The TWI Workbook: Essential Skills for Supervisors, Second Edition, 2nd Edition (Paperback) book cover

The TWI Workbook

Essential Skills for Supervisors, Second Edition, 2nd Edition

By Patrick Graupp, Robert J. Wrona

Productivity Press

318 pages | 74 B/W Illus.

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Since the publication of its Shingo Prize-winning predecessor, TWI programs have seen steady growth in usage. As a true understanding of Standard Work has developed, the need for the TWI skills as fundamental tools to achieve Lean objectives has been solidified.

The TWI Workbook: Essential Skills for Supervisors, Second Edition has been completely updated to the latest terminology and practice. This edition includes revised forms and tools, as well as new examples that illustrate current day TWI practice. Emphasizing the importance of accident and injury prevention, this edition includes an entirely new section on Job Safety, a fourth TWI module that was developed in Japan using the identical TWI methodology of the original three programs introduced in the original work. This updated edition includes new chapters on:

  • Four Steps of Job Safety: Preventing Accidents before They Happen
  • Two Key Aspects to Safety: Things and People
  • Practicing the JS Method
  • TWI’s Problem Solving Training

In addition to a new chapter on the TWI problem-solving methodology, this edition contains a new introduction with a more complete description of how TWI was reintroduced into American industry, including detailed information on the contribution TWI made at Toyota that was not available when the original book was published.

Focusing on how the TWI skills create and support standardized work as the foundation for Lean and continuous improvement, the book includes detailed explanations on how to determine important steps and find key points that lead the way to standardized work. A new section on making a balanced breakdown has also been added, with new examples of Job Instruction breakdowns. The book also features a new conclusion that compares the historical role of TWI with what companies today are experiencing using the TWI methodology.


"As you probably know, Robert Wrona has been the primary driving force behind spreading the Training Within Industry (TWI) concepts in North America and around the globe for the past couple of decades, in conjunction with the TWI Institute. In Patrick Graupp you have, without a doubt, the finest TWI master instructor in the English language around the world. The first edition of their workbook was of tremendous value, and the latest version is even better. … Spend time carefully thinking about the first principles and fundamental elements in this material, like Taiichi Ohno and others inside of Toyota did more than 60 years ago. The fundamentals have provided value to American companies before and after World War II. The concepts have provided decades of value to Toyota and other companies around the world as well. I am certain if you study the content and apply it diligently and patiently, you will find success as well."

—From the Foreword by Art Smalley, President, Art of Lean, Inc.

Table of Contents


Role of TWI at Toyota

Early Struggles of Toyota

Role of TWI in the Toyota Production System

TWI: The Missing Link to Lean

Fundamentals of the TWI Program

Five Needs Model

Common Trait: J Program’s Four-Step Methods

Common Trait: Learn by Doing

Common Trait: Training Session Format

Training Manuals: A Standardized Methodology for Delivering Training

Identifying Roles and Responsibilities in the TWI Programs


Four Steps of Job Instruction

Workforce Instruction: Two Ineffective Methods

Using the JI Four-Step Method

Step 1: Prepare the Worker

Step 2: Present the Operation

Step 3: Try Out Performance

Step 4: Follow Up

If the Worker Hasn’t Learned, the Instructor Hasn’t Taught

How to Get Ready to Instruct: Break Down the Job

Get Ready Point 2: Break Down the Job

What Is an Important Step?

What Is a Key Point?

Identifying the Key Points in the Fire Underwriter’s Knot Example

Listing the Reasons for the Key Points

Making a Balanced Breakdown

Observing and Involving Experienced Workers in the Breakdown Process

Summary and Sample Breakdowns

Breakdown Sheets and Standardized Work

Extra Notes on Key Points

How to Get Ready to Instruct: Make a Timetable for Training, Get Everything Ready, and Arrange the Worksite

Get Ready Point 1: Make a Timetable for Training

Get Ready Points 3 and 4: Get Everything Ready and Arrange the Worksite


Applying Job Methods to a Sample Job to Show Before and After Improvements

Three Fundamental Classifications of Work

Microwave Shield Sample Job: Current Method

Microwave Shield Sample Job: Proposed Method

Microwave Shield Sample Job: How the New Job Process Works

Using the New Method

Four Steps of Job Methods Improvement

Step 1: Break Down the Job

Step 2: Question Every Detail

Step 3: Develop the New Method

Step 4: Apply the New Method


Writing and Selling the Improvement Proposal: Example

Proposals: Write It Down and Work Out the Numbers

Improvement Proposal Example: Reduction of Workers on the

Handset Assembly Line


Job Relations: Working with and through People

What Is Good Supervision?

