1st Edition

Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity Good practices for in situ and on-farm conservation

    456 Pages 81 Color & 86 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    456 Pages 81 Color & 86 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    456 Pages 81 Color & 86 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    Farmers have developed a range of agricultural practices to sustainably use and maintain a wide diversity of crop species in many parts of the world. This book documents good practices innovated by farmers and collects key reviews on good practices from global experts, not only from the case study countries but also from Brazil, China and other parts of Asia and Latin America.

    A good practice for diversity is defined as a system, organization or process that, over time and space, maintains, enhances and creates crop genetic diversity, and ensures its availability to and from farmers and other users. Drawing on experiences from a UNEP-GEF project on "Conservation and Sustainable Use of Wild and Cultivated Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity for Promoting Livelihoods, Food Security and Ecosystem Services", with case studies from India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand, the authors show how methods for identifying good practices are still evolving and challenges in scaling-up remain. They identify key principles effective as a strategy for mainstreaming good practice into development efforts. Few books draw principles and lessons learned from good practices. This book fills this gap by combining good practices from the research project on tropical fruit trees with chapters from external experts to broaden its scope and relevance.

    List of Contributors 




    List of Abbreviations and Acronyms 

    Part 1: Setting Context 

    1. On-farm and In Situ Conservation of Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity: Context and Conceptual Framework 

    Bhuwon Sthapit, Hugo A.H. Lamers, V. Ramanatha Rao, Arwen Bailey, Percy Sajise, Paul Quek 

    2. Key Concepts 

    Bhuwon Sthapit,V. Ramanatha Rao and Hugo A.H. Lamers  

    3. Community Biodiversity Management as an Approach for Realizing On-farm Management of Agricultural Biodiversity 

    Bhuwon Sthapit, Hugo A.H. Lamers, V. Ramanatha Rao and Arwen Bailey 

    4. Custodians of Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity: Identifying and Strengthening the Roles and Rights of Custodian Farmers 

    Bhuwon Sthapit, Hugo A.H. Lamers and V. Ramanatha Rao 

    Part 2: Good Practices of Agricultural Biodiversity Management and Sustainable Use 

    5. Good Practices for Conservation and Sustainable Use of Crop Wild Relatives of Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity 

    Danny Hunter and Suchitra Changtragoon 

    6. Exotic and Indigenous Fruit Tree Diversity On-farm and the Conservation of Tree Genetic Resources: Case Studies from Sub-Saharan Africa 

    Katja Kehlenbeck 

    7. Promoting Community Management of Underutilized Tropical and Subtropical Fruit Genetic Resources in Brazil 

    Josué Francisco da Silva Júnior, Dalva Maria da Mota, Rosa Lia Barbieri and Adriana Alercia 

    8. Good Practice: Using Intra-specific Crop Diversity to Manage Pests and Pathogens in China 

    Keyu Bai, Huaxian Peng, Jie Wu, Yayun Yang, Enlai Zhang, Luyuan Dai, Chunmin Lu, Yunyue Wang, Jie Yuan, Chunlin Long, Paola De Santis, and Devra Jarvis 

    9. Kandyan Home Gardens: a Time-tested Good Practice from Sri Lanka for Conserving Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity 

    D.K.N.G. Pushpakumara, H.M.S. Heenkenda, B. Marambe, R.H.G. Ranil, B.V.R. Punyawardena, J. Weerahewa, G.L.L.P. Silva, D. Hunter and J. Rizvi 

    10. Amazonian Fruits: How Farmers Nurture Nutritional Diversity On Farm and in the Forest 

    Patricia Shanley, Charles R. Clement, José Edmar Urano de Carvalho, Alfredo Kingo Oyama Homma, Antonio Jose Elias Amorim de Menezes 

    Part 3: Case Studies of the Project, "Conservation and Sustainable Use of Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity" from South and Southeast Asia 

    Case Studies: Propagation and Nursery Management 

    11. A Suite of Propagation and Management Techniques for Garcinia in the Central Western Ghats Region of Karnataka, India 

    Vasudeva R., B.M.C. Reddy and Bhuwon Sthapit 

    12. A Set of Interconnected Practices which Enhances and Conserve Mango Diversity in Malihabad, India 

    Shailendra Rajan, Hugo A.H. Lamers and Barasti Lal 

    13. Maintenance of Mother Blocks of Citrus Rootstocks by Farmers and Nurseries for Production of Quality Planting Materials 

    Indra Pal Singh 

    14. Marcotting as Good Practice for Maintaining Diversity of Citrus Swampy Lands of South Kalimantan, Indonesia 

    Achmad Rafieq, Muhammad Sabran, Susi Lesmayati, Winarno and Idha Widi Arsanti 

    15. Combination of Side Grafting Technique and Informal Germplasm Exchange System in Non-irrigated Mango Orchards in Thailand 

    Pichit Sripinta, Supattanakit Posawang, Chatchanok Noppornphan, Songpol Somsri and Bhuwon Sthapit 

