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    Many of the properties critical to the engineering applications of ceramics are strongly dependent on their microstructure which, in turn, is dependent on the processing methods used to produce the ceramic material. Ceramic Processing, Second Edition provides a comprehensive treatment of the principles and practical methods used in producing ceramics with controlled microstructure.

    Covering the main steps in the production of ceramics from powders, the book also provides succinct coverage of other methods for fabricating ceramics, such as sol−gel processing, reaction bonding, chemical vapor deposition and polymer pyrolysis.

    While maintaining the objectives of the successful first edition, this new edition has been revised and updated to include recent developments and expanded to feature new chapters on additives used in ceramic processing; rheological properties of suspensions, slurries, and pastes; granulation, mixing, and packing of particles; and sintering theory and principles.

    Intended as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in ceramic processing, the book also provides an indispensable resource for research and development engineers in industry who are involved in the production of ceramics or who would like to develop a background in the processing of ceramics.


    Chapter 1 Ceramic Fabrication Processes – An Introductory Overview


    2. Ceramic Fabrication Processes

    3.Fabrication of Ceramics from Powders: An Overview

    1.3.1 Powder Synthesis and Characterization

    1.3.2 Powder Consolidation

    1.3.3 The Sintering Process

    1.3.4 Ceramic Microstructures

    1. Case Study in Processing: Fabrication of Al2O3 from Powders

    2. Concluding Remarks


    Chapter 2 Synthesis and Preparation of Powders: Mechanical Methods

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Powder Characteristics

    2.3 Powder Preparation by Mechanical Methods

    2.4 High Compression Roller Mills

    2.5 Jet Mills

    2.6 Ball Mills

    2.7 High-Energy Ball Milling

    2.8 Concluding Remarks



    Chapter 3 Powder Synthesis by Chemical Methods

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Solid State Reactions

    3.2.1 Decomposition

    3.2.2 Reaction between Solids

    3.3.2 Reduction

    3.3 Precipitation from Liquid Solutions

    3.3.1 Principles of Precipitation from Solution

    3.3.2 Methods for Preparing Powders by Precipitation from Solution

    3.3.3 Precipitation Methods Based on Evaporation of the Liquid

    3.4 Freeze Drying

    3.5 Gel Routes

    3.5.1 Sol- Gel Processing

    3.5.2 Pechini Method

    3.5.3 Citrate Gel Method

    3.5.4 Glycine Nitrate Process

    3.6 Non-Aqueous Liquid Reactions

    3.7 Vapor Phase Reactions

    3.7.1 Gas- Solid Reaction

    3.7.2 Reaction between Gases

    3.8 Concluding Remarks



    Chapter 4 Synthesis of Ceramic Nanoparticles

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Methods for Synthesizing Ceramic Nanoparticles

    4.3 Solid- Solid Methods

    4.4 Solid- Vapor- Solid Methods

    4.5 Liquid- Solid Methods

    4.6 Liquid- Vapor- Solid Methods

    4.7 Concluding Remarks



    Chapter 5 Powder Characterization

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Physical Characterization

    5.2.1 Types of Particles

    5.2.2 Particle Size and Particle Size Distribution

    5.2.3 Particle Shape

    5.2.4 Measurement of Particle Size and Size Distribution

    5.2.5 Surface Area

    5.2.6 Porosity of Particles

    5.3 Chemical Composition

    5.4 Crystal Structure and Phase Composition

    5.5 Surface Characterization

    5.5.1 Surface Structure

    5.5.2 Surface Chemistry

    5.6 Concluding Remarks



    Chapter 6 Science of Colloidal Processing

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Types of Colloids

    6.3 Attractive Surface Forces

    6.3.1 Van der Waals Forces between Atoms and Molecules

    6.3.2 Van der Waals Forces Macroscopic Bodies

    6.3.3 The Hamaker Constant

    6.3.4 Effect of the Intervening Medium

    6.4 Stabilization of Colloidal Suspensions

    6.5 Electrostatic Stabilization

    6.5.1 Charges on Particles in a Liquid

    6.5.2 Origins of the Electrical Double Layer

    6.5.3 Isolated Double Layer

    6.5.4 Surface Charge

    6.5.5 Repulsion between Two Double Layers

    6.5.6 Stability of Electrostatically Stabilized Colloids

    6.5.7 Kinetics of Flocculation

    6.5.8 Electrokinetic Phenomena

    6.6 Steric Stabilization

    6.6.1 Adsorption of Polymers from Solution

    6.6.2 Origins of Steric Stabilization

    6.6.3 Effect of Solvent and Temperature

    6.6.4 Stability of Sterically Stabilized Suspensions

    6.6.5 Stabilization by Polymers in Free Solution

    6.7 Electrosteric Stabilization

    6.7.1 Dissociation of Polyelectrolytes in Solution

    6.7.2 Adsorption of Polyelectrolytes from Solution

    6.7.3 Stability of Electrosterically Stabilized Suspensions

    6.8 Structure of Consolidated Colloids

    6.9 Concluding Remarks



    Chapter 7 Rheology of Colloidal Suspensions, Slurries and Pastes

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Types of Rheological Behavior

    7.2.1 Viscous Flow Behavior

    7.2.2 Viscoelastic Behavior

    7.3 Rheological Measurement

    7.4 Factors Influencing the Viscosity of Colloidal Suspensions

    7.4.1 Interparticle Forces

    7.4.2 Particle Concentration

    7.4.3 Particle Size and Particle Size Distribution

    7.4.4 Particle Morphology

    7.4.5 Suspension Medium

    7.5 Concluding Remarks



    Chapter 8 Processing Additives

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Types of Additives

    8.3 Solvents

    Selection of a Solvent

    8.4 Dispersants

    8.4.1 Inorganic Acid Salts

    8.4.2 Surfactants

    8.4.3 Low to Medium Molecular Weights Polymers

    8.5 Binders

    8.5.1 Inorganic Binders

    8.5.2 Synthetic Organic Binders

    8.5.3 Natural Organic Binders

    8.5.4 Selection of a Binder

    8.6 Plasticizers

    8.7 Other Potential Additives

    8.8 Concluding Remarks



    Chapter 9 Granulation, Mixing and Packing of Particles

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Granulation of Particles

    9.2.1 Desirable Characteristics of Binders

    9.2.2 Preparation of Granules

    9.2.3 Spray Drying

    9.2.4 Factors Controlling the Strength of Granules

    9.2.5 Spray Freeze Drying

    9.3 Mixing of Particles

    9.3.1 Mixing and Segregation Mechanisms

    9.3.2 Mixture Composition and Quality

    9.3.3 Statistical Methods

    9.3.4 Measurement Techniques

    9.3.5 Mixing Technology

    9.4 Packing of Particles

    9.4.1 Regular Packing of Monosize Spheres

    9.4.2 Random Packing of Particles

    9.4.3 Packing of Continuous Size Distributions

    9.5 Concluding Remarks



    Chapter 10 Forming of Ceramics; Conventional Methods

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Dry and Semi-Dry Pressing

    10.2.1 Die Pressing

    10.2.2 Isostatic Pressing

    10.3 Suspension-Based Methods

    10.3.1 Slip Casting

    10.3.2 Pressure Casting

    10.3.3 Tape Casting

    10.3.4 Centrifugal Consolidation

    10.3.5 Dip and Spin Coating

    10.3.6 Electrophoretic Deposition

    10.3.7 Freeze Casting

    10.3.8 Gelcasting

    10.3.9 Direct Coagulation Casting

    10.3.10 Aqueous Injection Molding

    10.4 Plastic Forming Methods

    10.4.1 Extrusion

    10.4.2 Injection Molding

    10.5 Concluding Remarks



    Chapter 11 Additive Manufacturing of Ceramics

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Powder-Based Methods

    11.2.1 Selective Laser Sintering

    11.2.2 Three-Dimensional Printing

    11.3 Particle-Filled Polymer Methods

    11.3.1 Fused Deposition Modeling

    11.3.2 Laminated Object Manufacturing

    11.4 Suspension-Based Methods

    11.4.1 Stereolithography

    11.4.2 Inkjet Printing

    11.4.3 Robocasting

    11.4.4 Freeze Extrusion Fabrication



    Chapter 12 Drying, Debinding and Microstructural Characterization of Green Articles

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Drying of Granular Ceramics

    12.2.1 Drying of Drops of a Suspension on a Surface

    12.2.2 Drying of Adherent Coatings

    12.2.3 Drying of Three-Dimensional Solids

    12.2.4 Drying Technology

    12.3 Binder Removal

    12.3.1 Extraction by Capillary Flow

    12.3.2 Solvent Extraction

    12.3.3 Supercritical Extraction

    12.3.4 Thermal Debinding

    12.3.5 Thermal Debinding Process Design

    12.4 Green Microstructures and Their Characterization

    12.5 Concluding Remarks



    Chapter 13 Sintering Theory and Fundamentals

    13.1 Introduction

    13.1.1 Types of Sintering

    13.1.2 Measurement of Sintering

    13.1.3 Analysis of Sintering

    13.2 Solid-State Sintering

    13.2.1 Driving Force for Sintering

    13.2.2 Effects of Surface Curvature

    13.2.3 Grain Boundary Effects

    13.2.4 Mechanisms of Sintering

    13.2.5 Stages of Sintering

    13.2.6 Theoretical Analysis of Solid-State Sintering

    13.3 Grain Growth in Solid-State Sintering

    13.3.1 Types of Grain Growth

    13.3.2 Importance of Controlling Grain Growth

    13.3.3 Normal Grain Growth

    13.3.4 Abnormal Grain Growth

    13.3.5 Ostwald Ripening

    13.3.6 Control of Grain Growth

    13.3.7 Grain Growth in Porous Ceramics

    13.3.8 Simultaneous Densification and Grain Growth

    13.4 Viscous Sintering

    13.5 Liquid-Phase Sintering

    13.5.1 Stages of Liquid-Phase Sintering

    13.5.2 Microstructures of Liquid-Phase Sintered Ceramics

    13.5.3 Role of Solid-State Sintering in Liquid-Phase Sintering

    13.5.4 Thermodynamic and Kinetic Factors

    13.5.5 Mechanisms of Liquid-Phase Sintering

    13.5.6 Phase Diagrams in Liquid-Phase Sintering

    13.6 Pressure-Assisted Sintering

    13.6.1 Pressure-Assisted Sintering Models

    13.6.2 Mechanisms of Pressure-Assisted Sintering

    13.7 Field-Assisted Sintering Techniques

    13.7.1 Spark Plasma Sintering

    13.7.2 Flash Sintering

    13.8 Concluding Remarks



    Chapter 14 Sintering Process Variables and Techniques

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Sintering Furnaces and Furnace Supports

    14.3 Effect of Particle Size and Packing

    14.3.1 Particle Size

    14.3.2 Particle Size Distribution

    14.3.3 Particle Shape and Particle Structure

    14.3.4 Particle Packing

    14.3.5 Effect of Green Density

    14.4 Anisotropic Shrinkage

    14.4.1 Pore Shape Anisotropy

    14.4.2 Particle Alignment

    14.5 Heating Schedule

    14.5.1 Design and Prediction of the Heating Schedule

    14.5.2 Effect of Heating Rate on Sintering

    14.5.3 Special Heating Schedules

    14.6 Sintering Atmosphere

    14.6.1 Gases in Pores

    14.6.2 Effect on Vapor Transport

    14.6.3 Volatilization and Decomposition

    14.6.4 Oxidation State

    14.7 Microwave Sintering

    14.8 Pressure-Assisted Sintering

    14.8.1 Hot Pressing

    14.8.2 Hot Isostatic Pressing

    14.9 Spark Plasma Sintering

    14.10 Sintering of Ceramic Composites, Coatings and Multilayers

    14.10.1 Sintering of Ceramic Composites

    14.10.2 Sintering of Adherent Coatings

    14.10.3 Co-sintering of Ceramic Multilayers

    14.11 Conclusions



    14.9 Spark Plasma Sintering

    14.10 Sintering of Ceramic Composites, Coatings and Multilayers

    14.10.1 Sintering of Ceramic Composites

    14.10.2 Sintering of Adherent Coatings

    14.10.3 Co-sintering of Ceramic Multilayers

    Chapter 15 Sol−Gel Processing

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Sol−Gel Processing of Aqueous Silicates

    15.3 Metal Alkoxides

    15.3.1 Preparation of Metal Alkoxides

    15.3.2 Basic Properties of Metal Alkoxides

    15.4 Sol−Gel Processing of Silicon Alkoxides

    15.4.1 Precursors

    15.4.2 Hydrolysis and Condensation

    15.4.3 Polymer Growth

    15.4.4 Gelation

    15.4.5 Drying of Gels

    15.4.6 Gel Densification during Sintering

    15.5 Sol−Gel Preparation Techniques

    15.5.1 Preparation of Particulate Gels

    15.5.2 Preparation of Polymeric Gels

    15.6 Applications of Sol−Gel Processing

    15.6.1 Thin Films and Coatings

    15.6.2 Fibers

    15.6.3 Monoliths

    15.6.4 Porous Materials

    15.6.5 Porous Materials

    15.7 Concluding Remarks



    Chapter 16 Ceramic Fabrication Methods for Specific Shapes and Architectures

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition

    16.2.1 Plasma-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition

    16.2.2 Chemical Vapor Infiltration

    16.3 Directed Metal oxidation

    16.4 Reaction Bonding

    16.4.1 Reaction-Bonded Silicon Nitride

    16.4.2 Reaction-Bonded Silicon Carbide

    16.4.3 Reaction Bonding of Oxide Ceramics

    16.5 Polymer Pyrolysis

    16.6 Fabrication Routes for Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites

    16.6.1 Processing of SiC Fiber-Reinforced SiC Matrix Composites

    16.6.2 Processing of Oxide Fiber-Reinforced Oxide Matrix Composites

    16.7 Concluding Remarks



    Appendix A: Physical Constants

    Appendix B: SI Units – Names and Symbols

    Appendix C: Conversion of Units

    Appendix D: Aperture size of U.S. Standard Wire Mesh Sieves (ASTM E 11:87)

    Appendix E: Densities and Melting Points of Some Elements, Ceramics and Minerals


    Mohamed N. Rahaman is Professor of Ceramics in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Missouri–Rolla. He received B.A. (Hons) and M.A. degrees from the University of Cambridge, England, and a Ph.D. degree from the University of Sheffield, England. Prior to joining the University of Missouri in 1986, Dr. Rahaman held positions at the University of Leeds, England; the University of the West Indies, Trinidad; and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California. Dr. Rahaman is the author of three books and the author or coauthor of more than 135 publications, most of them in the area of processing and sintering of ceramics.

    "The approach is clearly very thorough and seems as if it will be pretty detailed. This book appears to be very thorough in terms of the facts about processes used and how / why they work..."

    —Jon Binner, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom

    "The book covers a vast amount of information about ceramic processing. The complexity of the field makes it extremely difficult to present in a coherent and educational manner. Rahaman’s book achieves this goal by building on the success of the first edition, with topics being covered in enough depth to provide a comprehensive understanding, while not impounding the massive complexities that can sometimes deviate the reader’s attention and discourage reading. The book catches the readers’ attention by connecting theories with a balanced number of examples, case studies and problems so that concepts are more easily understood and translated to actual processing.
    —Ricardo Castro, University of California, Davis, USA

    "An excellent book for students and researchers in the field of ceramic processing."
    —Jim Song, Brunel University, Uxbridge, London, United Kingdom

    "Rahaman’s book is an excellent text book from which to teach/learn the principles of ceramic processing. He develops the underlying science in a systematic manner where the science can be correlated with other related topics in disciplines such as chemistry and physics. The book covers all the main areas of the field and is up to date. I do not want to put any other books down, but this is the only text book which I have found to cover the field of ceramic processing in sufficient systematic breadth and also depth."
    —Waltraud M. Kriven, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA

    "This book is an invaluable addition to the literature on making ceramics. It covers the various steps in manufacture of ceramic components in sufficient depth to be useful to researchers, but in an accessible fashion for teaching undergraduates and graduate students. It will also find a place on the bookshelves of anyone involved with commercial ceramic manufacturers."
    —William E Lee, Imperial College London, United Kingdom

    "Ceramic processing by Rahaman is an excellent text that introduces undergrad student to the complex and highly varied topic of making ceramics from molecules or powder to the final product. It is furthermore an excellent resource for graduate students and professionals. The chapters are easy to read and understand, yet in depth and high quality. I highly recommend this book to anyone who wants to know more about the field of ceramic processing."
    —Wolfgang Sigmund, University of Florida, USA

    "Ceramic Processing provides a clear and complete coverage of the fundamental principles and practical aspects of ceramic processing. The book follows a clear logic flow both in its entire structure and local content. It contains conventional techniques as well as modern processes in the field such as sintering of nano-powders, use of additive manufacturing methods, spark plasma sintering and microwave sintering. Very little is missed as far as ceramic processing techniques are concerned. The book can be used as either a text book for students or a good reference for researchers in this field."
    —Jingzhe Pan, University of Leicester, United Kingdom