Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity : Good practices for in situ and on-farm conservation book cover
1st Edition

Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity
Good practices for in situ and on-farm conservation

ISBN 9780367172787
Published February 7, 2019 by Routledge
456 Pages 81 Color & 86 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Farmers have developed a range of agricultural practices to sustainably use and maintain a wide diversity of crop species in many parts of the world. This book documents good practices innovated by farmers and collects key reviews on good practices from global experts, not only from the case study countries but also from Brazil, China and other parts of Asia and Latin America.

A good practice for diversity is defined as a system, organization or process that, over time and space, maintains, enhances and creates crop genetic diversity, and ensures its availability to and from farmers and other users. Drawing on experiences from a UNEP-GEF project on "Conservation and Sustainable Use of Wild and Cultivated Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity for Promoting Livelihoods, Food Security and Ecosystem Services", with case studies from India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand, the authors show how methods for identifying good practices are still evolving and challenges in scaling-up remain. They identify key principles effective as a strategy for mainstreaming good practice into development efforts. Few books draw principles and lessons learned from good practices. This book fills this gap by combining good practices from the research project on tropical fruit trees with chapters from external experts to broaden its scope and relevance.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors 




List of Abbreviations and Acronyms 

Part 1: Setting Context 

1. On-farm and In Situ Conservation of Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity: Context and Conceptual Framework 

Bhuwon Sthapit, Hugo A.H. Lamers, V. Ramanatha Rao, Arwen Bailey, Percy Sajise, Paul Quek 

2. Key Concepts 

Bhuwon Sthapit,V. Ramanatha Rao and Hugo A.H. Lamers  

3. Community Biodiversity Management as an Approach for Realizing On-farm Management of Agricultural Biodiversity 

Bhuwon Sthapit, Hugo A.H. Lamers, V. Ramanatha Rao and Arwen Bailey 

4. Custodians of Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity: Identifying and Strengthening the Roles and Rights of Custodian Farmers 

Bhuwon Sthapit, Hugo A.H. Lamers and V. Ramanatha Rao 

Part 2: Good Practices of Agricultural Biodiversity Management and Sustainable Use 

5. Good Practices for Conservation and Sustainable Use of Crop Wild Relatives of Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity 

Danny Hunter and Suchitra Changtragoon 

6. Exotic and Indigenous Fruit Tree Diversity On-farm and the Conservation of Tree Genetic Resources: Case Studies from Sub-Saharan Africa 

Katja Kehlenbeck 

7. Promoting Community Management of Underutilized Tropical and Subtropical Fruit Genetic Resources in Brazil 

Josué Francisco da Silva Júnior, Dalva Maria da Mota, Rosa Lia Barbieri and Adriana Alercia 

8. Good Practice: Using Intra-specific Crop Diversity to Manage Pests and Pathogens in China 

Keyu Bai, Huaxian Peng, Jie Wu, Yayun Yang, Enlai Zhang, Luyuan Dai, Chunmin Lu, Yunyue Wang, Jie Yuan, Chunlin Long, Paola De Santis, and Devra Jarvis 

9. Kandyan Home Gardens: a Time-tested Good Practice from Sri Lanka for Conserving Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity 

D.K.N.G. Pushpakumara, H.M.S. Heenkenda, B. Marambe, R.H.G. Ranil, B.V.R. Punyawardena, J. Weerahewa, G.L.L.P. Silva, D. Hunter and J. Rizvi 

10. Amazonian Fruits: How Farmers Nurture Nutritional Diversity On Farm and in the Forest 

Patricia Shanley, Charles R. Clement, José Edmar Urano de Carvalho, Alfredo Kingo Oyama Homma, Antonio Jose Elias Amorim de Menezes 

Part 3: Case Studies of the Project, "Conservation and Sustainable Use of Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity" from South and Southeast Asia 

Case Studies: Propagation and Nursery Management 

11. A Suite of Propagation and Management Techniques for Garcinia in the Central Western Ghats Region of Karnataka, India 

Vasudeva R., B.M.C. Reddy and Bhuwon Sthapit 

12. A Set of Interconnected Practices which Enhances and Conserve Mango Diversity in Malihabad, India 

Shailendra Rajan, Hugo A.H. Lamers and Barasti Lal 

13. Maintenance of Mother Blocks of Citrus Rootstocks by Farmers and Nurseries for Production of Quality Planting Materials 

Indra Pal Singh 

14. Marcotting as Good Practice for Maintaining Diversity of Citrus Swampy Lands of South Kalimantan, Indonesia 

Achmad Rafieq, Muhammad Sabran, Susi Lesmayati, Winarno and Idha Widi Arsanti 

15. Combination of Side Grafting Technique and Informal Germplasm Exchange System in Non-irrigated Mango Orchards in Thailand 

Pichit Sripinta, Supattanakit Posawang, Chatchanok Noppornphan, Songpol Somsri and Bhuwon Sthapit 

