Tunnels and Underground Cities. Engineering and Innovation Meet Archaeology, Architecture and Art : Proceedings of the WTC 2019 ITA-AITES World Tunnel Congress (WTC 2019), May 3-9, 2019, Naples, Italy book cover
1st Edition

Tunnels and Underground Cities. Engineering and Innovation Meet Archaeology, Architecture and Art
Proceedings of the WTC 2019 ITA-AITES World Tunnel Congress (WTC 2019), May 3-9, 2019, Naples, Italy

ISBN 9781138388659
Published April 23, 2019 by CRC Press
436 Pages

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Book Description

Tunnels and Underground Cities: Engineering and Innovation meet Archaeology, Architecture and Art contains the contributions presented at the World Tunnel Congress 2019 (Naples, Italy, 3-9 May 2019). The use of underground space is continuing to grow, due to global urbanization, public demand for efficient transportation, and energy saving, production and distribution. The growing need for space at ground level, along with its continuous value increase and the challenges of energy saving and achieving sustainable development objectives, demand greater and better use of the underground space to ensure that it supports sustainable, resilient and more liveable cities. This vision was the source of inspiration for the design of the logos of both the International (ITA) and Italian (SIG) Tunnelling Association. By placing key infrastructures underground – the black circle in the logos – it will be possible to preserve and enhance the quality of the space at ground level – the green line. In order to consider and value underground space usage together with human and social needs, engineers, architects, and artists will have to learn to collaborate and develop an interdisciplinary design approach that addresses functionality, safety, aesthetics and quality of life, and adaptability to future and varied functions.

The 700 contributions cover a wide range of topics, from more traditional subjects connected to technical challenges of design and construction of underground works, with emphasis on innovation in tunneling engineering, to less conventional and archetypically Italian themes such as archaeology, architecture, and art. The book has the following main themes: Archaeology, Architecture and Art in underground construction; Environment sustainability in underground construction; Geological and geotechnical knowledge and requirements for project implementation; Ground improvement in underground constructions; Innovation in underground engineering, materials and equipment; Long and deep tunnels; Public communication and awareness; Risk management, contracts and financial aspects; Safety in underground construction; Strategic use of underground space for resilient cities; Urban tunnels.

Tunnels and Underground Cities: Engineering and Innovation meet Archaeology, Architecture and Art is a valuable reference text for tunneling specialists, owners, engineers, architects and others involved in underground planning, design and building around the world, and for academics who are interested in underground constructions and geotechnics.

Table of Contents

Archeology, Architecture and Art in underground construction

Reflecting the art, culture and history into the interior design of underground metro stations, case study: Dnipro metro extension line
B. Avanoğlu-Çetin & Ö. Öztürk

The Art Stations
F. Brenci

The outlets of the Albano and Fucine Lakes and their influence from Roman times up to the birth of modern tunnel engineering
C. Callari

Urban tunnelling under archaeological findings in Naples (Italy) with ground freezing and grouting techniques
F. Cavuoto, V. Manassero, G. Russo & A. Corbo

Integration of archaeology in architectural design of Milan Metro connection M2-M4 in St. Ambrogio Station
M.N. Colombo, A. Bortolussi & E. Noce

Tunnel warfare in World War I: The underground battlefield tunnels of Vimy Ridge, France
M. Diederichs & D.J. Hutchinson

Archaeology in underground construction: The experience acquired during construction of Italian high-speed railway lines
F. Frandi

The architecture of underground dwellings in Iran
S. Hashemi

Spiritual life and life after death in the undergrounds of ancient Iran
S. Hashemi

The Albinian way of design at the Milan Metro
Y. Kutkan-Öztürk

Mobilizing cultural resources: The functional role of heritage in metro projects
M. Laudato

The archeological evidences of the De Amicis Station in the Milan Metro line 4, Italy
G. Lunardi, G. Cassani, M. Gatti & S. Gazzola

Archaeology and tunnelling interaction in the railway project of Catania underpass in Sicily, Italy
E. Manfredi, F. Iannotta, F. Romano & S. Vanfiori

A workflow process for tunnels maintenance. The case of the Construction Method developed for Rhaetian Railways (UNESCO World Heritage Site)
F. Modetta, A. Arigoni, S. Saviani, K. Grossauer & M. Hohermuth

The First World War military tunnels of the Italian-Austrian front
S. Pedemonte & E.M. Pizzarotti

Metro Thessaloniki – intersecting microtunnels to support archeological findings at Sintrivani station
D. Rizos, G. Vassilakopoulou, P. Foufas & G. Anagnostou

Rome and its stratification
G. Romagnoli

Line C in Rome: San Giovanni, the first archaeological station
E. Romani, M. D’Angelo & V. Foti

The archaeological findings are changing Amba-Aradam station design in Rome Metro Line C
E. Romani, M. D’Angelo & R. Sorge

Underground car park in the ancient “Morelli” cavern in Naples
F. Rossano, A. Bellone & M.A. Piangatelli

Moncenisio, from Myth to history TELT – Tunnel Euralpin Lyon Turin and the collection of historic engravings on the Frejus tunnel
M. Virano, G. Dati, M. Ricci & G. Avataneo

Interdisciplinary research in geotechnical engineering and geoarchaeology – a London case study
F.K. Vonstad, P. Ferreira & D. Sully

Environment sustainability in underground construction

Environmental sustainability in the construction of the Isarco river underpass for the Brenner Base Tunnel
U.B. Bacchiega, S.T. Torresani & R.Z. Zurlo

Feasibility study for the thermal activation of Turin Metro Line 2
M. Barla, M. Baralis, A. Insana, F. Zacco, S. Aiassa, F. Antolini, F. Azzarone & P. Marchetti

Testing of an Enertun segment prototype in Turin metro line 1
M. Barla, A. Insana & F. Zacco

Online identification of the excavation materials on the Saint Martin La Porte site
A. Barrel & C. Salot

Construction of portals in difficult conditions in the Andes, Peru
M. Boisán, M. de Cabo & C. Quiroga

Tunnel design approach during Saudi Landbridge Railway Project
F. Caranti, M.E. D’Effremo, L. Utzeri, F. Sacchi, S. Ciufegni & E. Bianchini

Introduction of biopolymer-based materials for ground hydraulic conductivity control
I. Chang, A.T.P. Tran & G.-C. Cho

Management and use of materials excavated during underground works
L. D’Aloia Schwartzentruber & F. Robert

Tunneling projects: A focus on renaturalization
G. Dajelli

Management of the muck produced by EPB TBM tunnel excavation: Environmental aspects and consistency control for efficient handling
E. Dal Negro, A. Boscaro, A. Picchio & E. Barbero

Tunnel entrances integrated into a landscape: The example of the Gronda motorway bypass
E. Francesconi & R. Degni

Transporting asbestos: Disposing of excavation waste in an urban context
S. Frisiani, L. Messina & M. Mazzola

Passing through the valleys at Voltri: The technical challenges posed by asbestos and by the safeguard of the local territory
S. Frisiani & M. Pastorino

Tunnel excavation material – waste or valuable mineral resource? – European research results on resource efficient tunnelling
R. Galler

City Rail Link, New Zealand – reduction of land acquisition time and risk on the City Rail Link Project
R. Galli, T. Ireland & C. Howard

Site-specific protocols for evaluating environmental compatibility of spoil materials produced by EPB-TBMs
P. Grenni, A. Barra Caracciolo & L. Patrolecco

Monitoring of surface water resources and buildings due to tunneling, Uma Oya Project, Sri Lanka
A.H. Hosseini, A. Rahbar Farshbar & R.M.P.G.L.S. Gunapala

Hydrogeological investigation and environmental impact assessment during a large water inflow tunnel construction in Taiwan
F.Y. Hsiao, H.C. Kao & H.J. Shau

Use and management of sulphated excavation material from the Montcenis Base Tunnel
E. Hugot, J. Burdin, L. Brino, P. Schriqui & M.E. Parisi

Blasting method to reduce the adverse effect on the living environment around tunnel portals using electronic detonators
Y. Kitamura, Y. Tezuka, K. Fuchisaki & Y. Maeda

Environmental reclamation for the Gotthard Base Tunnel effects of spoil management on landscape
P. Lanfranchi, E. Catelli & T. Bühler

Habitats and protected species compensations for Alpine underground works: A pilot experience between France and Italy
E. Luchetti, S. Viat, H. Besançon, P. Grieco & S. Bellingeri

Water monitoring for Alpine underground works: Differences and similarities between France and Italy
E. Luchetti, S. Viat, H. Besançon, P. Grieco & S. Bellingeri

The role of Cairo metro in saving the social costs of air pollution
M.A. Madany

Compliant reuse of Terzo Valico excavation material: Design and operations
N. Meistro, G. Parisi, A. Scuderi, S. Pistorio & S. Genito

Management of tunneling machines excavation material
N. Meistro, G. Parisi, C. Zippo & L. Captini

Stockholm bypass: Environmental sustainability in the excavation of the Lovön rock tunnels
G.L. Menchini & S. Piscitelli

Utilization of microtunnelling technology for construction of the new gas pipeline between Azerbaijan and Europe
D. Mognol

Changes in tunnelling in the Big Data Era – The new Milan-Genoa high speed/high capacity
G. Morandini, A. Marcenaro, H.M. Dahir, E.G. Caci, A. Ferrari & G. Petito

Autarkic aggregate supply with recycled tunnel spoil at the Brenner Base Tunnel
R. Murr, T. Cordes, M. Hofmann & K. Bergmeister

Environmental risk assessment of conditioned soil: Some Italian case studies
S. Padulosi, F. Martelli, A. Sciotti, D.F. Putzu, M. Filippone & G. Mininni

Low energy nobilitation of clay waste from tunnelling
V. Perugini

Large civil works jobsites in densely populated urban areas
F. Poma, S.F. Caruso, F. Ruggiero, V. Bianco & L. Lampiano

Monitoring the water resources in the large railway projects: The Fortezza – Ponte Gardena case study, Southern Brenner Base Tunnel access
S. Rodani, G. Penna, F. Marchese, A. Scuri, F. Sciascia, D. Castioni, L. Piccinini, F. Cervi & G. Benedetti

Muck management in infrastructure projects
A. Sharma

Influence of bacteria inoculum and organic concentration on the biodegradation of soil conditioning agents in aqueous solutions
G. Vilardi, I. Bavasso, D. Sebastiani, S. Miliziano, L. Di Palma, M. Pirone, F. Carriero & R. Sorge

Tunnel dust control project
T.W. Warden & C.M. Warden

Geological and geotechnical knowledge and requirements for project implementation

Analysis of the vibrations induced by a TBM to refine soil profile during tunneling: The Catania case history
G. Abate, S. Corsico, S. Grasso, M.R. Massimino & A. Pulejo

The impact of saturation on the mechanical response of low porosity rocks and implications for tunnelling
M.T. Ahmed Labeid, E.L. Jaczkowski, W. Dossett, M.S. Diederichs & J.J. Day

Geological and geotechnical key-factors for tunnel design of the new Naples-Bari High-Speed railway line in Southern Italy
A. Amato, G. Quarzicci, A. Sciotti, A. Pigorini & A. Nardinocchi

In-situ stress measurements in TBM tunnels prone to rockbursts
R. Amici, G. Peach & M. Nadeem

Optimizing the excavation geometry using digital mapping
S. Amvrazis, K. Bergmeister & R.W. Glatzl

Return of experience following the excavation of “La Maddalena Reconnaissance Gallery” – TBM performance prediction in the Ambin Massif
E. Baldovin, A. De Paola, G.L. Morelli, P. Gilli & C. La Rosa

The use of real time monitoring systems to reduce execution risks during tunnel excavation in complex situations: The case of Stalvedro tunnel, Switzerland
G. Barbieri, M. Giani, M. Kündig & S. Motta

The role of direct investigations ahead of the tunnel face in the construction cycle of a conventional and mechanized tunnel
G. Barovero, S. Casale, H. Egger & E. Barnabei

Geotechnical characterization of an artificially frozen soil with an advanced triaxial apparatus
M. Bartoli, F. Casini & Y. Grossi

Geotechnical data standardization and management to support BIM for underground infrastructures and tunnels
M. Beaufils, S. Grellet, B. Le Hello, J. Lorentz, M. Beaudouin & J. Castro Moreno

Use of TBM parameters for assessing rock mass conditions during excavation: A feedback from the Tunnel 4, Angat Water Transmission Improvement Project (Philippines)
G.W. Bianchi, I. Andreis & S. La Valle

Numerical method for stability analysis of rock block of tunnel with multiple geological planes
S.J. Chen, M. Xiao & J.T. Chen

