Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity: Good practices for in situ and on-farm conservation, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity

Good practices for in situ and on-farm conservation, 1st Edition

Edited by Bhuwon Sthapit, Hugo Lamers, Ramanatha Rao, Arwen Bailey


456 pages | 81 Color Illus. | 86 B/W Illus.

Look Inside
Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Paperback: 9780367172787
pub: 2019-02-07
SAVE ~$9.99
Hardback: 9781138781276
pub: 2016-05-16
SAVE ~$32.00
eBook (VitalSource) : 9781315758459
pub: 2016-05-12
from $24.98

FREE Standard Shipping!


Farmers have developed a range of agricultural practices to sustainably use and maintain a wide diversity of crop species in many parts of the world. This book documents good practices innovated by farmers and collects key reviews on good practices from global experts, not only from the case study countries but also from Brazil, China and other parts of Asia and Latin America.

A good practice for diversity is defined as a system, organization or process that, over time and space, maintains, enhances and creates crop genetic diversity, and ensures its availability to and from farmers and other users. Drawing on experiences from a UNEP-GEF project on "Conservation and Sustainable Use of Wild and Cultivated Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity for Promoting Livelihoods, Food Security and Ecosystem Services", with case studies from India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand, the authors show how methods for identifying good practices are still evolving and challenges in scaling-up remain. They identify key principles effective as a strategy for mainstreaming good practice into development efforts. Few books draw principles and lessons learned from good practices. This book fills this gap by combining good practices from the research project on tropical fruit trees with chapters from external experts to broaden its scope and relevance.


"What is needed today is to understand and implement different and innovative approaches – far different from the conventional green revolution type of crop improvement. This book shows the way to make this a reality. It demonstrates how to integrate the innovation of smallholder farmers into large-scale research for development by selecting farmers' best fruit varieties, employing locally developed good practices and restoring degraded lands with diverse fruit species that at the same time sustainably improve the diets of the poor."From the foreword by Ann Tutwiler, Director General, Bioversity International

Table of Contents

List of Contributors




List of Abbreviations and Acronyms

Part 1: Setting Context

1. On-farm and In Situ Conservation of Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity: Context and Conceptual Framework

Bhuwon Sthapit, Hugo A.H. Lamers, V. Ramanatha Rao, Arwen Bailey, Percy Sajise, Paul Quek

2. Key Concepts

Bhuwon Sthapit,V. Ramanatha Rao and Hugo A.H. Lamers

3. Community Biodiversity Management as an Approach for Realizing On-farm Management of Agricultural Biodiversity

Bhuwon Sthapit, Hugo A.H. Lamers, V. Ramanatha Rao and Arwen Bailey

4. Custodians of Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity: Identifying and Strengthening the Roles and Rights of Custodian Farmers

Bhuwon Sthapit, Hugo A.H. Lamers and V. Ramanatha Rao

Part 2: Good Practices of Agricultural Biodiversity Management and Sustainable Use

5. Good Practices for Conservation and Sustainable Use of Crop Wild Relatives of Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity

Danny Hunter and Suchitra Changtragoon

6. Exotic and Indigenous Fruit Tree Diversity On-farm and the Conservation of Tree Genetic Resources: Case Studies from Sub-Saharan Africa

Katja Kehlenbeck

7. Promoting Community Management of Underutilized Tropical and Subtropical Fruit Genetic Resources in Brazil

Josué Francisco da Silva Júnior, Dalva Maria da Mota, Rosa Lia Barbieri and Adriana Alercia

8. Good Practice: Using Intra-specific Crop Diversity to Manage Pests and Pathogens in China

Keyu Bai, Huaxian Peng, Jie Wu, Yayun Yang, Enlai Zhang, Luyuan Dai, Chunmin Lu, Yunyue Wang, Jie Yuan, Chunlin Long, Paola De Santis, and Devra Jarvis

9. Kandyan Home Gardens: a Time-tested Good Practice from Sri Lanka for Conserving Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity

D.K.N.G. Pushpakumara, H.M.S. Heenkenda, B. Marambe, R.H.G. Ranil, B.V.R. Punyawardena, J. Weerahewa, G.L.L.P. Silva, D. Hunter and J. Rizvi

10. Amazonian Fruits: How Farmers Nurture Nutritional Diversity On Farm and in the Forest

Patricia Shanley, Charles R. Clement, José Edmar Urano de Carvalho, Alfredo Kingo Oyama Homma, Antonio Jose Elias Amorim de Menezes

Part 3: Case Studies of the Project, "Conservation and Sustainable Use of Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity" from South and Southeast Asia

Case Studies: Propagation and Nursery Management

11. A Suite of Propagation and Management Techniques for Garcinia in the Central Western Ghats Region of Karnataka, India

Vasudeva R., B.M.C. Reddy and Bhuwon Sthapit

12. A Set of Interconnected Practices which Enhances and Conserve Mango Diversity in Malihabad, India

Shailendra Rajan, Hugo A.H. Lamers and Barasti Lal

13. Maintenance of Mother Blocks of Citrus Rootstocks by Farmers and Nurseries for Production of Quality Planting Materials

Indra Pal Singh

14. Marcotting as Good Practice for Maintaining Diversity of Citrus Swampy Lands of South Kalimantan, Indonesia

Achmad Rafieq, Muhammad Sabran, Susi Lesmayati, Winarno and Idha Widi Arsanti

15. Combination of Side Grafting Technique and Informal Germplasm Exchange System in Non-irrigated Mango Orchards in Thailand

Pichit Sripinta, Supattanakit Posawang, Chatchanok Noppornphan, Songpol Somsri and Bhuwon Sthapit

16. Propagation and Pruning Techniques of Garcinia atroviridis (Asam Gelugor) in Bukit Gantang, Perak, Malaysia

Zahimi Hassan, Norhayati Md Harun, Mohd Nizam Abdullah, Muhammad Shafie Md Sah, Salma Idris, Hugo A.H. Lamers and Bhuwon Sthapit

Case Studies: Production and Management

17. The Role of a Traditional Festival, Chhath Puja, in the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Tropical Fruits

Awtar Singh, Vishal Nath, Sanjay Kumar Singh, Bhuwon Sthapit and B.M.C. Reddy

18. Multivarietal Orchards: An Age-old Conservation Practice in Mango

T.M. Gajanana, M.R. Dinesh, Sudha Mysore, Bhuwon Sthapit, Hugo A.H. Lamers, B.M.C. Reddy, V. Ramanatha Rao and V. Dakshinamoorthy

19. Integrated Home Gardens for Maintaining Diversity of Mango and Citrus, and for Family Wellbeing in East Java

Kuntoro Boga Andri, Putu Bagus Daroini, Winarno, Prama Yufdy, Nono Sutrisno and Idha Widi Arsanti

20. Management of Garcinia Fusca Pierrefor Sustainable Use

Tawatchai Nimkingrat, Ratchanee Siriyan, Auttapon Rukkaphan, Margaret C. Yoovatana and Songpol Somsri

21. Production and Management of an Underutilized Fruit: Aroi-Aroi (Garcinia forbesii King) in Home Gardens and Orchards

Wong W.W.W., Jamaluddin Lani and Hugo A.H. Lamers

Case Studies: Linking Farmers with Markets (Commercialization that Supports Diversity Maintenance and Livelihood of Poor)

22. How can Markets Contribute to the Conservation of Agricultural Biodiversity on Farms? From Theory into Practice

Hugo A.H. Lamers, Froukje Kruijssen, Bhuwon R. Sthapit and V. Ramanatha Rao

23. Agrotourism in Kampung Kakeng, Serian: Development and Challenges

Pearlycia Brooke, Salma Idris, Rateng Girid, Lau Cheng Yuon, Muhammad Shafie Md. Sah, Hugo A.H. Lamers

24. Conserving Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity by Using their Products and Promoting Agrotourism: Lessons from an Empowered Community in Southern Thailand

Montree Issarakraisila, Margaret C. Yoovatana and Songpol Somsri

25. Value Addition of a Local Food Using Garcinia Cowa Leaves through Collective Actions and Marketing by Women’s Groups

Samroeng Changprasert, Sombat Tongtao, Chatchanok Noppornphan and Songpol Somsri

26. Value Creation for Garcinia Gummi-gutta and Garcinia indica through Energy-efficient Dryers and Product Differentiation in Central Western Ghats region of Karnataka, India

Vasudeva R., Narasimha Hegde , B.M C. Reddy and Bhuwon Sthapit

Case Studies: Working Modality with Communities and Multi-stakeholders Partners

27. Community Forests Utilization and Informal Regulation for Tropical Fruit Tree Conservation

Adhitya Marendra Kiloes, Kuntoro Boga Andri, Achmad Rafieq, Winarno, Idha Widi Arsanti and Zahirotul Hikmah Hassan

28. An Informal Network of Grafting Experts to Help Communities Conserve and Use Wild Pickle Mango (Mangifera indica) Diversity in the central Western Ghats Region of Karnataka, India

Vasudeva R., Narasimha Hegde, B.M.C. Reddy and Bhuwon Sthapit

29. Social Capital Building for Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity Management

M.P Vasimalai, M. Palanisamy and M. Kirankumar

Part 4: A Way Forward

30. Reflections on Good Practice Identification, Documentation, Piloting and Mainstreaming Challenges

Bhuwon Sthapit, Hugo A.H. Lamers, and V. Ramanatha Rao


About the Editors

Bhuwon Sthapit is an in situ conservation specialist at Bioversity International based in Pokhara, Nepal.

Hugo A.H. Lamers is an associate scientist at Bioversity International based in New Delhi, India.

V. Ramanatha Rao has worked in plant genetic resources at ICRISAT (Hyderabad, India) and at Bioversity International (Italy, Singapore and Malaysia).

Arwen Bailey is Science Editor at Bioversity International based in Rome, Italy.

About the Series

Issues in Agricultural Biodiversity

Issues in Agricultural Biodiversity

This series of books is published by Earthscan in association with Bioversity International. The aim of the series is to review the current state of knowledge in topical issues associated with agricultural biodiversity, to identify gaps in our knowledge base, to synthesize lessons learned and to propose future research and development actions. The overall objective is to increase the sustainable use of biodiversity in improving people’s well-being and food and nutrition security. The series’ scope is all aspects of agricultural biodiversity, ranging from conservation biology of genetic resources through social sciences to policy and legal aspects. It also covers the fields of research, education, communication and coordination, information management and knowledge sharing.

For more information on Bioversity International, please visit

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Agriculture / Tropical Agriculture