Working Posture Assessment
The TACOS (Time-Based Assessment Computerized Strategy) Method
This book covers how to analyze awkward working postures, particularly of the spine and lower limbs, in specific groups exposed. The methods covered suggests how to evaluate the postures correctly, taking account of the duration and sequence of the tasks involved, even in very complex scenarios where workers are involved with multiple tasks and work cycles varying from day to day. Excel spreadsheets located on the authors’ website (www.epmresearch.org) have been developed to gather, condense, and automatically process the data. The tools serve to implement the strategy for calculating risk associated with exposure to awkward postures, i.e. the TACOS method. Included are 5 case studies which include physiotherapists, workers from construction, archaeological digs, vineyards, and kindergarten teachers.
- Provides a coherent definition of what the study of awkward postures is
- Clarifies and explains which parameters need to be detected and analyzed for the study of the working postures
- Defines the phases of a proper organizational study (e.g. tasks, postures, duration, and how often the postures will last) in the working cycle
- Presents a new and original risk calculation model for awkward postures, with particular attention to the study of the spine and the lower limbs
- Offers a free excel spreadsheet located on the authors' website which implements the strategy for calculating risk associated with exposure to awkward postures
Table of Contents
Introduction and Aim. Methods for Evaluating Working Postures in International Standards: ISO 11226 (2000)—Evaluation of Static Working Postures and EN 1005-4 (2005)—Evaluation of Working Postures and Movements in Relation to Machinery. Working Posture Assessment Criteria and Principal Methods Reported in the Literature: A Comparison. The TACOs Method: Methods, Criteria, and Applications of Single-Task Jobs. Timed Score Calculation Methods in Multitask Exposure Scenarios. Simple Tools for Using the TACOs Method to Assess Postures: An Example of a Multitask Job in a Daily Cycle. Simple Tools for Using the TACOs Method to Assess Postures: An Example of a Multitask Job in a Weekly/Monthly Cycle. Simple Tools for Using the TACOs Method to Assess Postures: An Example of a Multitask Job in an Annual Cycle. The Physiotherapist: Example of an Analysis of Biomechanical Overload of the Upper Limbs and Awkward Postures of the Spine and Lower Limbs among Professionals in an Orthopedic Clinic.The Construction Worker: Example of Biomechanical Overload of the Upper Limbs and Awkward Postures of the Spine and Lower Limbs in Several Typical Tasks. Multitask Analysis among Workers at Archaeological Digs. Analysis of Back and Lower Limb Postures among Childcare Center Staff. Biomechanical Overload and Awkward Postures among Vineyard Workers: Risk Analysis. Conclusions. Bibliography.
Daniela Colombini has a degree in Medicine with specialization in Occupational Medicine and in Health Statistics and Epidemiology; European Ergonomist. Since 1985, senior researcher at the Research Unit "Ergonomics of Posture and Movement”-Milan, where she developed methods for the analysis and evaluation of biomechanical overload. She is author of the OCRA method, (standard EN 1005- 5 and ISO 11228-3) and represents Italy in international commissions of CEN and ISO working on biomechanics. She is professor in Florence University and coordinator of sub-group of the Technical Committee on the Prevention of Musculoskeletal Disorders of International Ergonomics Association (IEA). She is founder and President of the EPM IES (International Ergonomics School of Posture and Movement).
Enrico Occhipinti has a degree in medicine with postgraduate specialization in occupational medicine and health statistics at the University of Milano (Italy). He is a Certified European Ergonomist. He is professor at the School of Specialization in Occupational Medicine, University of Milano and Director of the Research Unit Ergonomics of Posture and Movement (EPM) at Fondazione Don Gnocchi ONLUS-Milano. He has devoted more than 30 years on ergonomic issues related to physical ergonomics and the prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. He developed and coauthored the OCRA method. He has been coordinator (up to 2012) of the TC on WMSDs of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA) and represents Italy in international commissions of CEN and ISO working on biomechanics.