Case study of tunnel ground reaction modeling in horizontally bedded rock using continuum and fracture network models
D. Chesser, M.J. Telesnicki & J. Carvalho

Probabilistic Fault Displacement Hazard Analysis (PFDHA) of a Bhairabi tunnel in North East India
R.L. Chhangte, T. Rahman & A.I. Laskar

Drone based deformation monitoring at the Zentrum am Berg tunnel project, Austria Results and Findings 2017–2019
K. Chmelina, A. Gaich, M. Keuschnig, R. Delleske, R. Wenighofer & R. Galler

Necessary geological and geotechnical information for a metro project in an historical and urbanised city area. The case of “Metro Bucharest, Line 4 Extension”
V. Ciugudean Toma, C. Vajaeac, A. Arigoni & S.S. Saviani

Ante-operam v/s as-built data ARAT for a 15.965 m TBM-EPB, A1 Highway, Italy
M. Coli, E. Livi, A. Selleri & S. Comi

Mixed transitional ground impact on a TBM. The OCIT Experience in Akron, Ohio, USA
E. Comis, W. Gyorgak & D. Chastka

Geological and geotechnical main design aspects of two tunnels on Fortezza-Verona High Speed Line in Northern Italy
A. Corbo, A. Sciotti, S. Vagnozzi & S. Rodani

Torino Metro Line 1 extension: Working solutions
A. Damiani, L. Mancinelli, R. Crova & E. Avitabile

2D and 3D geological-geomechanical GIS model for underground projects: Collection, storage and analysis of geological and geomechanical data during the design and construction phases
R. De Paoli, F. Gobbi, L. Thum & F. de Martino

Contribution of continuous geophysical measurements to the success of tunnelling
T. Dickmann, D. Krueger & J. Hecht-Méndez

Study on judgment of tunnel face failure in soft surrounding rock and failure control measures
J. Du, Z. Mei, H. Gao, B. Zhang & W. Yuan

BIM-FEM interoperability for the modelling of a traditional excavated tunnel
S. Fabozzi, G. Cipolletta, E. Capano, D. Asprone, G. Dell’Acqua & E. Bilotta

Double-shield TBM performance analysis in clay formation: A case study in Iran
M. Fallahpour, M. Karami & T. Sherizadeh

The coseismic faulting of the San Benedetto tunnel (2016, Mw 6.6 central Italy earthquake)
P. Galli, A. Galderisi, M. Martino, G. Scarascia Mugnozza & F. Bozzano

Geotechnical monitoring: Application in a case history of Azienda Nazionale Autonoma delle Strade (the National Roads Authority)
R. Gandolfo, S. Majetta & M. Martino

Geotechnical monitoring: The control of infrastructure projects
R. Gandolfo, M. Martino & A. Umiliaco

Characterization of underground rock masses employing structure from motion: Application to a real case
R. García-Luna, S. Senent, R. Jurado-Piña & R. Jimenez

Design and construction of TBM tunnel lining crossing active fault in Thessaloniki Metro Project, Greece
E. Gavrielatou, D. Alifragkis & E. Pergantis

3D geological modelling for the design of complex underground works
F. Giovacchini, M. Vendramini, L. Soldo, M. Merlo, D. Marchisio, G. Ricci & A. Eusebio

Risk maps for cutter tool wear assessment and intervention planning
J.G. Grasmick & M.A. Mooney

Geotechnical challenges in design and construction of tunnels for Mumbai metro line –3
S.K. Gupta, M.G. Khare & G.V.R. Raju

Grand Paris: The exceptional line 16 Lot 1
T. Hugues Beaufond, A. Truphemus, R. Ndouop Molu, L. Samama, S. Ghozayel, T. Couttet, M. Ferrari & P. Hamet

Countermeasures against the deformation of the pilot tunnel of the Seikan Tunnel, Japan
H. Kakinuma, T. Okada, K. Yashiro & Y. Kobara

A numerical study on effect of wall penetration on basal heave stability during vertical shaft excavation in soft ground
S.J. Kang, E.S. Hong & G.C. Cho

Numerical study of portal displacement and stress-strain distribution mechanism at a tunnel portal
B. Khadvi Borujeni

Forensic study on tunnel collapse in deep and fractured rock
K.H. Kim, J.H. Jeong, J.H. Shin, S.H. Kim & S.S. Jeong

Comparative analysis of seismic refraction profiles with Drilled Borehole Data – Delhi Metro Rail Corporation – Phase-IV Corridor
U. Kumar & S. Pateriya

Consideration of heaving and deformation behavior of mountain tunnel in service
N. Kuramochi, S. Yamashita, K. Nakano, S. Kunimura, H. Watanabe & K. Nishimura

Loading magnitude for rock tunnel during earthquake estimated by dynamic measurement at an actual tunnel
A. Kusaka, S. Hara & N. Isago

Ensuring safety during construction of double-track subway tunnels in quaternary deposits
M.O. Lebedev, K.P. Bezrodny & R.I. Larionov

Response of tunnel surrounding rocks in heavily deformed ground: Case study of Dongao Tunnel, Taiwan
C.-S. Lin, H.-J. Shau, Y.-P. Chen & T.-T. Wang

A 3D numerical model for the evaluation of the tunneling water inflow: The Fortezza – Ponte Gardena case study
F. Marchese, S. Rodani, A. Sciotti, S. Vagnozzi, G. Bernagozzi, F. Sciascia, A. Scuri, L. Piccinini, L. Borgatti & G. Benedetti

Requirements for geo-locating transnational infrastructure BIM models
Š. Markič, A. Borrmann, G. Windischer, R.W. Glatzl, M. Hofmann & K. Bergmeister

Analysis of critical condition during the advancement into the “Argille a Palombini” formation
N. Meistro, A. Mancarella, A. Di Salvo, C. Iemmi & I. Larosa

Excavation of swelling rock by measuring the displacement under roadbed
K. Miyazawa, M. Fukushi, T. Akiyama & H. Kinashi

Rockburst evaluation in complex geological environment in deep hydropower tunnels
A.M. Naji, H. Rehman, M.Z. Emad, S. Ahmed, J.-J. Kim & H. Yoo

Adapting tunnel construction to hydrogeological conditions in a karst region
M. Neukomm, M. Mercier, P.-Y. Jeannin, A. Malard, D. Rickerl & E. Weber

Excessive deformations induced by twin EPBM excavations in soft and shallow grounds: The case of Otogar-Kirazli metro, Istanbul
I. Ocak & C. Rostami

The geological portal of the Turin-Lyon project
M.E. Parisi, L. Brino, D. Paletto & M. Cussino

Design and construction of hydraulic tunnels at Gibe III dam, Ethiopia
G. Pietrangeli, A. Pietrangeli, A. Cagiano de Azevedo, G. Pittalis & C. Rossini

Salamonde II undergound hydroelectric complex in the North of Portugal. Design and construction
R.S. Pistone, N. Plasencia & L. Gonçalves

Turning water into energy: A geological and geotechnical overview of the Venda Nova III hydropower project construction phase
N. Plasencia & P. Matos

A Rosette stone between geotechnical engineer and project manager for TBM tunneling
G. Potgieter & O. Yeni

Application of deflection curves, trend lines and displacement vector orientation in the evaluation of surface displacements in tunneling
A.L.C. Rissoli & A.P. de Assis

Geo-mechanical behaviour and monitoring system in the Ceneri Base Tunnel
M. Ruggiero, A. Malaguti & F. De Martino

Drained and undrained seismic response of underground structures
E.A. Sandoval & A. Bobet

How to strengthen a geotechnical campaign for tunnel’s secondary lining. Implementation and results
J.M. Santa Cruz, L. Roldan, G. Dankert, L. Sambataro, A.O. Sfriso & R.D. Bertero

Seismic prediction of the rock quality at the Brenner Base Tunnel
C. Schwarz

Geological investigation for urban tunnel portal in made ground
G. Senol, G. Alan Jatta, S. Aydogan & E.A. Tekyildiz

Importance of physical-mechanical properties of rocks for application of a raise boring machine
A. Shaterpour-Mamaghani, H. Copur, E. Dogan & T. Erdogan

Practical solutions to geotechnical problems related to Ituango hydropower tunnels, Colombia
M.C. Sierra, J. Ramos, D. Jurado & J.D. Herrera

Geotechnical investigations governing shaft excavations for metro projects – an approach for secant pile termination depths
A. Sindhwani, M.K. Chaudhary, A.K. Dey, A.H. Khan & V.M.S.R. Murthy

Angat water transmission and improvement project for Metro Manila – Philippines: Hydraulic tunnel design under severe seismic conditions
A. Socci, P. Galvanin, G.W. Bianchi & G. Bay

Correlation between TBM performance and RMR
S. Son, T. Ko, Y. Pak & T. Kim

Efficient communication of geologically related data and 3D models in tunneling projects
M. Svensson, O. Friberg, B. Brodic & A. Malehmir

A finite element analysis of tunnel response to permafrost thaw
D. Vo, L. Chung, J.S. Cho & Y. Salem

Acoustic emissions from flat-jack test for rock-burst prediction
A. Voza, L. Valguarnera, S. Fuoco, G. Ascari, D. Boldini & D. Buttafoco

An attempt to derive a method to estimate velocity during exploration ahead of the tunnel face
H. Yamamoto, M. Nakaya, S. Imamura & K. Ohta

A probabilistic approach to assess the risk of liner instability when tunnelling through karst geology using geotechnical baseline reports
K. Yau, C. Paraskevopoulou & S. Konstantis

A new face vulnerability index for mechanized tunneling in subsoil
M. Zare Naghadehi & A. Alimardani Lavasan

Settlements of immersed tunnel on soft ground: A case study
X. Zhang & W. Broere

Design of shaking table tests on atrium-style subway station models under seismic excitations
Z.M. Zhang, Y. Yuan, E. Bilotta, H.T. Yu & H.L. Zhao

Ground improvement in underground constructions

Permeation grouting and consolidation works to solve flooding problems in an old tunnel
A. Antonelli, A. Balossi Restelli & E. Rovetto

Dam rehabilitation for safety operation
O. Arghiroiu & S. Călinescu

Horizontal directional drilling technique applications in ground improvement from low pressure injections to jet grouting
B.B. Bosco & S. Carraro

Glassfiber reinforced polymer consolidation for enlargement of a railway underpass in Brandizzo, Italy
M. Bringiotti, S. Carraro, D. Stella & E. Piovano

A novel low enthalpy geothermal energy system based on ground freezing probes
A. Carotenuto, N. Massarotti, A. Mauro, G. Normino, A. Di Luccio, G. Molisso & F. Cavuoto

Field experiment on freezing rate of marine clay by artificial ground freezing method
H.-J. Choi, D. Lee, H. Lee, H. Choi & Y.-J. Son

Ground freezing and excavation of the Museum Island metro station under a river in central Berlin – challenges and experiences
J. Classen, P. Hoppe & J. Seegers

Influence of the fibreglass reinforcement stiffness on the mechanical response of deep tunnel fronts in cohesive soils under undrained conditions
C. di Prisco, L. Flessati, G. Cassani & R. Perlo

Analysis of jet-grouting-consolidation in wide and deep shafts in alluvial soil
M. Ferrero, S. Torresani & R. Zurlo

Jet grouting application for soft soil tunnels in Norwegian clay
D. Gächter & O. Besler

Tribunale Station of Naples Metro line 1. Design issues due to site subsoil conditions
S. Gobbi & F. Cavuoto

Brenner base tunnel & Isarco River underpass section: Several technical and operational solutions
P. Lunardi, G. Cassani, M. Gatti & L. Bellardo

The St. Antonino tunnel reconstruction after the great collapse that had occurred on December 2007
G. Luongo, R. Lapenta, A. Pirrotta, U. De Luca, P. Cosentino, A. Paravati, F. Crocetto, A. Antiga, P. Coppola & M. Lorenzi

Rock grouting and ground freezing for tunnelling at Duomo subway station in Naples
V. Manassero, F. Cavuoto & A. Corbo

Monitoring artificial ground freezing and relevant fundamental observations
V. Manassero

Ground improvement with accelerated micro-cement grout, Thessaloniki Metro, Greece
P.I. Maragiannis & P.G. Foufas

Thermal phenomena model for artificial ground freezing during a tunnel excavation for the Municipio Metro station in Naples, Italy
N. Massarotti, A. Mauro, G. Normino, A. Di Luccio, G. Molisso & F. Cavuoto