Supervisor’s Relationship with People

People Must Be Treated as Individuals

What Is a Problem and How Do You Solve It?

Four Steps of Job Relations

Get the Objective

Step 1: Get the Facts

Step 2: Weigh and Decide

Step 3: Take Action

Step 4: Check Results

Did You Accomplish Your Objective?

Applying the JR Four-Step Method to the Tina Problem

How to Get Opinions and Feelings

Problem Prevention Using JR’s Foundations for Good Relations

How to See Problems Coming

The Mike Problem

Four Ways the Mike Problem Came Up

Foundations for Good Relations

The Team Leader Problem

Mary’s Use of the Foundations for Good Relations

Conclusion: The Effect of Change and Problem Prevention


Four Steps of Job Safety: Preventing Accidents before They Happen

Supervisors’ Roles and Responsibilities in Safety

The Need for Accident Prevention

Factors Common to Most Accidents: The Packing Section Example

Four Steps of Job Safety

Safety Incidents Are Caused; Break the Chain

Risky Supervisor Styles

Two Key Aspects to Safety: Things and People

A Problem with Things: The Miller Example

Step 1: Spot the Causes of Danger

Step 2: Decide on Countermeasures

Step 3: Enforce Countermeasures

Step 4: Check Results

Rules for Things

A Problem with People: The Thomas Example

Rules for People

Practicing the JS Method

The Foreman Morley Example

Step 1: Spot the Causes of Danger

Step 2: Decide on Countermeasures

Steps 3 and 4: Enforce Countermeasures and Check Results

Conclusion to Foreman Morley Example

Action to Take on Abnormalities

What to Do When Injuries Occur

Combination of Causes Involving People and Things

Workplace Inspection

TWI’s Problem Solving Training

Comparing TWI and Toyota Problem Solving Methods

What Is a Problem?

Step 1: Isolate the Problem

Step 2: Prepare for Solution

Step 3: Correct the Problem

Step 4: Check and Evaluate Results


Conclusion—TWI: Key to Changing the Way People Work in Lean

Appendix: ESCO Turbine Technologies–Syracuse: Using Job Instruction as a Foundation for Standardized Work


About the Authors

Patrick Graupp began his training career at the Sanyo Electric Corporate Training Center in Japan after graduating with highest honors from Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1980. There he learned to deliver Training Within Industry (TWI) from his mentor Kazuhiko Shibuya. Mr. Shibuya was trained by Kenji Ogawa, who was trained by the four TWI, Inc. trainers sent from the United States to help Japan rebuild industry in 1951. Patrick earned an MBA from Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, while leading Sanyo’s global training effort. He was later promoted to the head of human resources for Sanyo North America Corp. in San Diego, California, where he settled.

Patrick partnered with Bob Wrona in 2001 to conduct TWI pilot projects in Syracuse, New York, that became the foundation for the TWI Institute, which has since trained a rapidly expanding global network of more than 1000 certified trainers who are now delivering TWI training in the manufacturing, health care, construction, energy, and service industries in the United States and around the globe. The first edition of their book The TWI Workbook: Essential Skills for Supervisors was a Shingo Research and Professional Publication Prize Recipient for 2007.

Robert J. Wrona began his manufacturing career at Chevrolet in Buffalo, New York, where he was promoted to shop floor supervisor after earning a BS from Canisius College, Buffalo, New York. He moved on to Kodak in Rochester, New York, where he became interested in organizational development while earning his MBA from the Rochester Institute of Technology, New York. Bob joined a high-volume retail drugstore chain in Syracuse, New York, when it was a 12-store operation. He standardized store operating procedures, developed internal training, and reorganized central distribution as the company profitably grew into a regional chain of 140 in 11 years.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Human Resources & Personnel Management
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Quality Control
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Industries / Manufacturing Industries