The Laboratory Xenopus sp.  book cover
1st Edition

The Laboratory Xenopus sp.

ISBN 9781420091090
Published December 2, 2009 by CRC Press
180 Pages 30 Color & 20 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Even though Xenopus is one of the two most popular non-mammalian animals used in biomedical research, its value in the lab suffers from a lack of standardization regarding their optimal care, breeding, and housing.

Filling the need for such a reference, The Laboratory Xenopus sp provides researchers and lab managers with a practical, step-by-step manual that emphasizes the humane care and use of captive clawed frogs in basic as well as biomedical, and toxicological research.

The Only Book of Its Kind Available to Researchers

Amply illustrated with 50 color illustrations of management practices and technical procedures, this how-to guide:

  • Offers quick reference on the humane care and use of clawed frogs in the laboratory
  • Illustrates management practices and technical procedures with figures and tables
  • Provides sources of additional information on frogs, feed, and sanitation supplies

Supported with hypothesis-driven research, this well-organized manual explores the full range of responsibilities facing individuals who work with this species. The content is divided into intentionally brief sections that allow for the quick retrieval of essential information regarding important biological features and experimental methodology, as well as compliance and veterinary care, husbandry, housing, and water quality management.

The book has an accompanying website with more information, including interesting frog trivia.

Table of Contents

Important Biological Features


Habitat and Geography


Anatomic and Physiologic Features

General Features



Gastrointestinal and Excretory












Housing Systems and Water Sources

Static/Closed Systems

Flow-Through Systems

Modular/Recirculating Systems

Filtration Systems and UV Water Sanitation Systems

Mechanical Filtration

Biological Filtration

Chemical Filtration

Ultraviolet Sterilization

Water Quality






Ammonia (Nh3)

Nitrate and Nitrite


Dissolved Oxygen

Total Dissolved Gases—Percent Saturation (TDG%)

Carbon Dioxide

Water Clarity

Miscellaneous Water Toxicants

Monitoring Water Quality

Stocking Density



Types of Food

Frequency of Feeding

How Much to Feed


Environmental Enrichment


Transportation of Xenopus

Record Keeping



Regulations and Regulatory Agencies

Occupational Health and Safety: Injury and Zoonotic Risks


Veterinary Care

Physical Examination


Clinical Problems

Bacterial Infections

Red Leg Syndrome

Chryseobacterium (Formerly Called Flavobacterium) Spp

Mycobacterium Spp

Chlamydia Spp

Viral Infections


Lucke Herpesvirus

Fungal Infections

Batrachochytrium Dendrobatidis

Saprolegnia Spp. and Other Water Molds

Parasitic Infections

Pseudocapillaroides Xenopi (Capillaria Xenopodis)Rhabdias (Strongyloid Lungworms)


Acariasis (Mites)

Noninfectious Diseases and Conditions

Dehydration and Desiccation

Gas Bubble Disease

Chlorine/Chloramine Toxicities


Rectal And Cloacal Prolapses


Skeletal Deformities

Bite Wounds

Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome

Thermal Shock

Poor Egg Production, Poor Egg Quality

Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases in Laboratory Xenopus

General Comments on the Treatment of Infectious Diseases

Treatment of General Trauma and Abrasions


Tricaine Methanesulfonate (Ms-222)

Benzocaine Gel


Eugenol (Clove Oil)


Aseptic Surgery

Analgesics and Post-Operative Care



Experimental Methodology

Catching and Handling Xenopus

Compound Administration Techniques

Blood Sample Collection and Interpretation

Blood Sample Collection

Processing the Samples

Xenopus Hemocytology: Characteristics

Interpretation of the Hemogram And Serum Clinical Chemistries

Egg/Oocyte Collection

Surgical Laparotomy for Egg/Oocyte Harvest From Xenopus

Raising Xenopus Tadpoles


Necropsy Equipment

Necropsy Technique




Electronic Resources

Electronic Resources for X. Tropicalis

Electronic Resources for X. Laevis

Guidelines and Protocols For Harvesting Oocytes

Additonal Guidelines



Vendor Contact Information


Carriers Who Will Ship Xenopus

Frog Suppliers (Frogs and Food)

Modular Housing for Laboratory Xenopus

Sanitation Supplies

Water Quality Sensors

Water Filtration Systems

Water Test Kits (Spectrophotometric)

Water Purifiers

Taxonomy and Natural History

Anatomy and Histology




Medicine and Surgery

Xenopus Listservs


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Sherril L. Green, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVIM, is a professor and Chair of the Department of Comparative Medicine at Stanford University School of Medicine. She earned her veterinary degree from Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine and completed her residency training in large animal medicine at the University of Florida’s School of Veterinary Medicine. She obtained her doctorate degree in neurobiology from the University of California-Davis. Dr. Green has a long established interest in husbandry and veterinary care of laboratory Xenopus. She has authored numerous scientific papers on laboratory Xenopus and frequently lectures on this topic at national professional meetings. More information about Dr. Green can be found at


The Laboratory Animal Reference Series published by the GRG Press has yielded another excellent pocket reference for a less commonly used non-mammalian animal of biomedical research. Xenopus spp have increased in popularity as laboratory animals and continue to serve an important role in biomedical research. The Laboratory Xenopus sp. is a practical reference for the humane care and maintenance of captive clawed frogs. It is well referenced and provides important biological information on husbandry, veterinary care, and experimental methods. This reference is thorough but brief and provides a good overview of the subjects. The sections of the book that focus on husbandry and experimental methods are particularly valuable. The section on veterinary care is well written and reflects the author's mastery of the subject. It is illustrated appropriately and fairly priced
—Robert A. Wagner, VMD, JAVMA, March 15, 2011, Vol. 238, NO.6.

"This book succeeds admirably in providing a convenient … source of information addressing the unique characteristics and needs of Xenopus sp. in laboratory settings …  providing a wealth of information that is hard to find in one place. The book is comprehensive, easy to read, and has complete and current references. It should be in the library of every veterinarian and researcher interested in the biology, breeding, care, use, and common diseases of Xenopus sp."
—Peter Vogel, DVM, PhD, DACVP, Director, Veterinary Pathology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, writing in Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, Vol. 49, No2., March 2010

"The Laboratory Xenopus sp.: A Volume in The Laboratory Animal Pocket Reference Series successfully follows the series' general format to provide easily accessible and useful information regarding the humane care and use of Xenopus frogs used in research, instruction, or testing.
…General information is presented as applicable to both Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis, but each species is also discussed independently when differences exist.
…This book would be useful for anyone providing husbandry and/or veterinary care for Xenopus sp. in a research environment. It includes abundant practical husbandry and clinical information, and it is written clearly for comprehension by personnel with varied educational backgrounds. There have been limited publications with extensive information about Xenopus sp. previously, and this book is a welcome comprehensive resource for the Xenopus sp. utilizing laboratory animal science community."
—Leanne Alworth, in American Society of Laboratory Animal Practitioners