1st Edition

The Routledge Handbook of Language Learning and Teaching Beyond the Classroom

Edited By Hayo Reinders, Chun Lai, Pia Sundqvist Copyright 2022
    462 Pages 18 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    462 Pages 18 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    Informal language learning beyond the classroom plays an important and growing role in language learning and teaching. This Handbook brings together the existing body of research and unites the various disciplines that have explored this area, in order to present the current state of knowledge in one accessible resource.

    Much of adult learning takes place outside of formal education and for language learning, it is likely that out-of-class experiences play an equally important role. It is therefore surprising that the role of informal language learning has received little attention over the years, with the vast majority of research instead focusing on the classroom. Researchers from a range of backgrounds, however, have started to realise the important contribution of informal language learning, both in its own right, and in its relationship with classroom learning. Studies in the areas of learner autonomy, learning strategies, study abroad, language support, learners’ voices, computer-mediated communication, mobile-assisted language learning, digital gaming, and many others, all add to our understanding of the complex and intersecting ways in which learners construct their own language learning experiences, drawing from a wide range of resources, including materials, teachers, self-study, technology, other learners and native speakers.

    This Handbook provides a sound and comprehensive basis for researchers and graduate students to build upon in their own research of language learning and teaching beyond the classroom.

    Hayo Reinders, Chun Lai and Pia Sundqvist
    Part I Mapping LLTBC
    1. The History of Language Learning and Teaching Beyond the Classroom
    Jonathon Reinhardt
    2. Mapping language learning environments
    Phil Benson
    3. Interfacing Formal Education and Language Learning beyond the Classroom
    Steven L. Thorne and John Hellermann
    4. Participant-driven L2 learning in the wild: An overview and its pedagogical implications
    Søren W. Eskildsen
    5. Learning beyond the classroom and autonomy
    Geoff Sockett
    6. CALL in the Wild: a voyage of independent self-directed learning?
    Liam Murray, Marta Giralt, Martin A. Mullen and Silvia Benini
    7. English Language Learning Beyond the Classroom: Do Learner Factors Matter?
    Cynthia Lee
    8. The golden age of foreign language learning. Age and language learning beyond the classroom
    Elke Peters
    Part II Supporting LLTBC
    9. Digital Game-Based Language Learning in Extramural Settings
    Kyle W. Scholz
    10. Fostering learners’ self-regulation and collaboration skills and strategies for mobile language learning beyond the classroom
    Olga Viberg and Agnes Kukulska-Hulme
    11. Enhancing Language and Culture Learning Through Social Network Technologies
    Lina Lee
    12. Enhancing language and culture learning in the case of study abroad
    Martin Howard
    13. Enhancing Language and Culture Learning in Migration Contexts
    Silvia Kunitz
    14. Learning to act in the social world: building interactional competence through everyday language use experiences
    Arja Piirainen-Marsh and Niina Lilja
    15. Enhancing language learning in private tutoring
    Kevin Wai Ho Yung
    16. Enhancing the Quality of Out-of-Class Learning in Flipped Learning
    Jun Chen Hsieh, Michael W. Marek and Wen-Chi Vivian Wu
    17. Enhancing language learning beyond the classroom through advising
    Jo Mynard and Satoko Kato
    18. Online Learner Communities for Fostering Autonomous Learning beyond the Classroom
    Wenli Wu and Qing Ma
    19. Self-access Centres for Facilitating Autonomous Language Learning
    David Gardner
    20. Assessments of and for LBC
    Tony Burner
    Part III Researching LLTBC
    21. Ethics, privacy and security in researching LBC
    Liss Kerstin Sylvén
    22. Evaluation of instruments for researching learners’ LBC
    Ju Seong Lee
    23. Methods and Approaches to Investigating Language Learning in the Digital Wilds
    Shannon Sauro
    24. The use of mixed methods to study language learning beyond the classroom
    Lisbeth M. Brevik and Nils Buchholtz
    25. Language Learning Diary Studies in Learning beyond the Classroom Contexts
    Kathleen M. Bailey
    26. Doing LLBC research with young learners
    Signe Hannibal Jensen
    27. Ethnography in LBC research
    Anastasia Rothoni
    28. When Classrooms aren’t an Option: Researching Mobile Language Learning through Disruption
    Matt Smith, Howard Scott and John Traxler
    29. Bringing beyond into the L2 classroom: On video ethnography and the ‘wild’ in-class use of smartphones
    Peter Wikström and Marie Nilsberth
    30. Learning Analytics and Educational Data Mining in Learning Beyond the Classroom
    Michael Thomas


    Hayo Reinders (www.innovationinteaching.org) is TESOL Professor and Director of Research at Anaheim University, USA, and Professor of Applied Linguistics at KMUTT in Thailand. He is founder of the global Institute for Teacher Leadership and editor of Innovation in Language Learning & Teaching.

    Chun Lai is an Associate Professor at the Faculty of Education, the University of Hong Kong. Her research interests include self-directed language learning with technology beyond the classroom, technology-enhanced language learning and teacher technology integration.

    Pia Sundqvist is Associate Professor of English Language Education at the University of Oslo, Norway. Her main research interests are in the field of applied English linguistics, with a focus on informal language learning, especially Extramural English and gaming, the assessment of L2 oral proficiency and English language teaching.

    'The changing landscape of language teaching and learning that we have witnessed recently has emphasized the need for a greater understanding of nature and significance of out-of-class learning opportunities in second language learning. This handbook provides a valuable account of the nature of LBC; illustrates the diversity of affordances learners make use of; describes the cognitive, affective, linguistic, social and individual dimensions involved; and provides examples of the research methods that can be used in investigating LBC. And in addition the handbook demonstrates how learners’ use of out of class learning opportunities are changing our understanding of the nature of second language learning.' – Jack C. Richards, Honorary Professor, University of Sydney

    'Starting with the recognition that technology has opened a new world for language teachers and learners, this handbook provides an up-to-date and comprehensive look at learning beyond the classroom. Editors Reinders, Lai, and Sundqvist are leading authorities in this domain, and have put together an impressive ensemble of knowledgeable contributors across a broad range of relevant sub-areas. Language teachers, teacher educators, and researchers will find this an invaluable and timely resource.' – Phil Hubbard, Senior Lecturer Emeritus, Stanford University