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The Adult Music Student
Making Music throughout the Lifespan




  • Available for pre-order. Item will ship after December 31, 2021
ISBN 9780367434588
December 31, 2021 Forthcoming by Routledge
248 Pages 10 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

In music, while coaching groups of adults in ensemble settings and teaching them in the independent studio is a longstanding tradition, most tertiary-level music courses do not address the specific issues associated with teaching adults. The Adult Music Student addresses this gap, equipping music educators and professional musicians with the skills to provide optimal learning environments for adult music-makers, and exploring the process of learning and making music across the entire adult lifespan.

In chapters rooted in research and real-world experience, adult learning theory, assumptions, and philosophy are presented within the context of musical situations. The author also addresses adult motivation, teacher attributes that facilitate learning, and specific strategies to engage adults at different psychosocial or developmental stages. Providing practitioners with both an understanding of how adults learn, and practical approaches that can be used immediately in various music settings, this book offers an essential guide for any instructor working with adult music students.

Table of Contents

Dedication

Forthcoming

List of Figures

Organization of the Book

Acknowledgements

Table of Contents

Prelude: Introduction to Making Music Throughout the Lifespan

Introduction

Section One: Characteristics of Adult Learners: Andragogy, Lifespan Development, Physical Traits & Cognition

Chapter 1: Learning Music as an Adult: Andragogy in Action

Opening Vignette

68-year-old Semi-retired Therapist and Aspiring Pianist

Introduction

Andragogy 101

Instructor as Facilitator

Considerations for the Music Studio

Need to Know, Self-Concept and Prior Musical Experiences

Max, the violinist

Readiness, Orientation and Motivation to Learn

Chloe, the pianist

Conclusions

Andragogy in Action

Notes

References

Chapter 2: Contemporary Adults Making Music: Process or Product?

Opening Vignette

Cassie: 58-year-old Guitarist

Introduction

Learning Throughout Adulthood

Nonformal Learning

Informal Learning

Formal Learning

Lifelong Learning and Serious Leisure Learning

Motivation for Learning: Process versus Product

Performance Can Be a Goal

Transformational Learning

Conclusions

Andragogy in Action

References

Chapter 3: Lifespan Development and Learning Theory: Does Life Stage Matter?

Opening Vignette

Lucy: 65-year-old Retired Librarian

Introduction

Developmental Stages of Adults and Lifespan Theory

Psychosocial Lifespan Stages for Music Participation

Musicking Across the Lifespan

Conclusions

Andragogy in Action

References

Chapter 4: Cognition & Processing: Similarities and Differences Across the Lifespan

Opening Vignettes

Elizabeth: Cello Student in her Late 60s

Dottie: Piano Student in her 70s

Introduction to Cognition and Learning

Perception and Attention

Processing: Working Memory

Long-Term Memory and Retrieval

Memory and Aging

Plasticity

Fluid and crystallized Intelligence

Word Recall and Processing Text, Prose and Speech

Stimulating Plasticity

Adapting for the Aging Brain in the Music Studio

Conclusions

Andragogy in Action

References

Chapter 5: Physical Skills and Abilities: Age-related Changes That Impact Music Learning and Participation