Design of an underground station within the Greater Paris metro line by conventional tunneling: Solutions and calculation methods
E. Misano, S. Minec, H. Sahnoun, A. Goulven & V. Dumoulin

Ground improvement carried out via an existing railway tunnel for the construction of a new underlying tunnel
A. Pauri

Optimization of the tunnel face bolt reinforcement
P. Perazzelli & G. Anagnostou

Consolidation using chemical grouting with mono and bicomponent resins to unlock a TBM in fault zone
P. Petrocelli, A. Bellone, F. Rossano & M.A. Piangatelli

The technical management of the permeation grouting works in the execution of the new Milan Metro Line 4
A. Pettinaroli, P. Caffaro, M. Lodico & A. Carrettucci

Design and construction of composite cut-off system at Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, Ethiopia
G. Pietrangeli, G. Pittalis, M. Rinaldi & R. Cifra

Design of artificial ground freezing for an access tunnel of a railway station in Switzerland
E. Pimentel & G. Anagnostou

Discussion of selection of ground improvement parameters from back analysis of monitored excavation in Singapore
G. Pittaro

Water loss solutions in construction of pressure shafts for Uma Oya Project, Sri Lanka
A. Rahbar Farshbar, F. Foroutan, D. Eccleston & D. Dodangeh

Constructing ground struts by means of ground improvement underneath existing box elements in large-scale renovation of a subway station under operation constructed by the Caisson method
S. Sakata, K. Okanoya, Y. Arai, M. Nishiaoki & T. Kondou

Rational design of jet grouted bottom plugs: The example of Tribunale station of Naples Metro Line 1
M. Saviano, A. Flora & F. Cavuoto

Centrifuge model tests on shallow overburden tunnels with pre-ground improvement to clarify seismic behavior
Y. Sawamura, K. Konishi, K. Kishida & M. Kimura

Excavation of a large diameter tunnel in sliding Carpathian flysch
F. Schiavone, F. Carriero, F. Bizzi & G. Orlati

Design of ground freezing for cross passages and tunnel adits
J.A. Sopko

Factor of safety in ground freezing design
J.A. Sopko

Stockholm bypass project – passage under the Lake Mälaren
B. Stille, F. Johansson, F. Ríos Bayona, R. Batres Estrada & M. Roslin

Deep intervention shaft excavation in Kuala Lumpur limestone formation with pre-tunnelling construction method
Y.C. Tan, K.S. Koo & D.I. Ting

Expansion of existing TBM tunnel by ground freezing method
Y. Tanaka & N. Takamatsu

3D Numerical modeling of artificial ground freezing in mining engineering
H. Tounsi, A. Rouabhi, M. Tijani & F. Guérin

Mechanical behavior of shallow embedded and large cross-section tunnel supporting using Freeze-Sealing Pipe-Roof method
D.M. Zhang & J. Pang

Frost heave control during excavation of Gongbei tunnel with freeze-sealing pipe roof as pre-support
T. Zhou, P.X. Shi, J. Zhang & J.L. Pan

Innovation in underground engineering, materials and equipment

Artificial intelligence technique for geomechanical forecasting
M. Allende Valdés, J.P. Merello & P. Cofré

TBM drive along curved alignments: Model based prognosis of shield movement
A. Alsahly, A. Marwan & G. Meschke

Soil conditioning adaptation to the heterogeneous volcanic geology of Mt. Etna, Sicily, Italy
A. Alvarez, S. Mancuso & N. Bona

Particularities of tunnel primary support modelling in BIM environment
M. Andrejašič, M. Huis, A. Likar, J. Likar & Ž. Likar

Design and construction of cast in-situ steel fibre reinforced concrete headrace tunnels for the Neelum Jhelum Hydroelectric project
B. Ashcroft, G. Peach, J. Mierzejewski, B. De Rivaz & M. Yerlikaya

Analysis of two-component clay sand backfill injection in Japan
P.J. Ashton, S. Takigawa, Y. Kano & Y. Masuoka

Durability of precast concrete tunnel segments
M. Bakhshi & V. Nasri

Relieved specific energy estimation using FLCM and PLCM linear rock cutting machines and comparison with rock properties
C. Balci, H. Copur, D. Tumac & R. Comakli

Performance based design for tunnels
K. Bergmeister

Novel semiprobabilistic tunnel lining design approach with improved concrete mixture
K. Bergmeister, T. Cordes & R. Murr

Formwork for road tunnel in Indian Kashmir
E. Bertino

Foam soil interaction and the influence on the stability of the tunnel face in saturated sand
A. Bezuijen & T. Xu

Precast tunnel segments with glass fiber reinforced polymer composite cage and sulphoaluminate cement
M. Bianchi, F. Canonico, N. Giamundo, A. Meda, Z. Rinaldi & S. Spagnuolo

Fiber reinforced concrete segmental lining for Catania Metro Tunnel
N. Bona & A. Meda

Gronda di Genova slurryduct for transport of excavated material
S. Bozano Gandolfi & M. Bringiotti

The relevance of gaskets for the segmental design
C. Braun, G. Mauchamp & O. Pasemann

Moving material with belt conveyors in urban environment and for long tunnel construction in Italy: Metro Catania, Scilla’s shaft, A1 highway and Brenner Base Tunnel
M. Bringiotti, G. Bringiotti, W. Aebersold & P. Rufer

Precision drilling for D&B and bolt installation: Analysis of relevant case histories
M. Bringiotti, G. Bringiotti, F. De Villneuve, A. Harmignies & F. Vernerey

The longest Robodrilled tunnel in the world
M. Bringiotti, V. Fleres, M. Manfredi, F. De Villeneuve & F. Serra

Motivations to swap from trench cutter to hydraulic grab: Case histories from Florence, Rome and Milan
M. Bringiotti, D. Nicastro, S. Bechter, G. Franco & G. Manuele

EPDM gaskets; new materials and procedures for segments and other application in tunneling
M. Bringiotti, D. Nicastro, F. Garate, S. Villoslada & K. Pini

New results from laboratory research to reduce the clogging potential for EPB-Shields
C. Budach & E. Kleen

Energy absorption tests on fibre-reinforced-shotcrete round and square panels
N. Buratti, A. Incerti, A.R. Tilocca, C. Mazzotti, M. Paparella & M. Draconte

Rapid automatic inspection system for tunnel lining based on a mobile vehicle
J.L. Cai, X.Y. Xie, B. Zhou, Y.X. Zhou & W.C. Zeng

Construction TBM tunnel – Operating data real time – Red Line Metro Tel Aviv
A. Capobianco, M. Kalimyan, P. Merlanti, L. Romagnoli & E. Santucci

Tilt sliding test to assess the behaviour of conditioned soil with large amount of cobbles
A. Carigi, A. Luciani, D. Martinelli, C. Todaro & D. Peila

Influence of set accelerating admixtures on the compressive strength of sprayed concrete
G. Cascino & G. Estrafallaces

Steel fibre reinforced concrete for segmental lining – crack mitigation measures at design phase
G. Castrogiovanni, G. Busacchi, T. Léber & G. Mariani

Variable support method: An innovative approach for deep excavations in the Middle East
G. Castrogiovanni, G. Busacchi, C. Maier & M. Mancini

Advanced 4-channel scan system for tunnel inspection
A. Cereyon, W. Weber, R. Wissler & A. Wittwer

Fiber-reinforced concrete segments: Comparison of simplified analyses and FE simulations for the 3RPORT CSO Project, Fort Wayne, Indiana, United States
D. Chapman, J. Parkes, G. Venturini, R. Comini & L. Waddell

A simple approach to characterise tunnel bore conditions using pipejacking data
W.-C. Cheng, J.-S. Shen & A. Arulrajah

Conditioning the clog: Advancing EPB technology through mixed transitional ground
E. Comis, W. Gyorgak & P. Raleigh

Maintenance costs for cutting tools in soft ground gained by process simulation
A. Conrads, A. Jodehl, M. Thewes, M. Scheffer & M. König

Possibility of using vane shear testing device for optimizing soil conditioning
H. Copur, E. Avunduk, S. Tolouei, D. Tumac, C. Balci, N. Bilgin & A.S. Mamaghani

The load-bearing capacity of primary linings, considering time dependent parameters, at the Brenner Base Tunnel
T. Cordes, K. Bergmeister, A. Dummer, M. Neuner & G. Hofstetter

Two-component backfilling grout for double shield TBM – The experience at Follo Line Project
E. Dal Negro, A. Boscaro, A. Picchio & E. Barbero

Main advantages and operational aspects of two-components backfilling grout in mechanized tunnelling with hard-rock TBM: Example of the Saint-Martin-La-Porte TBM job-site at Lyon-Turin
E. Dal Negro, A. Boscaro, A. Picchio, E. Barbero, C. Acquista & G. Comin

Mucking with EPB machines in urban areas – considerations about the soil conditioning. Example of Line 14 project, lot T2 in Paris
E. Dal Negro, A. Boscaro, A. Picchio, E. Barbero, G. Broll & G. Calligaro

The 3D-BIM-FEM modeling of the Mairie des Lilas Paris metro station line 11 – from design to execution
F. De Matteis, C. Orci, S. Bilosi & G. Benedetti

EPB excavation of cohesive mixed soils: Combined methodology for clogging and flow assessment
D.G.G. de Oliveira, M. Diederichs & M. Thewes

Hybrid solution with fiber reinforced concrete and glass fiber reinforced polymer rebars for precast tunnel segments
B. De Rivat, N. Giamundo, A. Meda, Z. Rinaldi & S. Spagnuolo

Twenty years of FRC tunnel final lining: Lessons learnt, design proposal and new development
B. De Rivaz

Fibre reinforced spray concrete performance criteria: Comparison between EN14651 and EFNARC three-point bending test on square panel with notch
B. De Rivaz, A. Meda & J. Kennedy

Digital engineering on the Sydney Metro
R. Dickenson & B. Harland

Forrestfield Airport Link project – Variable density TBMs to deal with unexpected ground conditions
M. Di Nauta, A. Anders & C. Suarez Zapico

Durability design for large sewer and drainage tunnels
C. Edvardsen, A. Solgaard & P. Jackson

Refitting strategies for Italian historical railway tunnels
A.R. Fava, M. Ghidoli, L. Carli & P. Galvanin

BIM – Model-based project management for optimizing project development. Insights into the practical application at the “Albvorland Tunnel” project
W. Fentzloff & J. Classen

Tunnel damage management system: An application for Italian railway tunnels
P. Firmi, F. Iacobini, A. Pranno & C. Matera

Tunnels widening and renewal using precast lining: The Swiss Rhaetian railway construction method applied to tunnel Mistail
D. Fortunato & G. Barbieri

Experimental investigation of the flow behaviour of conditioned soils for EPB tunnelling in closed mode
S. Freimann, M. Schröer & M. Thewes

The role of mechanized shaft sinking in international tunnelling projects
S. Frey & P. Schmaeh

Risk-based tunnel design utilizing probabilistic two-dimensional finite element analyses
A. Gakis, C. Kalogeraki & P. Spyridis

Soil conditioning for EPB tunnelling: Relevant foam properties and characterisation
M. Galli, M. Thewes & S. Freimann

Geotechnical impact on fiber reinforced segmental liner experiencing large deformation
M. Gamal

Excavating through hard rock formations with TBM: Technical challenges of the Follo Line Project
G. Giacomin, A. Mariotti & M. Ortu

Fiber reinforced concrete segmental lining: Evolution and technical viability assessment
J. Gollegger, L.M. Pinillos Lorenzana, S. Cavalaro & T. Kanstad

Sprayed concrete composite tunnel lining design: Analytical study on its behaviour at the bond interface
C. Green, H. Jung & A. Pillai

Development of a non-radioactive density meter in tunneling
H. Greve & K. Zych

Artificial intelligence support for tunnel design in urban areas
M. Hafner, D. Rajšter, M. Žibert, T. Tušar, B. Ženko, M. Žnidaršič, F. Fuart & D. Vladušič

Key technologies of double shield TBM for urban metro tunnel with small radius curve
F. He, X.J. Zhuo & L.H. Jia

The subgrade reaction modulus method in tunneling
M. Hofmann, T. Cordes & K. Bergmeister

Permanent sprayed concrete tunnel linings waterproofed with bonded membranes. A review of the current state-of-the-art for hard rock conditions
K.G. Holter

A fast detection method for tunnel surface defects based on video processing
M. Hu, X.W. Zhou & X.W. Gao

Research on applicability of limit state method in lining design of railway tunnel
W. Hu & X. Tan

A complex variable solution for the excavation of a shallow circular hole in gravitational elastic ground
X. Huang & Y. Xiang

