Trace Elements in Coal and Coal Combustion Residues focuses on trace metal chemistry of coal and coal combustion residues. Special emphasis is placed on management of coal combustion residues in electric power plants and the influence of coal and associated residues on soils, plants, water, and animals. Topics covered include a brief summary of research sponsored by Electric Power Research Institute, environmental pollution from coal combustion plants in low-rainfall regions, accumulation of trace elements in freshwater mussels near a power plant, testing to evaluate fossil fuel wastes by chemicals and isotopes, transport of metals from coal piles and ash impoundments, leachability and toxicity of metals in fly ash, and plant absorption of chemicals from ash. The book will be a useful reference for environmental and reclamation consultants, environmental engineers, toxicologists, environmental regulatory personnel, officials with electric power utilities and water treatment plants, and soil scientists.
Table of Contents
Introduction: Coal Ashes--Industrial Wastes or Beneficial By-Products? (R.F. Keefer). An Overview of Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Related to Effective Management of Coal Combustion Residues (I.P. Murarka, S.V. Mattigod, and R.F. Keefer). Environmental Effects from Power Plants: Coal-Based Environmental Problems in a Low-Rainfall Tropical Region (M. Agrawal, J. Singh, A.K. Jha, and J.S. Singh). Trace Element Concentrations in the Soft Tissue of Transplanted Freshwater Mussels Near a Coal-Fired Power Plant (C.S. Klusek, M. Heit, and S. Hodgkiss). Tests for and Monitoring of Fossil Fuel Dispersion and Ash Disposal: Strontium and Lead Isotopes as Monitors of Fossil Fuel Dispersion (R.W. Hurst, T.E. Davis, A.A. Elseewi, and A.L. Page). Baker Soil Test Applications for Land Reclamation, Animal Health, and Food Chain Protection (D.E. Baker, F.G. Pannebaker, J.P. Senft, and J.P. Coetzee). Transport and Leachability of Metals from Coal and Ash Piles: Multicomponent Transport Through Soil Subjected to Coal Pile Runoff Under Steady Saturated Flow (M.A. Anderson, P.M. Bertsch, and L.W. Zelazny). Leachability of Ni, Cd, Cr, and As from Coal Ash Impoundments of Different Ages on the Savannah River Site (S.S. Sandhu, G.L. Mills, and K.S. Sajwan). Use of Coal Ash for Plant Growth: Extractable and Plant Concentrations of Metals in Amended Coal Ash (A.P. Schwab). Uptake of Chemical Elements by Terrestrial Plants Growing on a Coal Fly Ash Landfill (L.H. Weinstein, M.A. Arthur, R.E. Schneider, P.B. Woodbury, J.A. Laurence, A.O. Beers, and G. Rubin). Accumulation of Mo in Wheat and Alfalfa Grown on Fly Ash-Amended Acid Mine Spoils (R.F. Keefer, D.K. Bhumbla, and R.N. Singh). Elements in Coal and Coal Ash Residues and Their Potential for Agricultural Crops (M.P. Menon, K.S. Sajwan, G.S. Ghuman, J. James, and K. Chandra).
Robert F. Keefer is a Professor in the Division of Plant and Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture and Forestry, at West Virginia University. Afterreceiving his B.S. in general agriculture from Cornell University and his M.S. and Ph.D. in soil science (agronomy) from Ohio State University, he worked two years as an organic chemist with Hercules Powder Company, and began his academic and research career in 1965 with West Virginia University. He has taught Soil Fertility, Soil Conservation and Management, Advanced Soil Fertility, the Chemistry of Soil Organic Matter, and part of a team-taught course on Plant Disorders. He devoted a year to teaching, conducting research, and developing a graduate program in soil science at Makerere University in Uganda and assisted one of his graduate students in Togo (West Africa). Dr. Keefer's research has been broad- beginning with soil fertility and soil test correlation, then branching into plant nutrition/soil chemistry relationship, especially dealing with micronutrients. Interest over the years shifted to use of agricultural manures, municipal wastes such as sewage sludge, and industrial byproducts such as coal ashes and sawdust, particularly with respect to environmental aspects of plant nutrition, toxicities, and heavy metal transport in soils, waters, plants, and animals. The geographical positioning of West Virginia in the center of the eastern U.S. coal field and the recent concern with maintaining or improving the quality of our environment led Dr. Keefer to develop a research program emphasizing constructive use of coal combustion by-products in reclaiming surface-mined land. His proficiency in this area is evidenced by the many calls he receives on this topic. Dr. Keefer's recent sabbatical was devoted mainly to producing a digest of research on the chemical composition and leaching characteristics of coal combustion by-products by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) that will be published soon. He was a major contributor to a book section on arsenic mobilization and bioavailability in soils forthcoming in Advances in Environmental Science and Technology, entitled "Arsenic in the Environment." . Kenneth S. Sajwan is an Associate Professor of Biology and the Coordinator of Environmental Studies in the School of Sciences and Technology at Savannah State College. He received his Ph.D. in Soil Science (Agronomy) from Colorado State University. In addition, he holds a Ph.D. (Post Harvest Technology), M.S. (Agronomy), and B.S. (Agriculture & Animal Husbandry) from India. Prior to joining Savannah State College, Dr. Sajwan worked as an Assistant Research Ecologist in the Biogeochemical Ecology Division of the University of Georgia's Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Earlier he worked as an ARS Scientist-Agronomy for the Indian Council of Agricultural Research; an Associate Professor-Water Use Management at the University of Roorkee, India; a World Bank Agricultural Consultant to Colombia, South America; and a Postdoctoral Fellow-Soil Chemistry at the University of Kentucky. Dr. Sajwan is also very active in teaching and has taught at the Indian Institute of Technology, University of Roorkee, Colorado State University, and the University of South Carolina. Dr. Sajwan's primary research interests include biogeochemistry of trace metals, soil-plant environmental chemistry, and groundwater quality and chemical equilibria in soils. Currently, Dr. Sajwan is investigating the potential benefits and environmental impact of applications of coal ash and organic waste mixtures to agricultural lands for crop production.