Opening Vignette

Anjelica: Cellist in her late 70s

Introduction

Knowing Through the Body: Embodied or Somatic Learning

Spirituality in Adult Learning and Music Making

Physical Changes as We Age

Physical Characteristics of Emerging and Young Adults

Physical Characteristics of Mid-age Adults

Physical Characteristics of Third-age Adults

Physical Characteristics of the Fourth Age

Practical Application in the Music Studio

Conclusions

Andragogy in Action

Notes

References

Section Two: Motivation in Adult Music Learning

Chapter 6: Wlodkowski, Houle, Knowles and Adult Motivation to Learn

Opening Vignettes

Sherry: Divorced Piano Student in her 50s

Susan: Married Piano Student in her 50s

Introduction

Motivation Theories to Frame Adult Motivation to Pursue Musical Activities

Intrinsic Motivation, Competence and Autonomy

Creating Meaningful Learning Experiences

Identifying an Adult’s Orientation to Learning Taps into Personal Motivation

Barriers to Motivation During Adulthood

McClusky’s Theory of Power-Load-Margin

Conclusions

Andragogy in Action

Notes

References

Chapter 7: Technology as a Tool for Self-Directed and Assisted Music Learning

Opening Vignettes

Excerpts from Emails of Adults Taking an Asynchronous Online Piano Course

Introduction

Synchronous Lessons: Enhancing Accessibility

Adults Taking Online Lessons

Technology to Assist with In-Person and Synchronous Online Learning

Technology to Enhance Student Learning

Informal and Nonformal Independent Learning: Providing Accessible Resources

Informal and Nonformal Learning

Asynchronous Music learning

Conclusions

Andragogy in Action

Notes

References

Chapter 8: Facilitating Learning: Learning Contracts, Negotiating Learning Outcomes and Reframing Musical Goals

Opening Vignette

Rebecca: Retired Administrative Assistant, Age 62

Introduction

Unravelling Rebecca’s Comments

Preparing the Adult Learner for Music Study

First Contact and Interview

Private Studio

Group Classes and Ensembles

Discovering Goals for Music Study

The Facilitator’s Goals for Students

Co-creating the Learning Plan

Conclusions

Andragogy in Action

References

Chapter 9: Methods, Music and More: Do These Matter with Adults?

Opening Vignette

Laura: 20-year Piano Class Participant

Adult Music Materials

Editions and Levelling

Supplemental Accompaniments and Backing Tracks

Beginning Methods

Duets and Ensemble Music

Various Anthologies and Specialized Skill Books

Evaluating Materials for Adult Lessons and Classes

Conclusions

Andragogy in Action

References

Section Three: Strategies to Facilitate Adult Music Making & Learning Across the Lifespan

Chapter 10: Qualities of Outstanding Adult Music Facilitators and Leaders

Opening Vignette

Bill: 41-year-old Nurse

Doug: 45-year-old Choral Conductor

Introduction

Common Characteristics of Effective Facilitators

Expertise

Respect, Empathy and Flexibility

Clarity

Conclusions

Andragogy in Action

References

Chapter 11: Private Lessons in the Second Age

Opening Vignettes

Carli: Young Adult and Intermediate Flutist

Jon: Mid-age Adult and Beginning Tenor Singer

The Second Age of Adulthood

Considerations for Working with Emerging and Mid-aged Adults

Conclusions

Andragogy in Action

References

Chapter 12: Group Lessons in the Second Age

Opening Vignettes

Beginning Piano Class for Pre-retirement Adults

Sforzando Singers: Young Adult Performing Ensemble

Working with Second-age Adult in Group Settings

Classes

Ensembles and Rehearsals

Conclusions

Andragogy in Action

References

Chapter 13: Private Lessons in the Third Age and Beyond

Opening Vignettes

Ted: 83-year-old Retired Engineer and Piano Enthusiast

Sandra: 61-year-old Cellist Taking Online Lessons

Common Experiences of Music Study

Effective Facilitation on the Private Music Lessons

The Role of Personality, Life Experiences and Age-Related Declines in Private Music Study

Personality and Preferred Learning Styles

Life Experiences

Age-related Declines

Quality of Musical Performance During the Third Age

Exits

Conclusions

Andragogy in Action

References

Chapter 14: Group Lessons and Music Making in the Third Age and Beyond

Opening Vignettes

Third-age Piano Class: A (Mostly) Serious Group

Fourth-age Singing Group: Making Music in Assisted Living

Themes Common in Effective Group Music0Making Experiences for Older Adults

Musical, Physical and Cognitive Impairment

Psychosocial Improvement and Increased Motivation

Effective Group Facilitation Strategies Employed in Older Musical Groups

Conclusions

Andragogy in Action

References

Coda: The Facilitator’s Lifespan

Opening Vignette

Jane: 20-year Adult Music Educators

Introduction

Preventing Burnout

Reconnect with Your Instrument

Learn Something New

Move (Preferably Outside)

Engage with Teachers in Your Community

Take Well-planned Breaks

Seek Professional Help as Needed

Conclusions

Closing Vignette

Quote from Nancy’s Diary: 68-year-old Retired Therapist and Aspiring Pianist

Andragogy in Action

References

Full Reference List

Index

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Author(s)

Biography

Pamela D. Pike is Professor of Piano Pedagogy at Louisiana State University.