1st Edition

Advanced Manufacturing for Optical Fibers and Integrated Photonic Devices

ISBN 9781498729451
Published August 21, 2015 by CRC Press
220 Pages 166 B/W Illustrations

USD $180.00

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Book Description

Advanced Manufacturing for Optical Fibers and Integrated Photonic Devices explores the theoretical principles and industrial practices of high-technology manufacturing. Focusing on fiber optic, semiconductor, and laser products, this book:

  • Explains the fundamentals of standard, high-tech, rapid, and additive manufacturing workshops
  • Examines the production lines, processes, and clean rooms needed for the manufacturing of products
  • Discusses the high-technology manufacturing and installation of fiber optic cables, connectors, and active/passive devices
  • Describes continuous improvement, waste reduction through 5S application, and management’s responsibilities in supporting production
  • Covers Lean Manufacturing processes, product improvement, and workplace safety, as well as internal/external and ISO auditing
  • Offers a step-by-step approach complete with numerous figures and tables, detailed references, and a glossary of terms
  • Employs the international system of units (SI) throughout the text

Advanced Manufacturing for Optical Fibers and Integrated Photonic Devices presents the latest manufacturing achievements and their applications in the high-tech sector. Inspired by the author’s extensive industrial experience, the book provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary manufacturing technologies.

Table of Contents


About the Author




Standard Workshops

High-Tech Workshops

Rapid Manufacturing Workshops

Additive Manufacturing Workshops

An Example of Workshop Modifications

Production Lines


Why Build Production Lines?

Producing Economical Products

Requirements to Build and Design a Production Line

Categories of Manufacturing Lines

Manufacturing Processes

Types of Assembly Lines

Single Production Lines

Parallel Production Lines

Feed in Production Lines

Cross-Production Lines

Partially Automated Lines

Fully Automated Lines

Pilot Production Lines

Standard Workstations

Principles of Building Successful Production Lines

Consequences of Building Unsuccessful Production Lines

Causes of Day-to-Day Problems

Steps in Long-Term Planning to Solve the Production Line Problems

Objectives for Long-Term Planning to Improve the Production Line

Reduced Labor

Improved Machine Utilization

Improved Operational Control

Reduced Inventory


Manufacturing Procedures

Types of Manufacturing Procedures

Samples of Manufacturing Procedures

Sample 1: Temperature Test (Manual Oven) for Hybrid Devices

Sample 2: AP and PC Connector Assembly

Appendix A: PDL Test Procedure

Appendix B: Troubleshooting and Possible Fixes

Clean Rooms


Bunny Suit

Clean Room Standards

High Manufacturing Technology


Fiber Optic Cables

Fiber Optic Cable Construction

Plastic Fiber Cables

Light Propagation in Fiber Optic Cables

Types of Fiber Optic Cables

Single-Mode Step-Index Fiber Cable

Multimode Step-Index Fiber Cable (Multimode Fiber Cable)

Multimode Graded-Index (GRIN) Fiber Cable

Polarization-Maintaining Fiber Cables

Specialty Fiber Cables

Fiber Cable Fabrication Techniques

Double Crucible Method

Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Processes

Outside Vapor Deposition (OVD)

Vapor Axial Deposition (VAD)

Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD)

Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (PCVD)

