The concept of the 3Rs (Refinement, Reduction and Replacement) has been used as a framework for improving the welfare of laboratory animals for the last half century. By establishing an animal-centric view on housing and management, Animal-centric Care and Management: Enhancing Refinement in Biomedical Research takes Russell and Burch’s definition of Refinement as "elimination of inhumanities" and goes further. Rather than fitting animals into experimental conditions, it encourages readers to adjust conditions to better meet the behavioral, emotional, physical, and physiological needs and preferences of the animals. The team of expert authors, from the fields of laboratory animal science, ethology, biology as well as animal training, provide ideas for creating housing conditions and handling procedures that induce, to the best of current abilities and knowledge, a long-term positive state of mind in the animals under our care.
This book is written for animal caretakers, animal health technicians, researchers, animal facility managers, laboratory animal veterinarians, and anyone who engages in work with living experimental animals or is interested in the continuous improvement of laboratory animal welfare. This interdisciplinary guide will act as a catalyst, resulting in multiple viewpoints and fields collaborating to optimize laboratory animal welfare.
Table of Contents
Dorte B. Sørensen, Sylvie Cloutier and Brianna Gaskill
Chapter 1. Human-Animal Interactions
Megan R. LaFollette; Editors: Brianna N. Gaskill and Sylvie Cloutier
Chapter 2: A Culture of Care
Thomas Bertelsen and Penny Hawkins
Chapter 3: Animal Emotions
Karolina Westlund and Sylvie Cloutier
Chapter 4. Abnormal behavior
Jamie Ahloy-Dallaire, María Díez-León and Andrea Polanco
Chapter 5. Animal Learning: The science behind animal training
Dorte B. Sørensen, Annette Pedersen and Björn Forkman
Chapter 6 Animal Training: The Practical Approach
Dorte B. Sørensen, Annette Pedersen and Robert E. Bailey (Bob)
Chapter 7: The Zebrafish
Isabel Fife-Cook, Christine Powell and Becca Franks
Chapter 8. The Mice
Brianna N. Gaskill and Kelly Gouveia
Chapter 9. The Rat
I. Joanna Makowska
Chapter 10: The Laboratory Rabbit
Sarah Thurston and Jan L. Ottesen
Chapter 11: The Laboratory Dog
Carolyn Allen, Dorte B. Sørensen and Jan L. Ottesen
Chapter 12. The Non-Human Primate
Karolina Westlund and Lori Ann Burgess
Chapter 13. The Laboratory Pig
Mette S. Herskin, Cathrine J. Bundgaard, Jan L. Ottesen, Dorte B. Sørensen, Jeremy N. Marchant-Forde
Dorte Bratbo Sørensen is a veterinarian and PhD in ethology and animal welfare. Currently, she is an associated professor in laboratory animal science at the University of Copenhagen, where she is teaching laboratory animal ethics, welfare and behavior. Dorte Bratbo Sørensen’s research interests evolve around animal behavior and animal welfare and her main research areas are evaluating the impact on different housing systems and various environmental enrichment or handling techniques on animal welfare and data quality. Another important area of interest is the implementation of training and socializing - especially the use of positive reinforcement training - as a way to enhance animal welfare and optimize the collection of physiological data. Together with Copenhagen Zoo, she arranges courses and seminars in laboratory animal positive reinforcement training and handling, and she is the founder of Centre for Laboratory Animal Training CeLAT.
Co-editor Dr. Sylvie Cloutier currently works at the Canadian Council on Animal Care. Sylvie’s research interest is on factors affecting the behaviour and well-being of farm and laboratory animals, and the quality of human-animal interactions. She was a leader in introducing 'rat tickling' as a method to improve handling of laboratory rats.
Co-editor Dr. Brianna N. Gaskill leads a research program focusing on welfare assessment of laboratory animals. She utilizes natural behavior, physiology, and affective state to assess an animal’s overall well-being. She is especially interested how better welfare can translate into better and more robust science. Her research interests include: applied ethology, enrichment design and application, improving husbandry techniques, and how environment can affect scientific results when not tailored to the animal’s needs and motivations.
"Animal-Centric Care and Management by Dorte Bratbo Sørensen, Sylvie Cloutier and Brianna Gaskill is a book that will easily ﬁt into any library for training in animal science. It does a convincing job arguing for a new culture in animal science where researchers and caregivers cooperate to adjust experimental conditions to a species rather than require a species to adapt to the study conditions. It is suitable for any stakeholder working with live animals in science. The content is helpful to new personnel in the ﬁeld, but also for experienced personnel, especially decision makers for equipment purchases, facility design, standard operating procedure review and development, or protocol reviews. It is my position that a manager would do well to have all their staﬀ read this book... Animal welfare in the years ahead will hopefully be characterized with the quote “we can aim at well-being rather than the absence of distress”. This book will help get us there. I hope the current and subsequent generation of animal users look back and wonder how we could have done this work without that perspective. In short, please thoroughly digest this book; you and the animals you work with will be better off for it."
Jason Allen, CALAS-ACSAL Member's Magazine, VOL 54, NO 5 • SPRING 2021
"The essence of this book is to go beyond the notion of the 3Rs principles as originally described by Russell and Burch (1959), viewing these as a collection of ethical ideals not only to be adhered to, but to be further developed in all circumstances where animals are at risk of suffering... Animal-centric Care and Management is a book that generally strikes an excellent balance between the provision of detailed recommendations concerning methods of welfare enhancement without relying too heavily on the readers prior knowledge of the basic concepts."
Johnny Roughan, University of Newcastle, UK in The UFAW Journal – Animal Welfare, Volume 31, Issue 1, February 2022
"By introducing innovative and advanced ways of housing and caring for laboratory animals, this long-overdue book enables a much needed shift in animal research from a culture of exploitation to a culture of care, where research animals are treated as patients rather than mere measuring devices."
Prof. Dr. Hanno Würbel, Division of Animal Welfare, Veterinary Public Health Institute, University of Bern
"The book is comprehensive, well- written and exceedingly well laid out. The principles of Animal-centric care
and management may sound a new idea but for many animal care staff it is what we have been doing for many
years, although there is always room for new ideas. However, the concept of designing experiments studies
to consider the animals needs first rather than the scientific needs is something is entirely new. Although
only the common animals are covered, the principles are applicable to all species used in research, although
some in depth knowledge of some of the more unusual species needs to be acquired. I commend this book to you and would recommend that it is made available to all staff from the most junior technician to the head of teams using animals in research."
Dr. Jas Barley, April 2021, Animal Technology and Welfare journal (IAT)
"The style of writing throughout the book is engaging and encourages personal reflection of current animal behaviour and human interaction beliefs, knowledge and working practices within the laboratory animal field. Noteworthy chapters, for me, included the first four chapters of the book, these were probably the broadest in content (hence the appeal) and looked at human-animal bonds, the culture of care (currently a "hot topic" within the laboratory animal science sector), animal emotions and abnormal animal behaviours. It is surprising that so few animal husbandry management books have dedicated chapters to these important subjects previously and perhaps this "new approach" will become "the norm" in education, training and developing a greater understanding of our interactions with laboratory animals over future years. It is hoped that readers will champion changes in management of laboratory species that are focussed on the animals, their needs and their welfare, resulting in an increased awareness of an animal-centric culture."
Angela Kerton, The Learning Curve (Development) Ltd., LASA Chair of the Scientific Programme, in LASA Forum Summer 2021