Polymer Rubber Gel technology high performance waterproofing for shotcrete and blindside applications
J. Huh & T.S. Lee

New monitoring technology to notify the displacement situation of the tunnel face
A. Ichikawa, H. Sato, S. Akutagawa & Y. Hashimura

Smart Office; application of a unified analytics center in tunneling construction
K. Jahan Bakhsh, J. Kabat, R. Bono, S. Tabrizi & G. Pini

Key technologies and engineering application of horseshoe-shaped TBM
L.H. Jia & S.H. Tan

Seal performance test of shield tail under high water pressure
X. Jiang, W. Chen, D.L. Xu, X.H. Zhang & Y. Bai

Rescuing and rebuilding TBMs in adverse ground conditions
D. Jordan & B. Willis

The effect of testing age on the performance of fibre reinforced concrete
K.P. Juhasz, P. Schaul & R. Winterberg

Study of the image photographing of the tunnel lining as an alternative method to proximity visual inspection
S. Kaise, K. Maegawa, T. Ito, H. Yagi, Y. Shigeta, K. Maeda & M. Shinji

Conventional tunneling method using ICT
K. Kakimi, F. Kusumoto, R. Okawa & K. Yamabe

Study on applicability of self-compacting concrete with low cement content to tunnel lining
T. Kato, N. Kurokawa, H. Nishiura, K. Sakurai, Y. Okazaki & S. Hagino

Soil abrasion and penetration test for the evaluation of soft ground TBMs’ excavation performance and cutter life
D.Y. Kim, H.B. Kang, Y.J. Shin, J.H. Jung & E. Farrokh

Development of a ground monitoring sensor system for tunnel maintenance using geophysical techniques
J.W. Kim & G.C. Cho

Enlargement of in-service evacuation tunnel and automated lining placement
A. Kimura, S. Yamamoto, F. Kusumoto, H. Nobunaga & S. Yamanaka

Effective water leakage detection by using an innovative optic fiber sensing for aged concrete lining of urban metro lines in Tokyo
S. Konishi, N. Imaizumi, Y. Enokidani, J. Nagaya, Y. Machijima, S. Akutagawa & K. Murakoshi

Development and field validation of the Smart Batcher Plant system used for control of as-mixed temperature of concrete
K. Kumagai, T. Tsutsui, A. Hirama, H. Matsuda, M. Takinami, S. Kobayashi, N. Endo & H. Hata

Extraction geothermal energy from the rock mass surrounding tunnels and its exploitation. Feasibility study in a sector of the Brenner Base Tunnel
M. Lanconelli, A. Voza & H. Egger

Finding the right way underground – The importance of solid control points network
B. Larsson Gruber & T. Jonsson

Implementation of new methods for inspection of tunnels
B. Larsson Gruber & P. Östrand

Numerical modelling for design of composite concrete lining with sprayed waterproofing membrane in tunnel
C. Lee, S.H. Chang, S.W. Choi, K. Lee, D. Kim & B. Park

Effect of machine factors of tunnel boring machines on penetration rates in rocks
G.J. Lee, T.H. Kwon, H.H. Ryu, K.Y. Kim & T.M. Oh

Prediction of EPB shield TBM performance using a lab scale excavation test with different soil conditions
H. Lee, D. Shin, H. Choi, D.Y. Kim & Y.J. Shin

A study on the efficient crack detection algorithms for tunnel lining based on deep learning approach
J.S. Lee, S.H. Hwang, M. Sagong & I.Y. Choi

New design method for energy slabs in underground space using artificial neural network
S. Lee, D. Kim, H. Choi, K. Oh & S. Park

The research on longitudinal deformation features of shield tunnel when considering the variation of grout viscosity: A case study
Y. Liang, L.C. Huang & J.J. Ma

Safety approach for tunnel lining calculations in 3D-continuum models
Y.A.B.F. Liem, J.T.S. Vervoort, M.H.A. Brugman & M. Partovi

Plug-in crosscut element – How standardized pre-manufactured crosscut wall systems improve overall tunneling effectiveness
M. Lierau & R. Binder

Soil conditioning for EPB shield tunneling with the auxiliary air pressure balance mode
P. Liu, S. Wang & T. Qu

Catania metro tunnel: Advancement and wear predictive models suitability in EPB excavation through variable mixed-face conditions
V. Lo Faro, E. Nuzzo, E. Chimenti, G. Brino & A. Alvarez-Merayo

Explosive spalling in reinforced concrete tunnels exposed to fire: Experimental assessment and numerical modelling
F. Lo Monte, R. Felicetti, A. Meda & A. Bortolussi

Alternative umbrella arches: The use of composite pile roofs
F. Lopez, F. von Havranek & G. Severi

Long-term durability analysis and lifetime prediction of PVC waterproofing membranes
A. Luciani, C. Todaro, D. Martinelli, A. Carigi, D. Peila, M. Leotta & E. Dal Negro

An innovative approach in tunnel planning and construction through 30 years of experience
P. Lunardi, G. Cassani, A. Bellocchio, M. Gatti & F. Pennino

The design approach of cut & cover excavation in hyperbaric condition applied for Napoli/Cancello high speed railway
G. Lunardi, G. Cassani, A. Bellocchio, C. Nardone, M. Cafaro, G. Ghivarello, R. Sorge & F. Carriero

Innovative TBM transport logistics in the constructive lot H33 – Brenner Base Tunnel
A. Lussu, C. Kaiser, S. Grüllich & A. Fontana

Experiences from tunnel boring when hard-to-very hard rock with focus in performance predictions and cutter life assessments
F.J. Macias

A study of the analysis method of the cause of tunnel lining deformation using “TCI”
K. Maeda, Y. Shigeta, S. Kaise, K. Maegawa, Y. Maeda, T. Ito & H. Yagi

The present situation of countermeasure of heaving in the expressway of Japan
K. Maegawa, T. Ito, S. Kaise, H. Yagi, S. Kunimura & Y. Okui

Back analysis of ground settlements induced by TBM excavation for the north extension of Paris metro, line 12
S. Mahdi, O. Gastebled & S. Khodr

Addressing the radial joints behaviour of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete (SFRC) segments under concentrated loads
M. Mangione, M. Ceccarelli, A. Pillai & C. Agostini

Fiber glass and “green” special composite materials as structural reinforcement and systems; use and applications from Milan Metro, Brenner Tunnel up to high speed train Milan – Genoa
G. Manuele, M. Bringiotti, G. Laganà & D. Nicastro

Sequential excavation method – Single shell lining application for the Brenner Base Tunnel
T. Marcher, T. Cordes & K. Bergmeister

Water tightness by final lining with programmed waterproofing construction joints in conventional tunneling
A. Marchioni & S. Miliziano

Soil-building interaction in mechanized tunneling: A comparison of modeling approaches
A. Marwan, A. Alsahly, M. Obel, P. Mark & G. Meschke

Soil improvement in tunnel face using foam reagents in EPB TBM
S.V. Mazein, A.N. Pankratenko, A.G. Polyankin & E.A. Sharshova

Ventilation system for the excavation of 4 tunneling faces with “Plenum” metallic tank
N. Meistro, F. Poma, U. Russo, F. Ruggiero & O. Urbano

Big data and simulation – A new approach for real-time TBM steering
G. Meschke, B.T. Cao, S. Freitag, A. Egorov, A. Saadallah & K. Morik

Feasibility study of EPB shield automation using deep learning
S. Mokhtari & M.A. Mooney

A new approach for qualifying blasting works in underground
P. Montagneux & P. Bouffard Vercelli

Line C in Rome: Strain measurements in precast TBM lining segments using embedded Smart Wireless Monitoring System
S. Moretti, M. Leonardi, E. Romani & I. Mammone

The Rijnlandroute bored tunnel – Continuously improving the mechanized tunneling process
H. Mortier, M. Brugman, B. Peerdeman & T. Schubert

An experimental study on the post-cracking behavior of Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Concrete core samples drilled from precast tunnel segments
A. Mudadu, G. Tiberti, A. Conforti, I. Trabucchi & G.A. Plizzari

Design recommendations for fibreglass reinforced tunnel softeyes
S. Munn, J. Hudler & M. Alexander

Fire resistant high strength concrete concept for inner tunnel linings at the Brenner Base Tunnel
R. Murr & K. Bergmeister

Practical experience from the installation of a one-pass lining in Doha’s deep tunnel sewer system
A.M. Najder Olliver, T. Lockhart, A. Azizi & K.G. Singh

Assessment of post-blast damage zones in tunneling operations through measurement while drilling records
J. Navarro, P. Segarra, J.A. Sanchidrián, R. Castedo & L.M. Lopez

Maintenance of subway tunnel by using maintenance indicator
S. Nemoto, S. Konishi, S. Ito, N. Imaizumi, T.Miura, Y. Enokidani, D. Ogawa & K. Fukunaka

Robust segmental lining design combining steel fiber reinforced concrete and traditional reinforcement
G.E. Neu, V.E. Gall & G. Meschke

Design of steel fiber reinforced concrete segment with curved radial joints
S.S. Nirmal

Development and application of the next generation TBM equipped with conventional tunneling mode
K. Nishioka, A. Shigenaga, A. Yokoo & Y. Kitamura

The presumed relationship between an accident on the surface and the NSS tunnel
M.H.B. Oliveira

Fully integrated BIM in Norwegian Railway project
S.R. Olsen

Real – Time displacement control using expansive geopolymers with Fibre Optic Sensing monitoring: Field trial at Thames Tideway West, London
M. Palaiologou, S. Psomas, C. Kechavarzi & X. Xu

New methodology to safely install steel ribs in conventional tunnel – A14 Motorway
F. Palchetti, P. Mazzocchi, G. Giacomin, M. Maffucci & P. Bernardini

Recent developments towards autonomous tunneling and mining machinery
T. Peinsitt, H. Haubmann, H. Kargl & C. Kary

Interoperability between BIM models and 4.0 approach: Theoretical models and practical cases
K. Pini, G. Cataldi, G. Faini, E. Piantelli, G. Lunardi, N. Faccioli, I. Menegola & P. Sattamino

The management of the soil conditioning process for the excavation of the Rome Metro C line
M. Pirone, F. Carriero, R. Sorge, D. Sebastiani, S. Miliziano & V. Foti

Hybrid lining segments – bearing and fracture behavior of longitudinal joints
S. Plückelmann & R. Breitenbücher

Relieving shotcrete and other linings from pressure with innovative drainage solution
J.R. Poulsen

Service limit state design for pressurised steel fibre reinforced concrete tunnel linings
S. Psomas

Design and construction of permanent steel fibre reinforced sprayed concrete lining shafts for Thames Tideway West Project UK
S. Psomas, P. Coppenhall, M. Rimes, D. Brown & E. Cheevers

De-bonding of shotcrete linings at the substrate boundary
S.G. Reid & E.S. Bernard

Eurasia Tunnel – Construction features of a tunnel under severe pressure conditions in high seismic area
G. Rinaldi, P. Cuppone & A. Turi

TBM data processing for performance assessment and prediction in hard rock
A. Rispoli, A.M. Ferrero & M. Cardu

Building information management for tunneling
F. Robert, A. Rallu, C. Dumoulin, N. Delrieu, M. Rives & M. Beaufils

Rehabilitation of the slab under the Mont Blanc Tunnel roadway
N. Rogès, F. Bertino, E. Clayton, G. Rakoczy, G. Schwarshaupt & M. Cipollone

Load and resistance factor design coefficient calibration for tunnel design in Buenos Aires
L.A. Roldan, G. Dankert, J.M. Santa Cruz, L. Sambataro & R. Bertero

Steel fibre reinforced concrete for the future of tunnel lining segments – A durable solution
B. Rossi & S. Wolf

Logistic challenges for TBM operation during Sofia Metro Line 3 extension
N. Rubiralta, Á. Hernández, S. Ergut & A. Shaban

An innovative method of large space underground construction in soft and shallow ground using concrete arch pre-supporting system
M.H. Sadaghiani

Passive fire protection for road tunnel structures
K.M. Sakkas, N. Vagiokas, M. Panias & D. Panias

Comparative study on shotcrete performance in tunnels based on different constitutive approaches
G.G. Saldivar & F.A. Sánchez

Advanced constitutive modelling for the approach of real shotcrete performance in tunnels
F.A. Sánchez & G.G. Saldivar

Tunnel inspection with high-performance devices. Methodology
F. Sánchez-Domínguez, J.A. Ramos-García, Á. Barbolla-Díaz, E. Calvo-Haro, T. Vitti & Q. Vitti