Fiber Drawing

Photonic Crystal Fiber Cables

Microstructure Fiber Cables

Polymer Holey-Fiber Cables

Fiber Cable Inspection and Handling

Case a: Fiber Cable Inspection and Handling

Case b: Fiber Cable Ends Preparation

Manufacturing Fiber Cable Assembly

Light Source Coupling to a Fiber Cable

Launching Light Conditions into Fiber Cables

Applications of Connectors and Splices

Requirements of Connectors and Splices

Fiber Connectors

Fiber Optic Connector Types

Adapters for Different Fiber Optic Connector Types

Fiber Optic Connector Structures

Fiber Optic Connector Assembly Techniques

Building FSMA Connectors

Hot-Melt Connectors

Epoxyless Connectors

Automated Polishing

Fluid Jet Polishing

Fiber Optic Connector Cleaning

Connector Testing

Fiber Splicing

Mechanical Splicing

Key Lock Mechanical Fiber Optic Splices

Table Type Mechanical Fiber Optic Splices

Fusion Splices

Splice Testing

Fiber Optic Cable Types and Installations


Fiber Optic Cable Types and Applications

Indoor Fiber Optic Cable Types and Applications

Outdoor Fiber Optic Cable Types and Applications

Indoor/Outdoor Fiber Optic Cable Types and Applications

Other Fiber Optic Cable Types and Applications

Fiber Optic Cable Installation Methods

Indoor Fiber Optic Cable Installation

Cable Installation in Tray and Duct Systems

Conduit Installation

Pulling Fiber Optic Cable Installation

Fiber Optic Cables Direct Burial Installation

Fiber Optic Cable Aerial Installation

Air-Blown Fiber Cable Installation

Other Fiber Cable Installation Methods

Standard Hardware for Fiber Optic Cables

Fiber Splice Closures

Rack with Panels

Connector Housings

Patch Panels

Splice Housings

Wall Outlets

Fiber Optic Testing Equipment

Fiber Optic Cable Test Requirements

How to Install a Fiber Optic Cable

Technique and Apparatus

Fiber Optic Cable Installation Procedure

Manufacturing of Passive Fiber Optic Devices


2 × 2 Couplers

3 dB Couplers


Star Couplers

Coupler Construction

Fused Taper Couplers

Polishing D-Section Couplers

Twin Core Fiber Couplers

Manufacturing of Active Fiber Optic Devices


Optomechanical Switches

Electro-Optic Switches

A High-Speed Optical Switch Using a Fiber Optic Coupler

Acousto-Optic Switches

Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)

3D MEMS-Based Optical Switches

Micro-Optomechanical Systems (MOMS)

Continuous Improvement in a Production Line


Understand the Need for Changes

Preparing for the Change

Handling Time

Reducing Packaging and Shipping Times



Shipping Labels and Tags

Sealing the Shipping Box

5S Implementation

Modifications of a Production Line and Product

Reducing Waste

Solving Problems in Manufacturing Lines

Jigs Usage in Production Lines

Continuous Improvement Schedule

Standard Work Improvement Process

Continuous Flow Production (CFP)

Basic Elements of Continuous Flow Production

Just in Time (JIT)

Characteristics of the Flow Production

Implementation of Continuous Flow Production (CFP)

Benefits of Continuous Flow Production

Types of Waste


Types of Waste

Waste of Inventory

Waste of Overproduction

Waste of Defect

Waste of Inefficient Process

Waste of Waiting

Waste of Materials Transportation/Movement

Waste of Motion

Waste of Rejects

Waste of Person

Other Types of Waste

Waste Reduction Techniques

Waste of Products

Eliminating Waste

Waste Reduction

Product Design and Manufacturing

Materials Reuse and Recycling

Packaging Reduction


Office Paper Use

Cafeterias and Restrooms

Waste Reduction by Training

Enhance Your Waste Reduction Program


Application of the 5S’s in Manufacturing Lines


The 5S’s


Set in Order




Implementation of the 5S’s in a Manufacturing Line



Put Plan into Action


Future Plan

Management and Employee Responsibilities


Structural Needs of a Company

Responsibilities of Employees

Employee Rights

Responsibilities of Managers

Safety Ethics

Laws and Regulations

Management and Ethnics

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

Society and Ethics

Human Society: Family and Person

Professional Societies

Fundamental Standards in Professional Engineering Societies

Lean Manufacturing


History of Lean Manufacturing

Key Elements of Lean Manufacturing

Just in Time (JIT)


Standardized Work

Understanding the Application of Flow Processing Techniques

Applying Lean Principles (Poka-Yoke)

