Not all World Heritage Sites have people living within or close by their boundaries, but many do. The designation of World Heritage status brings a new dimension to the functioning of local communities and particularly through tourism. Too many tourists accentuated by the World Heritage label, or in some cases not enough tourists, despite anticipation of increased numbers, can act to disrupt and disturb relations within a community and between communities. Either way, tourism can be seen as a form of activity that can generate interest and concern as it is played out within World Heritage Sites. But the relationships that World Heritage Sites and their consequent tourism share with communities are not just a function of the number of tourists. The relationships are complex and ever changing as the communities themselves change and are built upon long-standing and wider contextual factors that stretch beyond tourism.
This volume, drawing upon a wide range of international cases relating to some 33 World Heritage Sites, reveals the multiple dimensions of the relations that exist between the sites and local communities. The designation of the sites can create, obscure and heighten the power relations between different parts of a community, between different communities and between the tourism and the heritage sector. Increasingly, the management of World Heritage is not only about the management of buildings and landscapes but about managing the communities that live and work in or near them.
Table of Contents
List of figures
List of tables
List of contributors
1 Tourism at World Heritage Sites: community ambivalence
Maria Gravari-Barbas, Mike Robinson and Laurent Bourdeau
2 World Heritage as a revitalization movement: managing local and global tourism in UNESCO’s heritage-scape
Michael A. Di Giovine
3 Responsible tourism and poverty: the porters of the Inca Trail
James Rollefson, Carolina Espinoza Camus and Alexandra Arellano
4 Machu Picchu: an Andean Utopia for the twenty-first century?
Amy Cox Hall
5 Interrogating the ‘universal’ in St. Lucia’s Pitons Management Area
Jennifer C. Lutton and Gregor Williams
6 Archaeological replica vendors and an alternative history of a Mexican heritage site: the case of Monte Albán
Ronda L. Brulotte
7 Indigenous perspectives on ownership and management of Yucatecan archaelogical sites
Stephanie J. Litka
8 World Heritage, tourism development, and identity politics at the Tsodilo Hills
Rachel F. Giraudo
9 Tourism community involvement strategy for the Living World Heritage Site of Hampi, India: a case study
Bernhard Bauer, Nitin Sinha, Michele Trimarchi and Vincenzo Zappino
10 Reconstructing biodiversity for tourism development: ethnographic accounts from a World Heritage Site in the making
11 Post-inscription challenges: renegotiating World Heritage management in the Laponia Area in Sweden
12 The level of societal reproduction as a predictor of visitation: lessons from World Heritage Sites in the United States
Linda Joyce Forristal
13 Looking back towards the future: historical analysis of Machu Picchu planning documents as a key to site conservation
Evan R. Ward
14 Shandong Province and tourism: an examination of World Heritage Sites
Ina Freeman and He Sun
15 The valuation of protected areas: tourists in Chitwan National Park, Nepal
Jennifer Michelle Cook and Michal J. Bardecki
16 The impact of tourism on Latin American World Heritage towns
17 Visitor management in sensitive historic landscapes: strategies to avoid conflict in Hadrian’s Wall World Heritage Site
Laurent Bourdeau is in the Department of Geography at the Université Laval, Canada.
Maria Gravari-Barbas is at the Institut de Recherche et d’Études Supérieures du Tourisme, University of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, France.
Mike Robinson is at the Ironbridge International Institute for Cultural Heritage, University of Birmingham, UK.
"Overall, the book is a valuable addition to the literature on World Heritage Sites as it provides a useful collection of global case studies from valued academics and practitioners from across the world. The focus on the relationship of the community with heritage sites is an important one to discuss and explore. The book provides interesting insights for scholars as well as practitioners and makes for a useful supplementary reading for students." Martine Bakker, Department of Environmental Sciences, Cultural Geography, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands