Informal language learning beyond the classroom plays an important and growing role in language learning and teaching. This Handbook brings together the existing body of research and unites the various disciplines that have explored this area, in order to present the current state of knowledge in one accessible resource.
Much of adult learning takes place outside of formal education and for language learning, it is likely that out-of-class experiences play an equally important role. It is therefore surprising that the role of informal language learning has received little attention over the years, with the vast majority of research instead focusing on the classroom. Researchers from a range of backgrounds, however, have started to realise the important contribution of informal language learning, both in its own right, and in its relationship with classroom learning. Studies in the areas of learner autonomy, learning strategies, study abroad, language support, learners’ voices, computer-mediated communication, mobile-assisted language learning, digital gaming, and many others, all add to our understanding of the complex and intersecting ways in which learners construct their own language learning experiences, drawing from a wide range of resources, including materials, teachers, self-study, technology, other learners and native speakers.
This Handbook provides a sound and comprehensive basis for researchers and graduate students to build upon in their own research of language learning and teaching beyond the classroom.
Table of Contents
Part I Mapping LLTBC 1. The History of Language Learning and Teaching Beyond the Classroom 2. Mapping language learning environments 3. Interfacing Formal Education and Language Learning beyond the Classroom 4. Participant-driven L2 learning in the wild: An overview and its pedagogical implications 5. Learning beyond the classroom and autonomy 6. CALL in the Wild = a voyage of independent self-directed learning? 7. English Language Learning Beyond the Classroom: Do Learner Factors Matter? 8. The golden age of foreign language learning. Age and language learning beyond the classroom Part II Supporting LLTBC 9. Digital Game-Based Language Learning in Extramural Settings 10. Fostering learners’ self-regulation and collaboration skills and strategies for mobile language learning beyond the classroom 11. Enhancing Language and Culture Learning Through Social Network Technologies 12. Enhancing language and culture learning in the case of study abroad 13. Enhancing Language and Culture Learning in Migration Contexts 14. Learning to act in the social world: building interactional competence through everyday language use experiences 15. Enhancing language learning in private tutoring 16. Enhancing the Quality of Out-of-Class Learning in Flipped Learning 17. Enhancing language learning beyond the classroom through advising 18. Online Learner Communities for Fostering Autonomous Learning beyond the Classroom 19. Self-access Centres for Facilitating Autonomous Language Learning 20. Assessments of and for LBC Part III Researching LLTBC 21. Ethics, privacy and security in researching LBC 22. Evaluation of instruments for researching learners’ LBC 23. Methods and Approaches to Investigating Language Learning in the Digital Wilds 24. The use of mixed methods to study language learning beyond the classroom 25. Language Learning Diary Studies in Learning beyond the Classroom Contexts 26. Doing LLBC research with young learners 27. Ethnography in LBC research 28. When Classrooms aren’t an Option: Researching Mobile Language Learning through Disruption 29. Bringing beyond into the L2 classroom: On video ethnography and the ‘wild’ in-class use of smartphones 30. Learning Analytics and Educational Data Mining in Learning Beyond the Classroom
Hayo Reinders (www.innovationinteaching.org) is TESOL Professor and Director of Research at Anaheim University, USA, and Professor of Applied Linguistics at KMUTT in Thailand. He is founder of the global Institute for Teacher Leadership and editor of Innovation in Language Learning & Teaching.
Chun Lai is an Associate Professor at the Faculty of Education, the University of Hong Kong. Her research interests include self-directed language learning with technology beyond the classroom, technology-enhanced language learning and teacher technology integration.
Pia Sundqvist is Associate Professor of English Language Education at the University of Oslo, Norway. Her main research interests are in the field of applied English linguistics, with a focus on informal language learning, especially Extramural English and gaming, the assessment of L2 oral proficiency and English language teaching.
'The changing landscape of language teaching and learning that we have witnessed recently has emphasized the need for a greater understanding of nature and significance of out-of-class learning opportunities in second language learning. This handbook provides a valuable account of the nature of LBC; illustrates the diversity of affordances learners make use of; describes the cognitive, affective, linguistic, social and individual dimensions involved; and provides examples of the research methods that can be used in investigating LBC. And in addition the handbook demonstrates how learners’ use of out of class learning opportunities are changing our understanding of the nature of second language learning.' – Jack C. Richards, Honorary Professor, University of Sydney
'Starting with the recognition that technology has opened a new world for language teachers and learners, this handbook provides an up-to-date and comprehensive look at learning beyond the classroom. Editors Reinders, Lai, and Sundqvist are leading authorities in this domain, and have put together an impressive ensemble of knowledgeable contributors across a broad range of relevant sub-areas. Language teachers, teacher educators, and researchers will find this an invaluable and timely resource.' – Phil Hubbard, Senior Lecturer Emeritus, Stanford University