1st Edition

Thermal and Flow Measurements

By T.-W. Lee Copyright 2008
    400 Pages 172 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Thermal and flow processes are ubiquitous in mechanical, aerospace and chemical engineering systems. Experimental methods including thermal and flow diagnostics are therefore an important element in preparation of future engineers and researchers in this field. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of experimentation, a fundamental guidance book is essential in the engineering curriculum and as a technical reference.

    Thermal and Flow Measurements provides a synthesis of the basic science and engineering of diagnostic methods that students and engineers need to understand, design and apply to measurements in mechanical, aerospace and chemical engineering processes. A clear exposition is given on the basic concepts and application aspects of a wide range of thermal and flow diagnostics, starting from basic sensors, flow visualization, velocimetry, laser optical diagnostics, particle sizing methods, gas sampling methods, to micro-, nano-scale sensors and lidars. The presentation of topics allow readers to see the fundamental principles behind each methodology as well as the application details.

    Thermal and Flow Measurements
    Some Examples of Thermal and Flow Measurements
    Characteristics of Measurement Systems
    Time Response of Measurement Systems
    Time-Series Analysis and Signal Processing
    Error Estimates and Uncertainty Analysis
     Error Estimates Using Gaussian Distribution
    Data Regression
    Uncertainty Analysis
    Dimensional Analysis and Similitude
    Basic Science and Engineering in Thermal
       and Flow Measurements
    Basic Measurements of Pressure, Temperature,
    and Flow Rates
    Pressure Measurements 
     Pressure Transducers Based on Elastic Strain
    Piezoelectric Transducers
    Some Implementation Issues
    Temperature Sensors
    Temperature Measurements Based on Thermal Expansion
         of Materials
    Resistance-Based Temperature Sensors
     Pyrometer Measurements of Temperature
    Strain Gauges
    Flow Rate Measurements
    Obstruction Flowmeters 
    Turbine Flowmeters 
    Thermal Mass Flowmeters
     Flow Velocity Measurements Using Pitot
         and Static Pressure Probes
    Flow Visualization and Image Analysis
    Streamlines, Streaklines, and Pathlines
    Direct Photography Using Flow Tracers
    Surface Imaging Using Thermochromatic Liquid Crystals
         and Pressure-Sensitive Coatings
    Shadowgraph and Schlieren Imaging
    Laser Tomographic Imaging
    Image Processing and Analysis 
    Image Acquisition
    Basic Image Operations
    Image Enhancements
    Edge Detection 
    Flow Velocity Measurements
    Laser Doppler Velocimetry
    The Operating Principle 
    Operational Setup
    Particle Seeding
    Hot Wire Anemometry
    Operating Principle
    Operational Considerations
    Particle Image Velocimetry 
    Particle Image Density 
    Stereoscopic PIV for Three-Component Velocity
    Other Image-Based Methods
    Optical Diagnostics for Measurements of Species
    Concentrations and Temperature
    Rayleigh Scattering
    Rayleigh Scattering Theory
    Applications of Rayleigh Scattering 
    Mie Scattering 
    Applications and Assessments
    Raman Scattering
    Molecular Energy and Spectroscopy
    Laser-Induced Fluorescence
    Thermometry Based on LIF
    Vibrational and Rotational Spectroscopy 
    Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
    Particle Sizing and Two-Phase
    Flow Measurements
    Parameters to Characterize Groups of Particles
    Light Scattering and Extinction Measurements of Particle Size
    Laser-induced Incandescence Measurements of Particle Volume
         Fraction and Size
    Laser Diffraction
    Phase Doppler Analysis
    Particle Mass Flux Measurements
    Fiberoptic Correlation Method
    Acoustic Measurements
    Capacitance Probes
    Isokinetic Sampling 
    Gas Sampling Measurements
    Sampling Probes
    Non-Dispersive Infrared (NDIR) Analyzers
    Measurements of Nitric Oxides
    Hydrocarbon Analysis
    Measurements of Sulfur Oxides
    Gas Chromatography
    Mass Spectroscopy
    Scaled Measurements
    MEMS Devices
    Microfabrication Methods
    Microfluidic Sensors and Devices 
    Pressure and Temperature Sensors
    Bio- and Chemical Sensors
    Nanotechnology Sensors
    Microscopic Imaging Techniques
    Appendix A: Electronic Devices.
    Operational Amplifiers
    Inverting Amplifier
    Noninverting Amplifier
    Current-to-Voltage Converter
    Differential Amplifier
    Trigger Electronics
    Frequency Filters
    Filter Basics
     Active Filters
    Appendix B: Optics
    Optical Instruments
    Diffraction Grating 
    Appendix C: Electromagnetics and Electromagnetic Radiation  
    Maxwell’s Equations
    Electromagnetic Wave Equation
    Radiative Transfer Equation
    Blackbody Radiation
    Appendix D: Quantum Mechanics and Atomic/Molecular Structure
    Vibrational and Rotational Energy of Simple Molecules 
    Energy Transitions and Spectroscopy 


    T.-W. Lee

    "The book is a comprehensive guide and very usable for educational purposes. The book is recommended."
    Journal of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics