1st Edition

Application of Hydrodynamic Cavitation in Environmental Engineering

By Janusz Ozonek Copyright 2012

    Containing the state-of-the-art in hydrodynamic cavitation, the book consists of two parts. The first part presents the physical basis of cavitation and a systematic classification of various kinds of cavitation and their formation sources. Special attention is paid to a group of factors that promote cavitation formation in natural liquids. A general model of cavitation is formulated as well as a sub-model describing dynamics of the formation, development and collapse of cavitation bubbles. The sub-model also includes effects of cavitation bubble occurrence on the liquid in the direct vicinity of bubbles. Finally, part one also includes a thermodynamic hydrocavitation model of water containing cavitation nuclei (natural waters). The second part deals with the application of hydrodynamic cavitation effects to advanced oxidation of substances that pollute the natural environment. Results of laboratory experiments on the application of cavitation effects to decompose selected organic compounds which hardly undergo biodegradation are presented, as well as a concept of the cavitation phenomenon application on an industrial scale.

    Application of Hydrodynamic Cavitation in Environmental Engineering will be useful to professionals dealing with the design and practical application of hydrocavitation reactors, and to academics in environmental engineering.


    About the author
    List of symbols

    CHAPTER 1: Characteristics of the cavitation phenomenon
    1.1 The essence of cavitation
    1.2 Types of cavitation—forms of cavitation clouds
    1.3 Factors favouring the formation of cavitation
    1.4 Physicochemical effects of the cavitation process
    1.5 Summary

    CHAPTER 2: The physical basics of hydrodynamic cavitation
    2.1 Types of cavitation liquids. Basic classification
    2.2 Phase transition characteristics of water
    2.3 The solubility of selected gases in water
    2.4 The thermodynamic model of hydrodynamic cavitation
    2.4.1 The thermodynamic model for the liquid-vapour transformation at the phase transition interface
    2.4.2 The cavitation bubble dynamics model
    2.4.3 Static equilibrium in a gas bubble
    2.5 Cavitation bubble oscillations and implosions
    2.6 Cavitation number

    CHAPTER 3: Sonochemical processes in support of oxidation processes
    3.1 Advanced oxidation processes
    3.2 The mechanism and kinetics of reactions involving hydroxyl radicals
    3.3 Cavitation characteristics with the participation of ultrasound
    3.4 Sonochemical reactions under the influence of ultrasound
    3.5 Summary

    CHAPTER 4: Problems and conditions in the generation of hydrodynamic cavitation
    4.1 Parameters affecting cavitation intensity
    4.2 Cavitation device classification
    4.3 Hydrodynamic cavitation reactor selection criteria

    CHAPTER 5: The study of hydrodynamic cavitation in the laboratory
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 The characteristics and description of the research facility
    5.2.1 The research facility
    5.2.2 The hydrodynamic cavitation reactor
    5.3 The effect of certain parameters on the cavitation intensity
    5.3.1 The shape of the cavitation inducer
    5.3.2 Pressure variations in the cavitation region

    CHAPTER 6: The use of cavitation to aid the water treatment process and effluent decontamination
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Water treatment and disinfection
    6.3 Sewage treatment
    6.4 Cleaning leachate from municipal landfills
    6.5 Sludge digestion
    6.6 The degradation of organic compounds in aqueous solutions
    6.7 Summary

    CHAPTER 7: The decomposition of persistent organic pollutants using hydrodynamic cavitation
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 The decomposition of PAHs in aqueous solutions
    7.3 The reduction of odour emissions from counter-current extraction water in the sugar industry
    7.4 Summary

    CHAPTER 8: The application of cavitation to intensify technological processes
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 The use of cavitation in the food and processing industries
    8.3 Chemical synthesis
    8.3.1 The hydrolysis of vegetable oils
    8.3.2 The synthesis of biodiesel
    8.4 The application of cavitation in environmental decontamination processes
    8.4.1 Using cavitation to treat wastewater during mining
    8.4.2 Cavitation and flotation
    8.4.3 Using cavitation to aerate natural waters
    8.5 Using cavitation in the treatment of ballast water
    8.6 Cavitation in the disposal of petroleum products
    8.7 Summary

    CHAPTER 9: Application opportunities for hydrodynamic cavitation in environmental engineering technologies

    Subject index


    Janusz Ozonek, a graduate of Silesian Technical University in Gliwice was specializing in the scope of chemical engineering in the fields close to the problems of environmental protection. After the studies he worked in the following research institutes: Inorganic Chemistry Research Institute in Gliwice and Organic Industry Institute in Warsaw. For the next 8 years he worked in the industry in the Company of Chemical Reagents in Lublin.
    He has been connected with Lublin University of Technology since 1980. In this University he started an intensive research on the ozone synthesis process and improvement of the phenomenological description for this process in the plasma-chemical reactor. The research constituted the basis for the doctoral dissertation, defended at the Chemical Department of the Silesian Technical University in Gliwice. The development of the model of temperature distribution in the ozonizer depending on the hydrodynamic parameters and power supply was also an important achievement resulting from the conducted research.
    Most of the works of Janusz Ozonek are interdisciplinary. The chemical ozone synthesis process itself, along with running the processes in the environment of low-temperature plasma require an approach from the side of physical elementary processes and is purposeful for the environmental engineering.
    Janusz Ozonek is an author or co-author of 5 books, over 40 papers published in technical magazines and over 80 papers presented on the scientific and technical symposiums and conferences both national and international. The subject of the papers is focusing on environmental protection and is mainly connected with the issue of reducing the energy consumption in the process of ozone synthesis and its usage in eco-technologies.
    He is a member of the International Ozone Association, a member of the Committee of Low-Temperature Plasma Chemistry of the Lublin department of the Polish Academy of Sciences, a member-correspondent of Lublin Science Society and a member of Polish Chemical Society.