16. Propagation and Pruning Techniques of Garcinia atroviridis (Asam Gelugor) in Bukit Gantang, Perak, Malaysia 

Zahimi Hassan, Norhayati Md Harun, Mohd Nizam Abdullah, Muhammad Shafie Md Sah, Salma Idris, Hugo A.H. Lamers and Bhuwon Sthapit 

Case Studies: Production and Management 

17. The Role of a Traditional Festival, Chhath Puja, in the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Tropical Fruits 

Awtar Singh, Vishal Nath, Sanjay Kumar Singh, Bhuwon Sthapit and B.M.C. Reddy 

18. Multivarietal Orchards: An Age-old Conservation Practice in Mango 

T.M. Gajanana, M.R. Dinesh, Sudha Mysore, Bhuwon Sthapit, Hugo A.H. Lamers, B.M.C. Reddy, V. Ramanatha Rao and V. Dakshinamoorthy 

19. Integrated Home Gardens for Maintaining Diversity of Mango and Citrus, and for Family Wellbeing in East Java 

Kuntoro Boga Andri, Putu Bagus Daroini, Winarno, Prama Yufdy, Nono Sutrisno and Idha Widi Arsanti 

20. Management of Garcinia Fusca Pierre for Sustainable Use 

Tawatchai Nimkingrat, Ratchanee Siriyan, Auttapon Rukkaphan, Margaret C. Yoovatana and Songpol Somsri 

21. Production and Management of an Underutilized Fruit: Aroi-Aroi (Garcinia forbesii King) in Home Gardens and Orchards 

Wong W.W.W., Jamaluddin Lani and Hugo A.H. Lamers 

Case Studies: Linking Farmers with Markets (Commercialization that Supports Diversity Maintenance and Livelihood of Poor) 

22. How can Markets Contribute to the Conservation of Agricultural Biodiversity on Farms? From Theory into Practice 

Hugo A.H. Lamers, Froukje Kruijssen, Bhuwon R. Sthapit and V. Ramanatha Rao 

23. Agrotourism in Kampung Kakeng, Serian: Development and Challenges 

Pearlycia Brooke, Salma Idris, Rateng Girid, Lau Cheng Yuon, Muhammad Shafie Md. Sah, Hugo A.H. Lamers 

24. Conserving Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity by Using their Products and Promoting Agrotourism: Lessons from an Empowered Community in Southern Thailand 

Montree Issarakraisila, Margaret C. Yoovatana and Songpol Somsri 

25. Value Addition of a Local Food Using Garcinia Cowa Leaves through Collective Actions and Marketing by Women’s Groups 

Samroeng Changprasert, Sombat Tongtao, Chatchanok Noppornphan and Songpol Somsri 

26. Value Creation for Garcinia Gummi-gutta and Garcinia indica through Energy-efficient Dryers and Product Differentiation in Central Western Ghats region of Karnataka, India 

Vasudeva R., Narasimha Hegde , B.M C. Reddy and Bhuwon Sthapit 

Case Studies: Working Modality with Communities and Multi-stakeholders Partners 

27. Community Forests Utilization and Informal Regulation for Tropical Fruit Tree Conservation 

Adhitya Marendra Kiloes, Kuntoro Boga Andri, Achmad Rafieq, Winarno, Idha Widi Arsanti and Zahirotul Hikmah Hassan 

28. An Informal Network of Grafting Experts to Help Communities Conserve and Use Wild Pickle Mango (Mangifera indica) Diversity in the central Western Ghats Region of Karnataka, India 

Vasudeva R., Narasimha Hegde, B.M.C. Reddy and Bhuwon Sthapit 

29. Social Capital Building for Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity Management 

M.P Vasimalai, M. Palanisamy and M. Kirankumar 

Part 4: A Way Forward 

30. Reflections on Good Practice Identification, Documentation, Piloting and Mainstreaming Challenges 

Bhuwon Sthapit, Hugo A.H. Lamers, and V. Ramanatha Rao 


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Bhuwon Sthapit is an in situ conservation specialist at Bioversity International based in Pokhara, Nepal. 

Hugo A.H. Lamers is an associate scientist at Bioversity International based in New Delhi, India. 

V. Ramanatha Rao has worked in plant genetic resources at ICRISAT (Hyderabad, India) and at Bioversity International (Italy, Singapore and Malaysia). 

Arwen Bailey is Science Editor at Bioversity International based in Rome, Italy.


"What is needed today is to understand and implement different and innovative approaches – far different from the conventional green revolution type of crop improvement. This book shows the way to make this a reality. It demonstrates how to integrate the innovation of smallholder farmers into large-scale research for development by selecting farmers' best fruit varieties, employing locally developed good practices and restoring degraded lands with diverse fruit species that at the same time sustainably improve the diets of the poor."From the foreword by Ann Tutwiler, Director General, Bioversity International