strict regulation!

    Testing of Genetically Modified Organisms in Foods is the first study of the screening methods and tools utilized for determining the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food products. Leading experts in science, medicine, and government agencies examine the significant research and clinical developments in bio-engineered agriculture to bring you an accurate risk assessment of GMOs in relation to human consumption, economics, and the environment. This book focuses on three high-profile biotechnological commercial aspects of GMO inclusion in the world market: insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, and virus resistance. It also identifies new GM food crops that are in the laboratory and may soon be on your table.

    Testing of Genetically Modified Organisms in Foods looks at GMOs from the perspectives of both sides of the globe—the European Union and the United States Department of Agriculture—who each have their own set of rules and opinions regarding safety issues and marketing of bioengineered food products. This book looks at the government standards of scientific testing for GMOs, and several chapters specifically analyze current screening methods. This book also explores the impact of GMOs on farming, agricultural economy, pesticide control, and world famine.

    Testing of Genetically Modified Organisms in Foods brings you current information on:

    • the risks and benefits of agricultural biotechnology—to people and the environment
    • the regulations and protocols of testing for GMOs that have been adopted by European and United States agencies
    • scientific techniques that test for GMOs, including certified reference materials (CRMs) and matrix-based, protein-based, and DNA-based methods of testing
    • the limitations of today’s GMO screening methods and the benefits of alternatives that may be used in the future
    • the long-term risks associated with gene flow of GMOs to other plants, specifically focusing on liabilities, regulatory climates, and intellectual property rights
    Testing of Genetically Modified Organisms in Foods is generously enhanced with figures, tables, and graphs as well as references at the end of every chapter. The commercialization of agricultural biotechnology makes this text essential for scientists, planners, and students of food, agriculture and environmental science. Government officials and activists will find this book invaluable in debating current issues of agricultural biotechnology and food safety.

    • About the Editor
    • Contributors
    • Preface
    • Chapter 1. Risk and Benefits of Agricultural Biotechnology
    • The Development of Biotechnology
    • Beginning of the Controversy About Biotechnology
    • Risk and Benefit Analysis
    • The Present Scope of Agricultural Biotechnology Products
    • Regulations on Growing Biotechnology Crops
    • Grower Adoption of Biotechnology Crops
    • Economics of Using Current Biotechnology Crops
    • The Concept of Substantial Equivalence and Its Impact on Product Liability and International Trade
    • Food Safety Issues of Biotechnology Products
    • Framework for Evaluating Environmental Effects of Current Biotechnology Crops
    • Gene Flow in Transgenic Crops
    • Gene Containment Strategies for Biotechnology Crops
    • Economic Consequences of Gene Flow from Biotechnology Crops
    • Effects of Biotechnology Crops on Nontarget Organisms
    • Environmental Consequences of Two Novel GM Organisms
    • Pesticide-Use Patterns
    • Resistance Management to Herbicide-Resistant and Insect-Resistant Plants
    • Agricultural Biotechnology in a Changing World
    • Chapter 2. Sampling for the Detection of Biotech Grains: A USDA Perspective
    • Introduction
    • Introduction to Sampling Theory
    • Conclusions
    • Chapter 3. Sampling for GMO Analysis: The European Perspective
    • Introduction
    • The Concept of Sampling and Currently Adopted Sampling Protocols
    • Limitations of the Currently Adopted Sampling Protocols
    • Sampling for GMO Detection/Quantification: Recommendations
    • Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 4. Reference Materials and Standards
    • Introduction
    • Matrix-Based GMO CRMs
    • Pure Genomic DNA GMO CRMs
    • Pure Plasmid DNA GMO CRMs
    • Pure Protein GMO CRMs
    • Discussion
    • Chapter 5. Protein-Based Methods: Elucidation of the Principles
    • Introduction
    • Problems Associated with Developing Immunoassays for Food Proteins and Suggested Remedies
    • Western Blotting
    • Immunoassays
    • Conclusions
    • Chapter 6. Protein-Based Methods: Case Studies
    • Introduction
    • Foods: Processed and Finished
    • Grain and Seed
    • Discussion
    • Chapter 7. DNA-Based Methods for Detection and Quantification of GMOs: Principles and Standards
    • Introduction
    • The Polymerase Chain Reaction
    • The Future of GMO Testing
    • Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
    • DNA Microarrays
    • Biosensors
    • Chapter 8. DNA-Based Methods for GMO Detection: Historical Developments and Future Prospects
    • Southern Hybridization/Slot or Dot Blotting Techniques
    • Polymerase Chain Reaction Applications
    • Gene Expression and Microarray Technology
    • DNA-Based Biosensors
    • Conclusions
    • Chapter 9. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Methods
    • Introduction: The Limitations of Applying Current GMO Screening Methods
    • Introduction to Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
    • Roundup Ready Soybean Detection Case Study
    • Quality Assurance Issues
    • Future Considerations
    • Chapter 10. Other Methods for GMO Detection and Overall Assessment of the Risks
    • Metabolic Profiling
    • Proteomics
    • Gene Fluorescent Proteins As a Marker in Transgenic Plants
    • Concerns About Gene Flow, Liabilities, Regulatory Climates, and Intellectual Property Rights
    • Assessment of Safety Issues
    • Conclusions
    • Index
    • Reference Notes Included


    Farid Ahmed