Preliminary test of an innovative pre-convergence monitoring tool for traditional tunnels
R. Savi, A. Valletta, E. Cavalca, A. Carri & A. Segalini

The use of artificial intelligence for a cost-effective tunnel maintenance
O. Schneider, A. Prokopová, F. Modetta & V. Petschen

Design of the support medium for Slurry Pressure Balance (SPB) shield tunnelling in demanding ground conditions
B. Schoesser, M. Straesser & M. Thewes

Development of a test setup for the simulation of the annular gap grouting on a semi technical scale
C. Schulte-Schrepping & R. Breitenbücher

Two-component grouts with alkali-activated binders
C. Schulte-Schrepping & R. Breitenbücher

Tuen Mun – Chek Lap Kok Link in Hong Kong – Innovative solutions for construction of an outstanding Subsea Tunnel
A. Schwob, F. Guedon, B. Combe & T. Lockhart

Tunnel deformation evaluation by Mobile Mapping System
Y. Shigeta, K. Maeda, H. Yamamoto, T. Yasuda, S. Kaise, K. Maegawa & T. Ito

Probabilistic modelling of fibre reinforced shotcrete
A. Sjölander & A. Ansell

The Tunnel Laser Scanner technique: Applications to the road tunnels monitoring
C. Sorce, L. Cedrone & A. Lattanzi

BIM implementation – Brenner Base Tunnel project
R. Sorge, D. Buttafoco, J. Debenedetti, A. Menozzi, G. Cimino, F. Maltese & B. Tiberi

Concrete final lining inspection procedure and case study
C. Steiakakis, S. Delmadorou & A. Simopoulos

Building information modeling in Warsaw metro extension project
L.J. Szczepaniak, F. Bizzi & R. Sorge

Concrete lining covered with an outer compressible layer applied to tunnels in viscoplastic rocks
R. Taherzadeh, E. Boidy & H. Ouffroukh

Material properties and construction performance of ultra-high strength sprayed concrete
H. Takeda, T. Kawaguchi, H. Yoshimoto, S. Fujiwara & K. Sato

Influence of consistency index on soil conditioning in EPB-TBM tunneling
S. Tarigh Azali, E. Khorasani & J. Hassanpour

Use of robots in road tunnel inspection
H. Terato, S. Yasui, Y. Nitta & T. Masu

Realisation of a single-shell drained segmental tunnel lining by means of a water-permeable annular gap fill
C. Thienert, D. Edelhoff, E. Kleen & N. Hörlein

Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) permanent rockbolts
A.H. Thomas

Two component backfilling in shield tunneling: Laboratory procedure and results of a test campaign
C. Todaro, L. Peila, A. Luciani, A. Carigi, D. Martinelli & A. Boscaro

Digital twin of tunnel construction for safety and efficiency
R. Tomar, J. Piesk, H. Sprengel, E. Isleyen, S. Duzgun & J. Rostami

Investigation on the geotechnical properties of a chemically conditioned spoil from EPB excavation, a case study
P. Tommasi, P. Lollino, A. Di Giulio & G. Belardi

Flexural behavior of precast tunnel segments reinforced by macro-synthetic fibers
I. Trabucchi, A. Conforti, G. Tiberti, A. Mudadu, G.A. Plizzari & R. Winterberg

Immersive tunnel monitoring by data driven navigation in 3D
C. Traxler, G. Hesina & K. Chmelina

Investigation of deformation of shield tunnel based on large-scale model test
K. Tsuno, K. Kinoshita & T. Ushida

Construction of bifurcations of underground urban expressway
K. Uchiumi, K. Matsubara, T. Takahama, T. Fujii & A. Nishimori

Riachuelo Lote 3 – Innovative method for the construction of the sea outfall
N. Valiante, M. Martini & L. Gaggioli

Innovation through in-situ machining for repair and maintenance of silt flushing tunnel gates of underground Nathpa Jhakri Hydro Power Station (1500 MW), India
L.M. Verma, R. Kumar, A. Kumar & S.R. Sood

Stability analysis for tunnel faces supported by means of polymer solutions
R. Verst & M. Pulsfort

The development and in-situ use of fiber optic continuous strain monitoring for tunnel support elements
N. Vlachopoulos & B. Forbes

Microtunnelling in South Africa – a competitive solution
P. Vorster, M. Wainstein & H.J. Tluczek

Study on pull-out test of longitudinal joints of shield tunnel
Q. Wang, P. Geng, G. Zeng, X. Guo, X. Tu, X. Zhang, F. Li & M. Xiao

A multiscale modelling method for crack propagation of shield tunnel lining
F.Y. Wang & H.W. Huang

Real-time sensing technology of excavated material in earth pressure balanced shield tunnelling construction
Q. Wang, X. Xie, B. Zhou & Z. Huang

3D simulations for the Brenner Base Tunnel considering interaction effects
T. Weifner & K. Bergmeister

Artificial neural networks in streamlining serviceability assessment of single shell TBM tunneling
R. Wenighofer & R. Galler

Digitalization of data management and quality assurance in ground and tunneling works
L. Winkler, P. Maroschek, F. Weber & M. Ouschan

New advancement in durable segments for combined sewer overflow tunnels, USA
R. Winterberg & M.R. Garbeth

Intelligent attitude control during shield tunneling in soft soils based on big data
B. Wu, M. Hu, W. Xu, P. Dong & B. Xue

The composite lining total safety factor design method and cases study
Mingqing Xiao & Chen Xu

Pressure infiltration of sandy foam during EPB shield tunnelling in saturated sand
T. Xu, A. Bezuijen & Z. Lu

Research on new prefabricated technology of metro station
X.R. Yang, M.Q. Huang & F. Lin

Seismic deformation method for longitudinal bending deformation of underground structure
N. Yasuda & T. Asakura

Site assembly technologies of super-large slurry TBM
L. Ye, D.J. Wang, K.W. He, G.W. Gu, C. Ye & J. Wang

A BIM-based emergency analysis method and application for utility tunnel
G. Yu, Z. Mao, M. Hu & L. Shi

Numerical simulation and case analysis of new construction method for multi-arch tunnel
J. Zhai & X. Xie

Experimental study on a novel fire-protection cement-based composite material for tunnel linings
T. Zhang, Z. Yan, Z. Xiao & H. Zhu

Deep learning-based instance segmentation for water leakage defects of Metro Shield Tunnel
S. Zhao & H. Huang

Rectangular TBM application in utility tunnel
K.T. Zheng, X.J. Zhuo, Y.L. Feng, J. Zhang & S.L. Cheng

Shield machine cutterhead tools real-time wear monitoring system
X.J. Zhuo, Y.T. Lu, L. Ye & H. Sun

Long and deep tunnels

Long and deep single shield TBM in very complicated geology under the Alps. Saint Martin La Porte
C. Acquista, G. Giacomin, F. Martin & G. Comin

Experimental setup for studying tunnels in squeezing ground conditions
K. Arora, M. Gutierrez & A. Hedayat

Brenner Base Tunnel – challenges of gripper TBM application for the 15 km long exploratory tunnel Ahrental in challenging rock mass
K. Bäppler & M. Flora

Risk management for the Brenner Base Tunnel
K. Bergmeister

The second Gotthard tunnel tube
G. Biaggio & V. Kumpusch

Dubai Strategic Sewerage Tunnel – challenges to infrastructure at unprecedented depths in the region
D. Brancato, A. Ayoubian, M. Joye, G. Monks, F.A. Al Awadhi & J. Tharamapalan

The hugest and more complex belt conveyor system in the longest tunnel under construction in the world: Brenner Base Tunnel
M. Bringiotti, S. Portner, V. Grasso & E.R. Vitale

CERN (HL-LHC): New underground & surface structures at Point 1 & Point 5
A. Canzoneri, J. Amiot, F. Rozemberg, D. Merlini, F. Gianelli, G. Como, F. De Salvo, C. Helou, L.A. Lopez & P. Mattelaer

Specificities of the underground structure design of Cigéo. Presentation of the constrains and construction phasing stages of “Phase 1”
G. Champagne De Labriolle, H. Ouffroukh, E. Boidy & H. Miller

Engineering challenges of the Snowy 2.0 pumped storage project
B. Chapman, M. Yee & A.R.A. Gomes

Brenner Base Tunnel, construction lot Mules 2-3. Production management and site logistics organization
S. Citarei, M. Secondulfo, D. Buttafoco, J. Debenedetti & F. Amadini

Challenging mixed face tunneling at India’s Sleemanabad Carrier Canal
J. Clark

Experimental determination and plausibility proof of the longitudinal displacement profile for deep tunnels for case studies at the Brenner Base Tunnel
T. Cordes, C. Reinhold, K. Bergmeister, B. Schneider-Muntau & I. Bathaeian

Performance of hard rock double shield TBM in tailrace tunnel of Uma Oya project, Sri Lanka
H. Darabi Kelareh, A. Rahbar Farshbar, A.H. Hosseini, F. Foroutan & D. Dodangeh

Lining stresses in a TBM-driven tunnel: A comparison between numerical results and monitoring data
V. De Gori, A. De Lillis & S. Miliziano

Numerical back-analysis of the Fréjus road tunnel and of its safety gallery
M. De la Fuente, J. Sulem, R. Taherzadeh & D. Subrin

Influence of the excavation rate on the mechanical response of deep tunnel fronts in cohesive soils
C. Di Prisco, L. Flessati, G. Cassani & R. Perlo

Optimum tunnel system with regard to the entire lifecycle for long rail tunnels
H. Ehrbar, C. Tannò & H.-P. Vetsch

Mechanized tunnel excavation of lot KAT2 of the Koralm-Tunnel, Austria: Achievements and lessons learned
D. Fabbri, R. Crapp, H. Hölzl & H. Wagner

The Susa-Bussoleno Interconnection Tunnel
A. Farinetti, P. Elia, M.E. Parisi & E. Gueli

TBM steering difficulties. Innovative equipments: Strand jack and self retaining systems
A. Finamore & G. Bellizzi

Risk assessment in the unlocking of the double shield TBM within the Los Condores project, Chile
A. Focaracci & M. Salcuni

Back-calculation model for instantaneous TBM cutter wear
H.I. Frostad, A. Bruland, P.D. Jakobsen & F.J. Macias

Brenner Base Tunnel, Italian Side: Construction methods for a railway 22 km long tunnel
S. Fuoco, R. Zurlo, M. Moja & E.M. Pizzarotti

Presentation of the successful crossing by the “Federica” TBM of a geological accident in Saint-Martin-la-Porte construction site
F. Gamba, E. Hugot, P. Gilli, C. Salot & G. Giacomin

Use of expanded clay as annular gap filling. Design and application at the Brenner Base Tunnel
F. Gasbarrone, A. Oss, L. Ziller, D. Buttafoco & J. Debenedetti

The Brenner Base Tunnel: Back-analyses of excavation data and TBM parameters in the Aicha-Mules exploratory tunnel
G.M. Gaspari & K. Bergmeister

Constrains, design and construction methods of the Cigéo five deep shafts
C. Gaudry, H. Ouffroukh, L. Moscone & R. Taherzadeh

Special intersection formworks for cast in situ with cross vault shape
M. Granata

Extreme ingress: Managing high water inflows in hard rock TBM tunneling
B. Grothen & D. Kough

Numerical investigations on the system behaviour of a ductile shotcrete lining with yielding elements
A.-L. Hammer & M. Thewes

Optimizing TBM cutterhead design for application in very strong and abrasive rocks, case study of Kerman Water Tunnel
J. Hassanpour, J. Rostami, Y. Firouzei & H.R. Tavakoli

Key construction technology of Long Metro Subsea Tunnel in complex site conditions
W. He, C. Song & B. Du

Excavations of the Povazsky Chlmec highway tunnel in Slovakia
M. Hilar & M. Srb

Requirements and methods for geometric 3D modelling of tunnels
M. Hofmann, R. Glatzl, K. Bergmeister, Š. Markič & A. Borrmann

Brenner Base Tunnel – Key aspects of the guide design
R. Insam, W. Eckbauer, T. Gangkofner & K. Matt

Brenner Base Tunnel – an example of planning and implementation of project optimizations
R. Insam, W. Eckbauer, D. Zierl & M. Ebner

Brenner Base Tunnel – interaction between underground structures, complex challenges and strategies
R. Insam, R. Wahlen & G. Wieland

Logistic management in the longest drives of the Mont Cenis Base Tunnel
M. Janutolo Barlet, G. Seingre, P. Bourdon, M. Zampieri, E. Humbert & C. Pline

Varies challenges for a new railway connection between Divača and Koper, Slovenia
P. Jemec, D. Dvanajščak & E. Škerbec

