The triple helix of university–industry–government interactions is a universal model for the development of the knowledge-based society, through innovation and entrepreneurship. It draws from the innovative practice of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) with industry and government in inventing a regional renewal strategy in early 20th-century New England. Parallel experiences were identified in “Silicon Valley,” where Stanford University works together with industry and government. Triple helix is identified as the secret of such innovative regions. It may also be found in statist or laissez-faire societies, globally.
The triple helix focuses on “innovation in innovation” and the dynamic to foster an innovation ecosystem, through various hybrid organizations, such as technology transfer offices, venture capital firms, incubators, accelerators, and science parks.
This second edition develops the practical and policy implications of the triple helix model with case studies exemplifying the meta-theory, including:
• how to make an innovative region through the triple helix approach;
• balancing development and sustainability by “triple helix twins";
• triple helix matrix to analyze regional innovation globally; and
• case studies on the Stanford's StartX accelerator; the Ashland, Oregon Theater Arts Clusters; and Linyi regional innovation in China.
The Triple Helix as a universal innovation model can assist students, researchers, managers, entrepreneurs, and policymakers to understand the roles of university, industry, and government in forming and developing “an innovative region,” which has self-renewal and sustainable innovative capacity.
Table of Contents
Introduction: triple helix: a universal innovation model? Part I: The triple helix concept 1. A universal triple helix: Silicon Valley's secret 2. Triple helix in Civil Society 3. The entrepreneurial university in a triple helix 4. The firm in a triple helix 5. The optimum role of government Part II: The triple helix innovation model 6. Triple helix region 7. The incubation of innovation 8. Triple helix technopolis 9. Venture capital in the triple helix 10. Triple helix twins: balancing development and sustainability 11. Triple helix matrix Part III: Case studies 12. The triple helix in Silicon Valley 13. StartX: filling the gap in Stanford University's entrepreneurial development 14. A teaching university's civic entrepreneurship: Ashland Oregon theater cluster and renaissance as a humanities town 15. Innovation in innovation: an endless transition toward the triple helix
Henry Etzkowitz is Visiting Lecturer of Science, Technology and Society, Stanford University, USA; Visiting Professor, Birkbeck, University of London, UK; CEO/President, International Triple Helix Institute (ITHI), Palo Alto, California, USA; President, Triple Helix Association (THA), Rome, Italy; and Distinguished Expert, Shandong Academy of Science, Jinan, China.
Chunyan Zhou is Director of International Triple Helix Institute (ITHI, www.triplehelix.net), USA; leading researcher, Institute of Science and Technology for Development of Shandong, and co-director, Innovation and Entrepreneurship Research Center, Academy of Science, Jinan, China.