    16. Propagation and Pruning Techniques of Garcinia atroviridis (Asam Gelugor) in Bukit Gantang, Perak, Malaysia 

    Zahimi Hassan, Norhayati Md Harun, Mohd Nizam Abdullah, Muhammad Shafie Md Sah, Salma Idris, Hugo A.H. Lamers and Bhuwon Sthapit 

    Case Studies: Production and Management 

    17. The Role of a Traditional Festival, Chhath Puja, in the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Tropical Fruits 

    Awtar Singh, Vishal Nath, Sanjay Kumar Singh, Bhuwon Sthapit and B.M.C. Reddy 

    18. Multivarietal Orchards: An Age-old Conservation Practice in Mango 

    T.M. Gajanana, M.R. Dinesh, Sudha Mysore, Bhuwon Sthapit, Hugo A.H. Lamers, B.M.C. Reddy, V. Ramanatha Rao and V. Dakshinamoorthy 

    19. Integrated Home Gardens for Maintaining Diversity of Mango and Citrus, and for Family Wellbeing in East Java 

    Kuntoro Boga Andri, Putu Bagus Daroini, Winarno, Prama Yufdy, Nono Sutrisno and Idha Widi Arsanti 

    20. Management of Garcinia Fusca Pierre for Sustainable Use 

    Tawatchai Nimkingrat, Ratchanee Siriyan, Auttapon Rukkaphan, Margaret C. Yoovatana and Songpol Somsri 

    21. Production and Management of an Underutilized Fruit: Aroi-Aroi (Garcinia forbesii King) in Home Gardens and Orchards 

    Wong W.W.W., Jamaluddin Lani and Hugo A.H. Lamers 

    Case Studies: Linking Farmers with Markets (Commercialization that Supports Diversity Maintenance and Livelihood of Poor) 

    22. How can Markets Contribute to the Conservation of Agricultural Biodiversity on Farms? From Theory into Practice 

    Hugo A.H. Lamers, Froukje Kruijssen, Bhuwon R. Sthapit and V. Ramanatha Rao 

    23. Agrotourism in Kampung Kakeng, Serian: Development and Challenges 

    Pearlycia Brooke, Salma Idris, Rateng Girid, Lau Cheng Yuon, Muhammad Shafie Md. Sah, Hugo A.H. Lamers 

    24. Conserving Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity by Using their Products and Promoting Agrotourism: Lessons from an Empowered Community in Southern Thailand 

    Montree Issarakraisila, Margaret C. Yoovatana and Songpol Somsri 

    25. Value Addition of a Local Food Using Garcinia Cowa Leaves through Collective Actions and Marketing by Women’s Groups 

    Samroeng Changprasert, Sombat Tongtao, Chatchanok Noppornphan and Songpol Somsri 

    26. Value Creation for Garcinia Gummi-gutta and Garcinia indica through Energy-efficient Dryers and Product Differentiation in Central Western Ghats region of Karnataka, India 

    Vasudeva R., Narasimha Hegde , B.M C. Reddy and Bhuwon Sthapit 

    Case Studies: Working Modality with Communities and Multi-stakeholders Partners 

    27. Community Forests Utilization and Informal Regulation for Tropical Fruit Tree Conservation 

    Adhitya Marendra Kiloes, Kuntoro Boga Andri, Achmad Rafieq, Winarno, Idha Widi Arsanti and Zahirotul Hikmah Hassan 

    28. An Informal Network of Grafting Experts to Help Communities Conserve and Use Wild Pickle Mango (Mangifera indica) Diversity in the central Western Ghats Region of Karnataka, India 

    Vasudeva R., Narasimha Hegde, B.M.C. Reddy and Bhuwon Sthapit 

    29. Social Capital Building for Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity Management 

    M.P Vasimalai, M. Palanisamy and M. Kirankumar 

    Part 4: A Way Forward 

    30. Reflections on Good Practice Identification, Documentation, Piloting and Mainstreaming Challenges 

    Bhuwon Sthapit, Hugo A.H. Lamers, and V. Ramanatha Rao 



    Bhuwon Sthapit is an in situ conservation specialist at Bioversity International based in Pokhara, Nepal. 

    Hugo A.H. Lamers is an associate scientist at Bioversity International based in New Delhi, India. 

    V. Ramanatha Rao has worked in plant genetic resources at ICRISAT (Hyderabad, India) and at Bioversity International (Italy, Singapore and Malaysia). 

    Arwen Bailey is Science Editor at Bioversity International based in Rome, Italy.

    "What is needed today is to understand and implement different and innovative approaches – far different from the conventional green revolution type of crop improvement. This book shows the way to make this a reality. It demonstrates how to integrate the innovation of smallholder farmers into large-scale research for development by selecting farmers' best fruit varieties, employing locally developed good practices and restoring degraded lands with diverse fruit species that at the same time sustainably improve the diets of the poor."From the foreword by Ann Tutwiler, Director General, Bioversity International