The feeder 9, River Humber, replacement pipeline project, United Kingdom
S. Jukes

Simulation of TBM operation to assess the impact of geology on the muck transportation
A. Khetwal, J. Rostami & O. Frough

Analysis of micro slurry TBM excavation parameters in subsea tunnel
K.Y. Kim, H.H. Ryu, D.S. Bae & S.A. Jo

Countermeasure of jammed TBM in rock tunnel excavation: Feedback from two cases study
C.H. Lee, Y.C. Chiu & T.T. Wang

Site observations and physical model tests of the friction coefficient between concrete-type element and foundation layer for immersed tunnel
M. Lin, W. Lin & X. Wang

The Montcenis base tunnel: How to turn project environmental constraints into opportunities
S. Lione, L. Brino, P. Grieco, L. Pinchiaroglio & A. Mordasini

Anisotropic convergence of tunnels in squeezing ground: The case of Saint-Martin-la-Porte survey gallery
Y. Liu, J. Sulem, D. Subrin & E. Humbert

Overcoming extreme tunneling conditions on Vietnam’s longest tunnel
S. Log, B. Li & P.N. Madhan

Maly Lubon road tunnel: The case of a full-face excavation of a very large tunnel in the Carpathian Flysch, Poland
A. Lombardi, A. De Pasquale & V. Capata

Milan to Genoa high speed/capacity railway: The Italian section of the Rhine-Alpine corridor
P. Lunardi, G. Cassani, A. Bellocchio & N. Meistro

Cravasco jobsite optimization for the management of narrow spaces: Underground crushing plant and suspended conveyor belt
P. Mancuso, U. Russo, A. Fossati, O. Urbano, L. Russo & A. Filice

Brenner Base Tunnel, Italian Side: Mining methods stretches – design procedures
D. Marini, R. Zurlo, M. Rivoltini & E.M. Pizzarotti

Lessons from adverse geological occurrences during excavation in Rohtang tunnel, India
P. Mehra

Hydrogeological, environmental and logistical challenges for TBM excavation in the longest tunnel in the Italian territory
N. Meistro, S. Caruso, A. Mancarella, M. Ricci, L. Di Gati & A. Di Cara

Surveying methods and geodetic control in long railway tunnels construction
N. Meistro, L. Surace, R. Maseroli, A. Mancarella & M. Vantini

The Gronda Motorway by-pass at Genoa: Underground works east of the Polcevera River
P. Mele, A. Raschillà, L. Mancinelli, C. Silvestri, A. Damiani & M. Agosti

Ismailia: The first tunnels to be constructed under the Old and New Suez Canals – a case history
G.L. Menchini & M. Liti

Brenner Base Tunnel, Lots Mules, 2-3 (Italy): The emergency stop in Trens
D. Merlini, M. Falanesca, D. Stocker & A. Voza

Experiences of tunnels subject to earthquake in central Italy
A. Micheli, L. Cedrone, A. Andreacchio & S. Pelizza

Tunneling challenges in Himalayas: A case study of Head Race Tunnel of 720 MW Mangdechhu Hydro-Electric Project, Bhutan
A.K. Mishra & I. Ahmed

Study on cracks in concrete lining based on inspection records on tunnel
T. Miyaji, H. Hayashi, M. Shinji, S. Kaise & S. Morimoto

Study on deformation and failure behavior of mountain tunnel linings which consist of various materials
M. Mizutani & K. Yashiro

Developing cross passages and safety niches in a rationalized way using remote controlled demolition robots
C. Montorfano & R. Giti Ruberto

Mixed Ground TBM tunneling
R.M. Myrlund, H.I. Frostad, P.D. Jakobsen & F.J. Macias

Design of countermeasure for squeezing and swelling in mountain tunnel
Y. Okui, S. Kunimura, H. Ota, K. Maegawa, T. Ito, S. Kaise, H. Yagi, K. Nishimura & N. Isago

Tunnel T-48: A challenge in India
A. Panciera

Assessments on the TBM performance at the Minas-San Francisco Hydropower Project in Ecuador
K.K. Panthi & J. Encalada

Shotcrete lining installed from an open gripper TBM remedial works
G. Peach, B. Ashcroft, R. Amici & J. Mierzejewski

Long and deep hard rock double shield TBM under the Alps. Base Brenner Tunnel Mules 2-3
P. Pediconi, M. Maffucci & G. Giacomin

Empirical and numerical analysis of the blast - induced structural damage in rock tunnels
P. Perazzelli, C. Soli & D. Boldini

BBT, Lot Mules 2-3. Management of data gained by the pilot tunnel drive for the twin main tubes
M. Pescara, M. Spanò, N. Della Valle, R. Sorge, G. Giacomin, D. Buttafoco, M. Masci & E. Nuzzo

Measurements of long time lining strain in creeping rock mass and modelling with viscoplastic laws
R. Plassart, O. Gay, A. Rochat, A. Saïtta & F. Martin

Polcevera Adit – getting unstuck on EPB-TBM in squeezing rock
F. Poma, U. Russo, F. Ruggiero & L. Lampiano

Sealing of huge water ingress in headrace tunnel of Uma Oya Project, Sri Lanka
A. Rahbar Farshbar & A.H. Hosseini

Challenges of designing a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) for development of underground structures on the Moon
J. Rostami, C. Dreyer, R. Duhme & B. Khorshidi

Problems associated with an EPB-TBM in a complex geology with serpentinites and peridotites in Turkey
M. Sakalli, D. Talu, N. Bilgin & I.H. Aksoy

A new underground laboratory for exploring the deep universe: The design of a third generation of a gravitational waves observatory
L. Schiavinato, P. Mazzalai, G. Gemme, G. Losurdo, M. Punturo, A. Paoli, F. Ricci, E. Calloni, G. Oggiano & M. Carpinelli

Cost analysis of mine roadways driven by drilling and blasting method and a roadheader
O. Su & M. Akkaş

A softening damage-based model for the failure zone around deep tunnels in quasi-brittle claystone
E. Trivellato, A. Pouya, M.-N. Vu & D.M. Seyedi

The use of Integrated Big Data software management systems on a complex TBM project. The Follo Line Project data analysis
F. Vara Ortiz de la Torre

Brenner Base Tunnel, Italian Side, Lot Mules 2-3: Risk management procedures
A. Voza, R. Zurlo, S. Bellini & E.M. Pizzarotti

Evaluation of excavation method for silo-shaped deep large waste repository underground cavern
K. You, C. Park & J. Park

Real behavior of shotcrete primary lining in squeezing rock mass: The experience at the Brenner Base Tunnel
L. Ziller & S. Fuoco

Tunnel costs related to the quality of the rock mass
R. Zurlo, S. Fuoco, M. Loffredo & A. Marottoli

The role of construction logistics for long and deep tunnels: The model of the Mules 2-3 construction lot for the Brenner Base Tunnel
R. Zurlo, R. Di Bella & E. Rughetti

Public communication and awareness

Designing a sustainable railway infrastructure: Envision protocol and the carbon footprint
N. Antonias

Best practice of communication for a complex transnational project – The Brenner Base Tunnel
K. Bergmeister

The Naples Line 6 underground metro system works: From the feasibility study to the construction
O. Carbone, G. Molisso & S. Riccio

TELT and the tunnel art work project
M. Virano, L. Beatrice, G. Dati & G. Avataneo

Risk management, contracts and financial aspects

Shallow TBM launch – alternative to cut and cover
W. Angerer, A.M. Haimoni, A. Ozturk & V. Tellioglu

The potential for use of the observational method in tunnel lumpsum contracts
A. Antiga, M. Chiorboli & U. De Luca

Extension of Milan’s metro line M1: More than 10 meters of water table increase and two fails of the contracting companies: How to manage this contract
A. Antonelli, G. Galeazzi & A. Bortolussi

Evolution of risk management during an underground project’s life cycle
A.P.F. Bourget, E. Chiriotti & E. Patrinieri

Hydropower tunnel failures: Risks and causes
D. Brox

A general risk management approach: The result of integration between the semi-quantitative and quantitative methods
P. Caiazzo, M. Ciarniello, M. Ponte & M. Foresta

The Isarco River underpass at Brenner Base Tunnel: Main aspects of work supervision in a challenging design solution
B. Carta, A. Pigorini, A. Bertotti, R. Palla & G. Albani

Hydrogeological Excavation Code, a value added methodology for water safeguarding
M. Coli, L. Martelli & P. Staffini

Bart Silicon Valley Phase II – integrated cost & schedule life-cycle comparative risk analysis of single-bore versus twin-bore tunneling
K. Davey, A. Moergeli, J.J. Brady, S.A. Saki, R.J.F. Goodfellow & A. Del Amo

Risk management process applied on design and construction of deep stations and TBM tunnel: Analysis and actions to mitigate potential impacts on buildings during the Line 6 underground metro system works, Naples
A. Di Luccio, M. Mele & G. Molisso

Transposition into national law of the new EU public procurement directives and the impact on subsurface construction contracts – the Portuguese case
G. Diniz-Vieira, R. Pistone, F. Melâneo & C. Baião

The Geotechnical Baseline Report in the new FIDIC Emerald Book – suggested developments
G. Ericson

Risk allocation in the FIDIC forms of contract, and the Emerald Book’s place in the Rainbow Suite
H. Ertl

A new approach to fire safety in Dutch tunnels
H.M. Hendrix

Risk engineering surveys: A project’s lifecycle risk management tool with multilateral merits and tangible benefits for insurers and all project stakeholders
T. Konstantis

The role of the Engineer in the Emerald book
J. Maclure

Contractual time for completion adjustment in the FIDIC Emerald Book
A. Marulanda & M. Neuenschwander

Managing a large-scale engineering project: Standards, methods and technologies
O. Mazza & A. Selleri

Managing a complex rail construction project: The new Milan-Genoa high speed/high capacity line
G. Morandini, P. Quarantotto, A. Marcenaro, V. Gabrieli & V. Capotosti

The claims, dispute avoidance and dispute resolution procedure in the new FIDIC Emerald Book
C. Nairac

Measuring the excavation and lining in the Emerald Book
M. Neuenschwander & A. Marulanda

Regulatory framework and railway safety approval procedures in a bi-national context – the example of the Montcenis base tunnel
P. Poti & A. Chabert

A review on the risk analysis and construction claims in Tehran underground projects
S.M. Pourhashemi, S. Tarigh Azali, M. Ghorbani & E. Khorasani

Integrating risk management in underground works: The French experience and AFTES Recommendations
M. Pré, E. Chiriotti, G. Hamaide & J. Piraud

A model for fair compensation of construction costs in TBM tunneling: A novel contribution
N. Radončić, W. Purrer & K. Pichler

The new Bözberg Tunnel (Switzerland) – risk management and auxiliary measures for the TBM break-through
M. Ramoni, R. Gallus & R. Iten

Risk management in metro contract procurement procedures. The French example
M. Russo, M.L. Rew & M. Sénéchal

Alternative project delivery based on a risk-based probabilistic approach
P. Sander, M. Spiegl, J. Reilly & D. Whyte

Development of a cost model for a more exact estimation of the construction costs of tunnels
M. Thewes, P. Hoffmann, G. Vollmann, I. Kaundinya & A. Lehan

Resolution of a contractual dispute for tunnel excavation
P. Torta, M. Tutinelli, L. Perino & S. Porrello

Analysis of contractual approaches in Italian railway tunnels
L. Zaccaria & R. Ferro

Safety in underground construction

Tunnel inspection analysis based on the crack progression of the change by Tunnel-lining Crack Index (TCI) for road tunnel
H. Aio, H. Hayashi, M. Shinji, T. Nakamura, S. Yamada & S. Morimoto

The stresses and safety of the final lining structures in bored tunnels in case of fire
T. Alberini & E. Cartapati

Reducing the monotonous design in the worlds deepest and longest sub-sea road tunnel Rogfast, Norway
T. Andersen & J. Braa

Practical guidelines for shotcrete work close to blasting and vibration in hard rock
A. Ansell

Risk assessment for maintenance planning in an old service tunnel
N. Avagnina, G.W. Bianchi & E. Cena

Innovative solutions for safety against firedamp explosions in small section EPB-TBM tunnelling
A. Bandini, C. Cormio, P. Berry, M. Battisti, A. Lisardi, P. Bernardini & M. Urso

The new Lugano tram underground station: An example to combine architectural requirements, serviceability and challenging geotechnical conditions
G. Barbieri, P. Bassetti & A. Galli

Civil engineering constraints on tunnel ventilation and safety
M. Bettelini, A. Arigoni & S.S. Saviani

