This book delves into the origins and evolution of trademark and branding practices in a wide range of geographical areas and periods, providing key knowledge for academics, professionals, and general audiences on the complex world of brands.
The volume compiles the work of twenty-five prominent worldwide scholars studying the origins and evolution of trademarks and branding practices from medieval times to present days and from distinct European countries to the USA, New Zealand, Canada, Latin America, and the Soviet Union. The first part of the book provides new insights on pre-modern craft marks, on the emergence of trademark legal regimes during the nineteenth century, and on the evolution of trademark and business strategies in distinct regions, sectors, and contexts. As industrialisation and globalisation spread during the twentieth century, trademarking led to modern branding and international marketing, a process driven by new economic, but also cultural factors. The second part of the book explores the cultural side of the brand and offers challenging studies on how luxury, fashion, culture associations, and the consolidation of national identities played a key role in nowadays branding.
This edited volume will not only be of great value to scholars, students and policymakers interested in trademark/branding research, but to marketing and legal practitioners as well, aiming to delve into the origins of modern brand strategies.
The chapters in this book were originally published as two special issues of the journal, Business History.
Part I: Trademarks and Branding
1. Trademarks in branding: Legal issues and commercial practices
Patricio Sáiz and Rafael Castro
2. Branding before the brand: Marks, imitations and counterfeits in pre- modern Europe
Carlo Marco Belfanti
3. Early marks: American trademarks before US trademark law
4. The ‘disguised’ foreign investor: Brands, trademarks and the British expatriate entrepreneur in Brazil
Teresa da Silva Lopes, Carlos Gabriel Guimarães, Alexandre Saes and Luiz Fernando Saraiva
5. Brands in the Basque gun making industry: The case of ASTRA- Unceta y Cía
6. Cheese trademarks: Italian dairy firms’ practices during the 20th century
Ilaria Suffia, Andrea Maria Locatelli and Claudio Besana
7. The effects of producers’ trademark strategies on the structure of the cognac brandy supply chain during the second half of the 19th century. The reconfiguration of commercial trust by the use of brands
8. Disney in Spain (1930– 1935)
Jose Bellido and Kathy Bowrey
Part II: Branding, Culture, and National Identity
9. Cross- cultural factors in international branding
Rafael Castro and Patricio Sáiz
10. The transformation of global luxury brands: The case of the Swiss watch company Longines, 1880– 2010
11. Making Italian fashion global: Brand building and management at Gruppo Finanziario Tessile (1950s–1990s)
Elisabetta Merlo and Mario Perugini
12. Brand image, cultural association and marketing: ‘New Zealand’ butter and lamb exports to Britain, c. 1920– 1938
Felicity Barnes and David M. Higgins
13. The expansion of branding in international marketing: The case of olive oil, 1870s– 1930s
14. The making of Labatt ‘Blue’: The quest for a national lager brand, 1959– 1971
Matthew J. Bellamy
15. The emergence of Italy as a fashion country: Nation branding and collective meaning creation at Florence’s fashion shows (1951– 1965)
Valeria Pinchera and Diego Rinallo
16. Dreaming of the West: The power of the brand in Soviet Lithuania, 1960s– 1980s