Key Tools of Lean Manufacturing

Differences between Lean and Conventional Manufacturing

Leadership in Lean Manufacturing

Lean Manufacturing and Waste

Lean Manufacturing Implementation Program

Characteristics of Lean Manufacturing

Application of Lean Manufacturing

Lean Software Engineering

Lean on Healthcare

Lean Manufacturing Strategy

Benefits Make Lean Manufacturing Succeed

Advantages of Lean Manufacturing

Disadvantages of Lean Manufacturing

Product Improvement


Purpose of Product Improvement

Process of Producing Economical Products

Modify Floor Plan

Floor Plan Design

Modifying a Floor Plan

Improving and Optimizing Handling and Process Times

Reduce the Waste of Inventory

Reduce Overproduction

Reduce Defects

Inspection of Incoming Materials

Employee Training

Inspection of Inventory

Reduce Rejects

Using Alternative Materials

Using New Jigs, Devices, and Tools

Using Automation

Time Management in a Professional Environment


Time Management Best Practices

Adopt a Positive Attitude




Developing Specific Skills

Prioritization Skills

Planning Skills

Delegation Skills

Organization Skills

Establishing Daily Priorities

Identifying Goals from Objectives

Identify Activities

Determine High- and Low-Return Activities

Consider Objectives

Determine Urgency vs. Importance

Rank Priorities (1-2-3 System)

Decide What to Do (ABC System)

The Myths

Hard Work Leads to Success

Keep Working and You Will Get More Done

Efficiency Leads to Effectiveness

Dedication and Commitment Are Essential to Success

You Are the Best Person to Do the Job

He or She Who Runs Away Lives to Fight Another Day

Work Is Its Own Reward

Work Was Never Intended to Be Fun

It’s My Way or the Highway

Work Best under Pressure

Time Wasters




Meeting Rules


Top 10 Time Management Tips

Time Management Strategies

Internal, External, and ISO Auditing


Internal Auditing

External Auditing

Auditing Activities

Management’s and Engineers’ Roles

Auditing Annual Planning

Execution of Auditing Activities

Audit Reports

Quality of the Audit Report

Audit Report Strategic Plans

The Difference between Internal and External Audits

The Role of the Internal Auditor

The Role of the External Auditor

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

Benefits of ISO 9000 Standards

Benchmarking for ISO 9000

Responsibilities of Management

ISO 9000 Employee Expectations

Tips for a Successful ISO 9000 Process

Impact of Technology Changes and ISO 9000

High-Tech Manufacturing Safety


Personal Protective Safety Equipment (PPSE)

Electrical Safety

Fuses/Circuit Breakers

ON/OFF Switches


Wall Outlets


Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters

Light Sources

Devices and Equipment

Audiovisual and Computer Peripherals

Handling of Fiber Optic Cables

Epoxy Adhesives and Sealants

Cleaning Optical Components

Optic/Optical Fiber Devices and Systems

Cleaning Chemicals

Warning Labels

Laser Safety

Laser Safety Tips

Indoor Air Quality

Other Considerations




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Abdul Al-Azzawi earned his Ph.D from the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland. He has more than 30 years of experience in research, academia, and the photonics manufacturing industry. Currently, he is a professor, coordinator, and researcher at Algonquin College, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, teaching in the joint Bachelor of Information Technology – Photonics and Laser Technology Program between Algonquin College and Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Dr. Al-Azzawi is a senior member of SMIEEE, as well as a member of Canadian professional photonics societies. He has published several books and papers, participated in numerous workshops and conferences around the world, and been the recipient of the National Institute for Staff and Organizational Development (NISOD) Excellence Award from the University of Texas at Austin, USA. His areas of research include optic/optical fiber devices, fiber optic lighting, and fiber optic devices.


"I’ve known Dr. Abdul Al-Azzawi since the early days of college level Photonics Education in Ontario. The world of Photonics manufacturing is critical to the functioning of our modern society. It’s great to see such an exhaustive range of topics taken on in his latest book!"
—Alexander McGlashan, Niagara College

"Dr. Al-Azzawi draws on his vast industrial experiences to provide a comprehensive look at the essential technologies for manufacturing high-quality fiber optic cables, connectors, couplers, and active switching devices. The fundamentals of industrial production are described in detail and modern methods for continuous improvement are discussed. Dr. Al-Azzawi moves beyond traditional manufacturing textbooks by stressing practical solutions and time management skills in a competitive high-tech manufacturing environment. The book serves as an introduction to the practical aspects of fiber optic manufacturing and a guidebook for evaluating other high-tech manufacturing enterprises."
—George Knopf, The University of Western Ontario