Ventilation applied to fire safety in metro tunnels, Naples line 1 project
M. Bramani & P. Fugazza

Lercara tunnel on Palermo-Agrigento Railway Line, Italy: Tunnelling in presence of toxic and explosive gases and squeezing conditions
N. Casagrande, M. Ricci, D. Commisso & G. Gallo

‘Terzo Valico dei Giovi’: Excavation of tunnels in asbestos bearing rock
M. Comedini, A. Ferrari, F. Nigro & G. Petito

Safety 2.0 – Engineered solution for a safer underground excavation. The BZEROTONDO Tunnel Support System
A. Cullaciati, M. Bellavita, R. Perlo, K.G. Pini & C. Cormio

Pavoncelli Bis water tunnel: Tunnel boring machine selection and safety standards for excavating in presence of methane
R. D’Angelis, M. Maffucci, G. Giacomin, M. Secondulfo & F. Cichello

CFD simulations of longitudinal ventilation of a road tunnel in congested traffic condition
A. Dastan, M. Rahiminejad, M. Abbasi & O. Abouali

Transverse ventilation system applied to unidirectional road tunnel: practical case of S2 Tunnel in Warsaw
N. Faggioni, F. Bizzi & M. Bringiotti

Fire ventilation systems in a metro station equipped platform screen doors
N. Faggioni, S. Franzoni & F. Devia

Fire safety system design in double bore railway tunnels: Bologna city undercrossing for high speed line and recent experiences
A. Falaschi, S. Miceli & A. Pigorini

New generation of safety solutions for underground construction
D. Faralli, G. Fioravanti, F. Bonifacio & C. Salvador

Safety in the Italian railway tunnels
P. Firmi, F. Iacobini & A. Pranno

The methodology of quantitative risk analysis in the application of the Legislative Decree n.264/06
A. Focaracci & G. Greco

“Terzo Valico dei Giovi, Italy”: Safety and equipment innovative measures
A. Focaracci & N. Meistro

Investigation of the remaining life of an immersed tube tunnel in The Netherlands
K.G. Gavin, W. Broere, M.S. Kovačević & K. de Haas

Fire safety engineering and risk-based tunnel safety design approach
S. Giua & L. Stantero

Single-channel blowing-in longitudinal ventilation theory and its applicability analysis in road tunnel
C. Guo, Z.-G. Yan & H.-H. Zhu

Virtual reality for hazard assessment and risk mitigation in tunneling
E. Isleyen, S. Duzgun & P. Nelson

The convergence of all communication and data requirements onto a single IP backbone
D. Kent & D. Edmonds

Safety in construction of underground structures in complex geology of Tehri Pump Storage Project – successful implementation of safe working practices – a case study
R.K. Khali

Study on strength and deformation characteristics of early age shotcrete in tunnel cutting face
N. Kikkawa, N. Hiraoka, K. Itoh & R.P. Orense

Assessment of health condition and management system for road tunnel by inspection data in Japan
S. Kimura, M. Nomura & T. Yasuda

Constructing the Arncliffe ventilation connection – a case study from the WestConnex New M5 project
A. Lippett & D.A.F. Oliveira

The first huge pressurized ventilation system in the world, realized in Brenner, with heavy duty centrifugal fans
N. Lucatelli, M. Bringiotti, F. Serra, A. Cicolani & E.R. Vitale

Life safety applied in full face excavation
P. Lunardi, G. Cassani, M. Gatti, A. Bellocchio & C.L. Zenti

Excavation with traditional methods through geological formations containing asbestos
N. Meistro, F. Poma, U. Russo, F. Ruggiero & C. D’Auria

Ventilation of tunnels and cross-passages of the Ceneri Base Tunnel and similar projects
S. Nyfeler & P. Reinke

Novel safety concept at the Austrian construction lots of Brenner Base Tunnel
E. Reichel & K. Bergmeister

Damage assessment of final linings in metro tunnels due to fire action
K.M. Sakkas, N. Vagiokas, A. Kallianiotis & G. Loupa

The common operative rules for health and safety during the construction of base tunnel of Montcenis between France and Italy
A. Sorlini, J.L. Borrel, H. Guirimand, B. Galla, M.G. Pregnolato, P. Picco, G. Porcellana, G. Cianfrani & C. Saletta

A novel watcher system for securing works at tunnel face
T. Tani, Y. Koga, T. Hayasaka & N. Honma

How to refurbish a tunnel: Shop open or closed?
B.A. van den Horn, A.M.W. Duijvestijn & C.S. Boschloo-van der Horst

Excavation through contaminated ground by gasoline with EPB-TBM
H.A. Yazici, M.B. Okkerman & C. Budak

The design and evaluation of tunnel health monitoring system
M. Yu, M. Hu & L. Zhou

Strategic use of underground space for resilient cities

Designing complex urban excavations and BIM: The story of the new underground bus terminal in Slussen – Stockholm
M. Alzouby

Investing in urban underground space – maximising the social benefits
S. Bricker, L. von der Tann, E. Reynolds, C. Bocci & P. Salak

The construction of the underground car park beneath the “San Giusto” hill, in a very delicate urban environment in Trieste, Italy
M. Bruga, A. Bellone & M.A. Piangatelli

Milan metro 4 extension to new HSR gate station “Porta Est”: Underground choice and suburban regeneration
A. Bruschi

Shafts and drainage tunnels as a sustainable and preventive measure to mass movements of saturated soils in Bucaramanga, Colombia
P.F. Castillo & G. Pardo

Effective use of underground space for sustainable cities
S.W. Chiu, K.H. Lai, K.W. Cho & S.P. Lai

Noisy-Champs station: Coordinating underground, design and engineering
D.S. Da Silva Leite

Managing knowledge for future-proof tunnels in The Netherlands
K. de Haas, W. Broere, H. Dekker & L. van Gelder

Greater Beirut Water Supply Augmentation Project
A.E. El Abed & E.N. Najem

Enabling underground transport construction Guatemala City, Central America
B.R. Fridolin

The A2 Maastricht Project: A joint action plan
B. Grote, B. Lobbezoo, L. Prompers & D. Florie

Tunnel alignment design of “Ligne 15 Est” in East Paris
D. Herman, N. Gilleron, L. Rew & M. Sénéchal

Operational resilience of traffic tunnels: An example case study
S.S. Khetwal, S. Pei & M. Gutierrez

Extending the urban underground utility network capacity – A long drive large diameter pipe-jacking tunnel
A. Koliji, E. Rascol & S. Crisinel

Improving the safety of urban underground transport areas due to the use of new energy carriers
F. Leismann, F. Baum, C. Knaust, S. Palis, S. Voigt, F. Sträubig, S. Klüh & M. Lakkonen

Resilient city: The case of Bisagno diversion tunnel
G. Lunardi, G. Cassani, M. Gatti, B. Spigarelli & C.L. Zenti

Genoa underground: Solidity, usefulness and beauty of the Grazie Bassa Tunnel during 100 year service life
C. Panariello, H. Mohamed Dahir & V. Molinari

The Genoa Bypass project: The new highway system to overcome the congestion in the Genoa area. The geological and engineering challenges
A. Selleri

Istanbul Airport Express Line: Design and built of the new strategic mass transit underground connection system
E.G. Trussoni, M. Palomba, A.G. Durgut & G. Astore

Comparative analyses of through-running vs. dead-end tunnel to urban transit network efficiency and design of through-running tunnel in the New York Pennsylvania Station
J.C. Venturi, E. Chao & C. Nicolescu

Tunneling challenges in the business capital of India
S. Vishwakarma, V.K. Thakur, U.S. Virat & K. Joshi

Compound use of underground space for integrated campus-urban development: A case study from Tsinghua University, China
W.J. Zhu, Q.C. Bao & S.J. Gai

Urban Tunnels

Geomechanical behavior evaluation of a bio-constructed limestone in an urban tunnel
S.W. Abreu

Vibration-oriented tunnel design
M. Acquati & W. Stahl

Long-term behavior of the tunnel under the loads of consolidation and tunnel temperature
A. Afshani, W. Li, H. Akagi & O. Shigeaki

Identifying the geological hazards during mechanized tunneling in urban areas – the case of Tehran alluvium conditions
A. Alebouyeh, A.N. Dehghan & K. Goshtasbi

Studying the effects of gypsum karst cavities in tunneling
M.R. Al Kaabi & R.L. Sousa

The design of a segmentally lined tunnel for a large sewer outfall. “Lote 3 – Emisario Planta Riachuelo, Argentina”
R.D. Aradas, D. Tsingas & M. Martini

The relations between surface settlements and TBM excavation parameters
U. Ates, I.S. Binen, F. Kara, M. Akca, B. Turker, T. Cinar & T. Acilioglu

Effects of construction and demolition of a TBM excavated tunnel inside existing diaphragm walls
S. Autuori, M.V. Nicotera, G. Russo, A. Di Luccio & G. Molisso

Ground movement problems in EPB tunneling through confined station boxes
T. Babendererde, L. Babendererde & R. Hasanpour

Evaluation of long-term tunnel behaviour in preparation for construction over existing tunnels, in The Netherlands
K.J. Bakker, K.J. Reinders, C.J.A. van der Wilt, J. Jonker, A.F. Pruijssers & J.J. Bogaards

Surface settlement induced by shield tunneling–complete 3D numerical simulation on two case studies
M. Beghoul & R. Demagh

South extension of the metro Line 14 in Paris – focus on Limestone quarries grouting
A. Bergère, M. Coblard, J.P. Janin, F. Lanquette & P.L. Le Tolguenec

High density slurry for shallow bored tunneling in Singapore
H. Bernard, M.K. Lau, M. Senthilkumar, Y.S. Sze, M. Marotta, C.N. Ow & G.T. Senthilnath

Monitoring excavation-related ground deformation in London, UK using SqueeSAR™
C.A. Bischoff, P.J. Mason, R.C. Ghail, C. Giannico & A. Ferretti

Construction methods, monitoring and follow-up of TBM tunnelling beneath an operating metro station in Bucharest
B. Bitetti, F. Valdemarin, C. Leguet, M. Masci, G. Martire & A. Stematiu

Microtunneling machine completes a 110m radius curve in dense urban context
T. Blanchard & J. Bruneton

Risk management for tunneling-induced deformations in relation to the Eurocodes
W. Bogusz

Assessment of geotechnical capacities of spread footings due to settlements induced by tunnelling and excavation
C.W. Boon, L.H. Ooi & Y.C. Tan

Geotechnical monitoring at Forrestfield Airport Link Project in Perth (WA)
M. Bragallini, S. Ganguly, D. Coulthard, A. Zampieri & D. Frontini

The “CNIT La Défense” railway station in Paris: A large scale underpinning in a constrained environment
A. Burdiel, J. Pinto, L. Canolle, M. Pré, N. Coquelle & V. Rigoux

Bucarest Metro Line M5: Underpassing of existing Eroilor1 subway station during regular train transit
V. Capata, M. Repetto & F.L. Bircolotti

Milan Metro Line 4: The Dateo underground station
L. Carli, P. Galvanin, G. Peri, A. Carrettucci & M. Lodico

Grand Paris Express Ligne 15 sud T2C: TBM driving parameters and complex passing of critical zones
S. Cavagnet, A. Giammarino, L. Mancinelli & C. Crémer

A new analytical method to define the confinement pressure operation range for a closed TBM
G. Champagne De Labriolle, L. Pavel, G. Teulade & O. Givet

TBM Selection for tunneling beneath urbanized areas at shallow depth. A practical case: The machine selection for the excavation of Metro Gran Paris Line 15 Section 2C
M. Concilia

Settlement reduction in clean sandy soils with EPB – good practice for backfilling grout injection and soil conditioning. The case of Warsaw Metro Line 2
E. Dal Negro, A. Boscaro, A. Picchio, E. Barbero & T. Grosso

Bucharest line 5: 3D numerical modelling of tunnelling beneath operating station
K. Daneshmand, B. Bitetti & G. Ragazzo

Innovative station design for the second tramway line in Nice
C. David & S. Minec

Synthetic aperture radar interferometry applied to tunneling projects monitoring: The ATLAS processing chain
N. Devanthéry, J. González-Martí & B. Payàs

Undercrossing live tunnels in parallel below the water table in an urban environment
V. Diwakar, T. Amsyar & N. Ramesh

Seismic analysis of an urban subway structural system composed by shield tunnels, a cross passage and a vertical shaft for the evaluation of the structural unsafe zones
F. Durán Cárdenas & J. Kiyono

