Sense of belonging refers to the extent a student feels included, accepted, valued, and supported on their campus. The developmental process of belonging is interwoven with the social identity development of diverse college students. Moreover, belonging is influenced by the campus environment, relationships, and involvement opportunities as well as a need to master the student role and achieve academic success. Although the construct of sense of belonging is complex and multilayered, a consistent theme across the chapters in this book is that the relationship between sense of belonging and intersectionality of identity cannot be ignored, and must be integrated into any approach to fostering belonging.Over the last 10 years, colleges and universities have started grappling with the notion that their approaches to maintaining and increasing student retention, persistence, and graduation rates were no longer working. As focus shifted to uncovering barriers to student success while concurrently recognizing student success as more than solely academic factors, the term “student sense of belonging” gained traction in both academic and co-curricular settings. The editors noticed the lack of a consistent definition, or an overarching theoretical approach, as well as a struggle to connect disparate research. A compendium of research, applications, and approaches to sense of belonging did not exist, so they brought this book into being to serve as a single point of reference in an emerging and promising field of study.
Foreword. Kristen A. Renn Preface Part 1. Theories and Foundations 1. Theoretical Foundations for Sense of Belonging in College—Annemarie Vaccarro and Barbara Newman 2. Unraveling the Relationship Between of Engagement, Involvement, and Sense of Belonging—Terrell L. Strayhorn 3. Reviewing, Theorizing, and Looking Ahead. The Relationship Between College Students’ Sense of Belonging and Persistence—Bert Ellison and John M. Braxton
Part 2. Sense of Belonging Across Student Populations 4. Facilitating A Sense of Belonging for Students with Multiple Identities—Ronald Hallett, Adrianna Kezar, Joseph Kitchen, and Rosemary Perez 5. How and Where do Queer- and Trans-spectrum College Students Experience Belonging? A Critical Review of the Literature—Brian C. Gano 6. Connecting Gender and Belonging. An Intersectional Approach—Michael Stevens Williams and Ekaete E. Udoh 7. On the Outside Looking In. Reflecting on Native American Students’ Sense of Belonging—Mark Alabanza 8. Asian American Students and Sense of Belonging—Cassie Kao 9. Latinx College Students’ Sense of Belonging. Comunidades de Apoyo. (Supportive Communities)—Holly Holloway-Friesen 10. Sense of Belonging Among Black College Students. A Socioecological Perspective—Royel M. Johnson and Alex Kenney 11. Economic Stratification in Higher Education. An Asset-Based Approach to Low-SES Students’ Sense of Belonging—Amy E. French and Shelley R. Price-Williams 12. Language Unheard, Voices Silenced. The Role of Language Minoritization in Sense of Belonging—Kevin J. Bazner and Juan Lopez 13. Analyzing Psychological Well-Being Aspects of Sense of Belonging for First-generation, Pell-eligible, Underrepresented Minority Students—Marilee Bresciani Ludvik, Shiming Zhang, Sandra Kahn, Nina Potter, Lisa Gates, Robyn Saiki, Rogelio Beccero Songolo, Stephen Schellenberg, Randall Timm, and Mitch Strahlman 14. Sense of Belonging as Process and Product in The First-Year Experience—Jennifer R. Keup and Chelsea Fountain 15. Deconstructing Belonging. Towards a Redefinition for Transfer Students—Vasti Torres and Claire A. Boeck 16. Reframing the Commuter Student Experience to Promote Belonging—Michael D. Giacalone and Kristina M. Perrelli 17. Student Veteran Belonging, Inclusion, and Success—Phillip Morris 18. Student Employee Sense of Belonging—Cynthia Cogswell, Tim Epley, and Brittany BartenPart 3. Implications and Applications 19A: Examples in PracticeNDSUbelong. A Cross Collaborative Approach to Student Sense of Belonging— Derisa Collymore, Laura Dahl, and Alyssa Tuebner 19B. Reducing Barriers to Increase Sense of Belonging—Laura Bayless and Hank Parkinson 19C. Gemstone Honors Program Living-Learning Community—Jessica Lee, Kristan Cilente Skendall, and Leah Kreimer Tobin 19D. The Influence of The Teaching Modality on Belonging—Tawnya Means, Jean E. Starobin, and Kasey Uran-Linde 20. When Likes Aren’t Enough. The Impact of Belongingness on Mental Health in the Age of Social Media—Timothy J. Bono 21. Sense of Belonging. Findings During the Time of COVID-19—Sherry Woosley and Dianne Timm 22. Measuring Belonging in Higher Education. Review, Summary, and Guidance for Researchers and Practitioners—John Eric M. Lingat, Michael D. Toland, and Shannon O. Sampson 23. Conclusion—Erin M. Bentrim and Gavin W. Henning Editors and Contributors Index