1st Edition

The Evolution of Ethics in America
Standards Born of Crises

  • Available for pre-order. Item will ship after November 19, 2021
ISBN 9781032123332
November 19, 2021 Forthcoming by Routledge
168 Pages

USD $44.95

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Book Description

In this book, Laurence Armand French frames the emergence of medical, clinical, and legal ethical standards within the long history of institutional and systemic racial and gender biases in the United States. He explores the role that White privilege and elitism play in justifying long-held discriminatory practices ranging from the eugenics crusade a century ago to the #MeToo and Black Lives Matter (BLM) movements of today. The book identifies and analyzes events highlighting systemic racism in the United States and explores how these events were exacerbated during the presidency of Donald J. Trump.

The evolution of ethical standards in the United States is a reaction to long-held practices that discriminate against certain classes of people based on gender, age, and race and ethnicity. The White supremacist world view contributed to systemic biases that directly affect people of color as well as women, and those biases, in turn, are inherent components of the social structure of economic, academic, and judicial institutions. This process impacts both procedural and social justice, the very foundation of ethical standards of which our Constitution is based. This work attempts to unravel the social and psychological aspects of human behavior contributing to this phenomenon.

This concise yet comprehensive book is a valuable resource to a broad audience, including students of criminal justice, as well as scholars, researchers, and professionals in both the social and physical sciences.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction

The Human Dynamics of Law, Ethics and Morality

Contravening Ideological Perspective and Moral Judgment


Chapter 2. Due Process: The Ethics of Social Justice

Genesis of institutional racism in America

The American/Nazi connection regarding the pseudo-science of eugenics

The emergence of America’s double standard of justice

The Adversarial Justice Model

Jim Crow Justice

Social Justice and Legal Ethics

Chapter 3. Informed Consent

The Tuskegee Syphilis Study

American Eugenics Movement

Prisoners: Cheaper than chimpanzees

COVOD & college consent contracting

Chapter 4. Duty to Disclose

Regulating advances in medicine

The sampling dilemma: students, prisoners, and veterans

Case study: The Boston VA Valproate Acid experiment

The opioid and Coronavirus crises and their antecedents

Chapter 5. Duty to Warn and Report

The Duty to Warn: Exceptions to Client’s right to confidential

Duty to Report

Federal omission – Indian Country

Chapter 6. Cruel and Unusual

The Prevalence of systemic racism

International Convention against torture

America’s torturous history from 1950s to post 9/11/01

The continued use of torture – the Gulf War era

Psychologists and torture

Chapter 7. Abuse of Privilege

Social Stratification and Elitism

Institutionalized and Systemic Sexism

Education and Privilege: The socialization of the elite

The Hampton/Carlisle Boarding School

St. Paul’s School

The Mechanism of privilege and entitlement

Audiences and circles of influence

Social structure and institutional and systemic biases

"Club Ed" and the spoils of the privileged elite

Status and Role exploitation

Privilege, Entitlement, and "Sexploitation"

Sexploitation in Academia

Dartmouth College Psychologist

St. Paul’s School Senior Salute

The enshrinement of the privilege elite class via academic discourse

Chapter 8. Ethics during the Trump Era


Toward an understanding of the mechanism of social divisiveness

Ethical Consequences for pathological lying

Article of Impeachment

Law and Order under the Trump Administration

Justice Sotomayor’s Dissent

Border Justice

President Trump’s January 2019 "Border Wall" Address to the Nation

The Trump Administration’s Family Separation Policy

The COVID crisis

Selected Bibliography


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Laurence Armand French has a Ph.D. in sociology (criminology)/social psychology from the University of New Hampshire-Durham; a post-doctorate in minorities and criminal justice education from SUNY-Albany; and a Ph.D. in educational psychology and measurement/cultural psychology from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. He is professor-emeritus of psychology from Western New Mexico University and is currently an affiliate professor of justice studies, college of liberal arts, University of New Hampshire. He has also taught at HBCU facilities (Prairie View A&M University; Grambling University) and is widely published in the areas of minorities and social justice.