Design and construction of N1 Shaft for Dudullu-Bostanci Metro Line
F. Efe, M. Kucukoglu & H. Nurnur

Technical solutions when designing the new bus terminal in Slussen, Stockholm, Sweden
A. Ehlis

Design of a deep metro station for complex train operations under high passenger demand with different construction stages, case study: Gayrettepe Metro Station, Istanbul
K. Elmalı, H.T. Tunçay, A.O. Toksöz & H. Akın

Surface settlement prediction of a high visibility urban tunnel in soft soil by combined 2D and 3D finite element analysis
S. Fauriel & N. Dupriez

Caltanissetta Tunnel – project implementation according to safety issues
A. Focaracci & A. Antonelli

The use of the “Pipe Arch” technique for under-crossing in urban areas
A. Focaracci & C. Mattozzi

Correlation approach between surface settlement and TBM pressure parameters
V.H. Franco, H.C. Rocha, A.A.N. Dantas, T.A. Mendes & A.P. Assis

Research and exploration on building large urban underground space by small TBMs-multi-section undercutting and prefabricated component lining method
Y. Gao, P. Cheng, Y. Li & C. Feng

The new underground line of Sarmiento Railway Project in the city of Buenos Aires
G. Giacomin, M. Maffucci, M. Cenciarini & S. Vittor

The complex network of sewage tunnel in the city of Buenos Aires, The Riachuelo Project
G. Giacomin, M. Maffucci, G. D’Ascoli, S. Sucri & F. Cichello

The challenging yet successful excavation of the TBM tunnel for the Athens Metro Line 3, Extension Haidari-Piraeus
G. Giacomin, P. Pediconi & D. Goudelis

Effect of excavation stages and lining sequences on ground settlement in a twin tunnel
A. Golshani, M.G. Varnusfaderani & S.M. Poorhashemi

Study of existing tunnel effect on adjacent ramp stability during construction – a case study – Arash tunnel
A. Golshani, S. Majidian & B. Alinejad

Tunnel design and construction in swelling ground with low overburden and hydrothermal ground water conditions
K. Grossauer, E. Carrera, W. Schmid & T. Zieger

Drilling and blasting in close vicinity – monitoring of metro station Odenplan
B. Larsson Gruber

Design and construction method of reinforcement around the lining concrete openings due to construction of additional evacuation tunnels in service
Y. Horioka, M. Ishihara & I. Otsuka

Seismic performance of steel fiber reinforced concrete segmented lining tunnels
M. Jamshidi Avanaki & A.N. Dehghan

3D numerical back-analysis on an experimental conventional tunnel in Paris Sanoisian “Green” Clay
J.P. Janin, A. Beaussier, H. Le Bissonnais, C. Gérardin & T. Charbonneau

Time dependent modeling of salt-cavern natural gas storage
M. Javidi, H.R. Nejati, K. Goshtasbi & M. Ghasemi

Influence of pile row under loading on existing tunnel
P. Jongpradist, N. Haema & P. Lueprasert

Did the selection of TBMs for the excavation of the Follo Line project tunnels satisfy the expectations?
A.K. Kalager & B. Gammelsæter

Construction of a mountain tunnel in the neighboring of residential areas
T. Kamikoshi, O. Takei, Y. Yoshikawa, A. Komatsu & Y. Ougi

Building responses due to deep excavation for Muzium Negara MRT Station, Kuala Lumpur
C.M. Khoo, A.C.S. Teoh & S.T. Poh

Record-breaking results through teamwork on Istanbul’s Dudullu-Bostancı Metro Line
E. Koç, B.A. Matheson & M. Bringiotti

Ensuring the safety of the existing buildings during the construction of the underground in Moscow
D.S. Konukhov & A.G. Polyankin

Tunneling under existing Metro Line and Indian Railway Line for Mandi House – ITO Corridor of Phase-III, Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited
U. Kumar

Lessons learned from excavation of the Pinchat tunnel in loose ground in an urban environment
N. Kupferschmied, E. Garin & E. Rigaud

The construction of the tunnel Kennedy in Santiago de Chile. A major challenge of an urban tunnel in soils
J. Kuster, R. Núñez, E. Chávez, J.M. Galera & D. Santos

The construction of the tunnel Lo Saldes in Santiago de Chile. A major challenge, a wide tunnel with an extremely low overburden
J. Kuster, R. Núñez, E. Chávez, J.M. Galera & D. Santos

DSSI-MTS-01 Tunnels in Doha (Qatar) – a showcase of construction techniques for tunnels, shafts, galleries and junctions between them
R. Lamand, C. Penot, X. Perrin & T. Lockhart

Settlement prediction of an urban shield tunnel using artificial neural networks
L. Li, L.K. Dong & F.F. Wang

TBM launch under the protection of a closed steel sleeve: A case study
X. Li, D. Yuan, D. Jin & Y. Zhou

Red Line tunnels in Israel – engineering highlights
S. Liberman & M. Dvir

Embedded barriers as a mitigation measure for tunnelling induced settlements: A field trial for the Line C in Rome
N. Losacco, E. Romani, G.M.B. Viggiani & G. Di Mucci

Grand Paris Express, Line 15 East – predictive damage analysis combining continuous settlement trough modelling, risk management, automated vulnerability checks and visualization in GIS
S. Mahdi, O. Gastebled, H. Ningre & M. Senechal

Digital project: Practical application of an integrated process in TBM tunnel design
F. Maltese, A. Ghensi, G. Eccher & A. Konstantinou

Ground response to mini-tunnelling plus ground improvement in the historical city centre of Rome
L. Masini, S. Rampello, S. Carloni & E. Romani

A record of constructing a ramp section of an expressway by the underground widening excavation method
N. Matsukawa, S. Ikezoe, Y. Kono, N. Oshima & M. Watanabe

Brescia Driverless Metro Line – San Faustino Station: A joint work example between client, superintendence, designer and P&CM during the construction phase
A. Merlini, A. Breda, I. Carbone & M. Gatti

Tunneling under the Dutch capital with minimum overburden – the Victory Boogie Woogie Tunnel
J. Mignon, P. Janssen & M. Potter

Warsaw line II metro extension: TBM excavation under historical buildings in urban environment
M. Minno, V. Capata & T. Grosso

A case study of excavation induced displacements in dense urban area
M. Mitew-Czajewska & U. Tomczak

Conventional tunneling in urban areas
N. Munfah, V. Gall, W. Klary & T.M. O’Brien

Effect of changing methodology of tunnel final lining on the construction duration of a metro project
M. Namli & I. Araz

SCL vs squareworks – timberless tunnelling in future LU Station upgrade projects?
A. Nasekhian, A. Onisie-Moldovan, J. Ares, D. Kelly & P. Dryden

Performance and modelling of Fort-d’Issy-Vanves-Clamart metro station: A 32 m deep excavation of the Grand Paris project
K. Nejjar, D. Dias, F. Cuira, H. Le Bissonnais & G. Chapron

Design and excavation of Camlica Tunnels in Istanbul
H. Nurnur, M. Kucukoglu & F. Efe

Design and construction of large span tunnels and caverns in Sydney, Australia
D.A.F. Oliveira

An investigation of the occurrence mechanism of centralized crack on twin tunnel
T. Ono, H. Hayashi, M Shinji, A. Kitamura & S. Morimoto

Challenges in tunneling underneath houses in Contract T217 of Thomson East Coast Line of Singapore
C.N. Ow, R. Nair, A. Jadhav & M. Shelke

Integrated functional metro station design using BIM tools
C. Pallaria, D. Vercellino & A. Bolzonello

Limestone cavern influence to primary lining analysis for tunnel Soroška, Slovakia
P. Paločko, M. Bakoš & J. Ortuta

Tunnel support design by geo-structure interaction approach
J. Pan & A. Kuras

Numerical analysis on performance of EPB shield TBM by discrete element method
B. Park, S.H. Chang, S.W. Choi, C. Lee & T.H. Kang

Sequential excavation method in soft ground: Monitoring and modelling
T.P. Perez

Northeast Boundary Tunnel: Applied lessons learned from the Anacostia River Tunnel Project, Washington, USA
M. Pescara, N. Della Valle, D. Nebbia & M. Gamal

Theoretical analysis of ground deformation due to tunnelling through weak deposits of phosphatic chalk in area of the proposed Stonehenge tunnel
J. Pettit & C. Paraskevopoulou

Excavation of connecting tunnels in Centrum Nauki Kopernik underground train station on line II in Warsaw
M.A. Piangatelli, A. Bellone & M. Bringiotti

Case study of a shallow tunnel construction underneath an operating metro and railway in fine grained soil environment
S.M. Pourhashemi, M. Sadeghi & H. Maghami

The response of underground structures to seismic loading
J. Pruška, V. Pavelcová, T. Poklopová, T. Janda & M. Šejnoha

Metro tunnelling in Singapore – Thomson Line tunnelling in close proximity to existing railway lines
A. Raedle, S.S. Marican & C.N. Ow

Crossing of tunnels between the piles of operational metro station
A. Raj & A. Kumar

The Fereggiano River Diversion in Genoa
P. Redaelli & M. Bringiotti

The T3 stretch of Line C in Rome: TBM excavation
E. Romani, M. D’Angelo, V. Foti & A. Magliocchetti

Estimated settlements on buildings and facilities. An application to Grand Paris metro
M. Russo & S. Bonaccorsi

Study on the influence of closely crossing tunnel on existing underground subway station by 3D-FEM models
M.H. Sadaghiani & M.R. Asgarpanah

Use of DInSAR technique for the integrated monitoring of displacement induced by urban tunneling
V. Santangelo, D. Di Martire, E. Bilotta, M. Ramondini, G. Russo, A. Di Luccio & G. Molisso

Innovative methods for excavation and ground improvement in Oslo
S. Santarelli & P. Ricci

Forrestfield airport link project in Perth, Western Australia – precast concrete segmental lining
S.C. Scaffidi, A. Anders, S. Porto & E. Torres

The need for development of station’s design for reducing risks and disturbance during construction
H. Schwarz & L. Banlin

Design and construction of artificial tunnels in urban context
S. Sdoga, S. Giovenco & R. de Falco

Design methodology of permanent linings of junctions at Crossrail project contract C121 (the Elizabeth line)
E.J. Sillerico, J. Suarez & R. Brierley

Twin tunnels excavated in mixed face conditions
M.A.A.P. Silva, F.L. Gonçalves, A.A. Ferreira & H.C. Rocha

Effect of new structures and construction activities on old metro lines
E.V. Silva Espiña, L. Gil López & S. Sánchez Rodríguez

Soft ground tunneling below a mixed foundation building
D. Simic & B. Martínez-Bacas

Small shield operation for pre-support method at underground space enlargement
M. Sugimoto, T.A. Pham, J. Chen, T.N. Huynh, L.G. Le, A. Miki & K. Kayukawa

Evaluation and numerical interpretation of measured pipe umbrella deformations
A. Syomik, R. Rex, A. Zimmermann & G. Anagnostou

Special design considerations for underpinning systems of existing structures due to tunnelling
Y.C. Tan, W.S. Teh & C.Y. Gue

Arcueil-Cachan, Grand Paris Express Metro Station
S. Telhawi, L. de Saint-Palais, G. Chapron, J.-P. Vaysse, B. Mougel & J. Royer

Design concept of a large TBM tunnel having extensive diameter with pioneering three deck orientation under extreme water pressure conditions
H.T. Tunçay & K. Elmalı

Introduction of an extra-large undersea shield tunnel in composite ground: Maliuzhou traffic tunnel in Zhuhai, China
S.Y. Wang, H.M. Wu, Y. Bai & C. Zhou

Research on the construction control for the metro tunnel under passing buildings in Jinan
X.Y. Xie, Y.L. Zhang, B. Zhou & L. Zeng

Undergrounding the railway line and mending an extremely anthropized territory maintaining the railway in operation
F. Zambonelli & G. Li Puma

A simulation study on the interaction between backup structure and surrounding soil in a large section pipe curtain-box jacking project
X. Zhang, L.S. Chen, Z. Zhang, Y.H. Liu, J. Niu & Y. Bai

Responses of an existing metro station to adjacent excavations in soft clay: Case Study
D.M. Zhang & X.H. Bu

Numerical investigation of vertically loaded pile on adjacent tunnel considering soil spatial variability
J.Z. Zhang, H.W. Huang & D.M. Zhang

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Daniele Peila is Associate Professor at the Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructure Engineering at the Politecnico di Torino, Italy.

Giulia Viggiani is Professor at the Department of Engineering at Cambridge University in the UK.

Tarcisio Celestino is Professor in the Department of Geotechnics at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.