1st Edition

The Laboratory Xenopus sp.

By Sherril L. Green Copyright 2010
    180 Pages 30 Color & 20 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    180 Pages
    by CRC Press

    Even though Xenopus is one of the two most popular non-mammalian animals used in biomedical research, its value in the lab suffers from a lack of standardization regarding their optimal care, breeding, and housing.

    Filling the need for such a reference, The Laboratory Xenopus sp provides researchers and lab managers with a practical, step-by-step manual that emphasizes the humane care and use of captive clawed frogs in basic as well as biomedical, and toxicological research.

    The Only Book of Its Kind Available to Researchers

    Amply illustrated with 50 color illustrations of management practices and technical procedures, this how-to guide:

    • Offers quick reference on the humane care and use of clawed frogs in the laboratory
    • Illustrates management practices and technical procedures with figures and tables
    • Provides sources of additional information on frogs, feed, and sanitation supplies

    Supported with hypothesis-driven research, this well-organized manual explores the full range of responsibilities facing individuals who work with this species. The content is divided into intentionally brief sections that allow for the quick retrieval of essential information regarding important biological features and experimental methodology, as well as compliance and veterinary care, husbandry, housing, and water quality management.

    The book has an accompanying website with more information, including interesting frog trivia.

    Important Biological Features


    Habitat and Geography


    Anatomic and Physiologic Features

    General Features



    Gastrointestinal and Excretory












    Housing Systems and Water Sources

    Static/Closed Systems

    Flow-Through Systems

    Modular/Recirculating Systems

    Filtration Systems and UV Water Sanitation Systems

    Mechanical Filtration

    Biological Filtration

    Chemical Filtration

    Ultraviolet Sterilization

    Water Quality






    Ammonia (Nh3)

    Nitrate and Nitrite


    Dissolved Oxygen

    Total Dissolved Gases—Percent Saturation (TDG%)

    Carbon Dioxide

    Water Clarity

    Miscellaneous Water Toxicants

    Monitoring Water Quality

    Stocking Density



    Types of Food

    Frequency of Feeding

    How Much to Feed


    Environmental Enrichment


    Transportation of Xenopus

    Record Keeping



    Regulations and Regulatory Agencies

    Occupational Health and Safety: Injury and Zoonotic Risks


    Veterinary Care

    Physical Examination


    Clinical Problems

    Bacterial Infections

    Red Leg Syndrome

    Chryseobacterium (Formerly Called Flavobacterium) Spp

    Mycobacterium Spp

    Chlamydia Spp

    Viral Infections


    Lucke Herpesvirus

    Fungal Infections

    Batrachochytrium Dendrobatidis

    Saprolegnia Spp. and Other Water Molds

    Parasitic Infections

    Pseudocapillaroides Xenopi (Capillaria Xenopodis)Rhabdias (Strongyloid Lungworms)


    Acariasis (Mites)

    Noninfectious Diseases and Conditions

    Dehydration and Desiccation

    Gas Bubble Disease

    Chlorine/Chloramine Toxicities


    Rectal And Cloacal Prolapses


    Skeletal Deformities

    Bite Wounds

    Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome

    Thermal Shock

    Poor Egg Production, Poor Egg Quality

    Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases in Laboratory Xenopus

    General Comments on the Treatment of Infectious Diseases

    Treatment of General Trauma and Abrasions


    Tricaine Methanesulfonate (Ms-222)

    Benzocaine Gel


    Eugenol (Clove Oil)


    Aseptic Surgery

    Analgesics and Post-Operative Care



    Experimental Methodology

    Catching and Handling Xenopus

    Compound Administration Techniques

    Blood Sample Collection and Interpretation

    Blood Sample Collection

    Processing the Samples

    Xenopus Hemocytology: Characteristics

    Interpretation of the Hemogram And Serum Clinical Chemistries

    Egg/Oocyte Collection

    Surgical Laparotomy for Egg/Oocyte Harvest From Xenopus

    Raising Xenopus Tadpoles


    Necropsy Equipment

    Necropsy Technique




    Electronic Resources

    Electronic Resources for X. Tropicalis

    Electronic Resources for X. Laevis

    Guidelines and Protocols For Harvesting Oocytes

    Additonal Guidelines



    Vendor Contact Information


    Carriers Who Will Ship Xenopus

    Frog Suppliers (Frogs and Food)

    Modular Housing for Laboratory Xenopus

    Sanitation Supplies

    Water Quality Sensors

    Water Filtration Systems

    Water Test Kits (Spectrophotometric)

    Water Purifiers

    Taxonomy and Natural History

    Anatomy and Histology




    Medicine and Surgery

    Xenopus Listservs



    Sherril L. Green, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVIM, is a professor and Chair of the Department of Comparative Medicine at Stanford University School of Medicine. She earned her veterinary degree from Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine and completed her residency training in large animal medicine at the University of Florida’s School of Veterinary Medicine. She obtained her doctorate degree in neurobiology from the University of California-Davis. Dr. Green has a long established interest in husbandry and veterinary care of laboratory Xenopus. She has authored numerous scientific papers on laboratory Xenopus and frequently lectures on this topic at national professional meetings. More information about Dr. Green can be found at www.TheLaboratoryXenopus.com.

    The Laboratory Animal Reference Series published by the GRG Press has yielded another excellent pocket reference for a less commonly used non-mammalian animal of biomedical research. Xenopus spp have increased in popularity as laboratory animals and continue to serve an important role in biomedical research. The Laboratory Xenopus sp. is a practical reference for the humane care and maintenance of captive clawed frogs. It is well referenced and provides important biological information on husbandry, veterinary care, and experimental methods. This reference is thorough but brief and provides a good overview of the subjects. The sections of the book that focus on husbandry and experimental methods are particularly valuable. The section on veterinary care is well written and reflects the author's mastery of the subject. It is illustrated appropriately and fairly priced
    —Robert A. Wagner, VMD, JAVMA, March 15, 2011, Vol. 238, NO.6.

    "This book succeeds admirably in providing a convenient … source of information addressing the unique characteristics and needs of Xenopus sp. in laboratory settings …  providing a wealth of information that is hard to find in one place. The book is comprehensive, easy to read, and has complete and current references. It should be in the library of every veterinarian and researcher interested in the biology, breeding, care, use, and common diseases of Xenopus sp."
    —Peter Vogel, DVM, PhD, DACVP, Director, Veterinary Pathology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, writing in Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, Vol. 49, No2., March 2010

    "The Laboratory Xenopus sp.: A Volume in The Laboratory Animal Pocket Reference Series successfully follows the series' general format to provide easily accessible and useful information regarding the humane care and use of Xenopus frogs used in research, instruction, or testing.
    …General information is presented as applicable to both Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis, but each species is also discussed independently when differences exist.
    …This book would be useful for anyone providing husbandry and/or veterinary care for Xenopus sp. in a research environment. It includes abundant practical husbandry and clinical information, and it is written clearly for comprehension by personnel with varied educational backgrounds. There have been limited publications with extensive information about Xenopus sp. previously, and this book is a welcome comprehensive resource for the Xenopus sp. utilizing laboratory animal science community."
    —Leanne Alworth, in American Society of Laboratory Animal Practitioners