1st Edition

Cereal Grains Properties, Processing, and Nutritional Attributes

By Sergio O. Serna-Saldivar Copyright 2010
    794 Pages 130 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    While cereals remain the world’s largest food yield – with more than 2.3 billion metric tons produced annually – consumer demands are on the rise for healthier cereal products with greater nutrition. Cereal Grains: Properties, Processing, and Nutritional Attributes provides a complete exploration of the scientific principles related to domestication, morphology, production, and storage of cereal grains. It also describes their physical and chemical characteristics and explains how these properties relate to industrial processing and nutritional value.

    This single-authored textbook lays the foundation for subsequent chapters by first addressing the importance of cereals for mankind, the comparative chemical and physical grain properties of the various types of cereal grains, the morphology and grain anatomy of caryopses, and the physiology of fertilization, grain development, and germination. The book then covers grain storage, pest control, industrial dry milling, wet milling, and both dry and fresh masa industries. A discussion of processing, quality control, and the role of cereals in human and animal nutrition rounds out the book’s complete coverage.

    Each chapter includes a set of up-to-date references along with selected questions to bolster comprehension of the discussed concepts. The book also contains a glossary of 600 scientific and technical terms to aid in the understanding of words used throughout the text. Cereal Grains: Properties, Processing, and Nutritional Attributes was designed especially for students and lecturers, but it is also helpful as a guide for scientists, food product developers, and nutritionists working to stay ahead of the curve.

    Cereal Grains: The Staff of Life
    Cereal Production Versus Population Growth
    General Characteristics
    Adaptation and Cytogenetic Origin
    General Uses
    Nutritional Value
    Future Outlook

    Physical Properties, Grading, and Specialty Grains
    Physical Properties of Cereal Grains
    Grain Quality
    Classification and Grading Systems
    Specialty Cereals

    Chemical Composition of Cereal Grains
    Proximate Composition
    Minerals and Vitamins

    Grain Development, Morphology, and Structure
    Pollination, Fertilization, And Grain Development
    Morphology And Structure Of The Mature Grain
    Physiology Of Grain Germination

    Storage of Cereal Grains
    Grain Deterioration
    Grain Moisture and Hysterisis
    Management of Stored Grains
    Grain Rotation or Turning
    Aeration or Ventilation
    Grain Explosion
    Chemical and Physical Changes Incurred During Grain Deterioration

    Grain Storage Pests

    Dry-Milling Operations
    Traditional Milling
    Grain Cleaning
    Maize Dry Milling
    Rice Milling
    Wheat Milling
    Milling of Durum Wheat, Rye, and Triticale
    Milling of Oats
    Milling of Sorghum and Millets

    Wet-Milling Operations
    Maize Wet Milling
    Rice Wet Milling
    Wheat Wet Milling
    Sorghum Wet Milling
    Properties of Starches

    Milling of Maize into Lime-Cooked Products
    Key Ingredients for Nixtamalization
    Industrial Production of Fresh Masa and Tortillas
    Industrial Production of Dry Masa Flour

    Manufacturing of Bakery Products
    Uses of Whole Wheat
    Yeast-Leavened Products
    Types of Breads
    Frozen Doughs
    Chemical-Leavened Products
    Batters and Breadings
    Pastas and Oriental Noodles

    Manufacturing of Breakfast Cereals
    Classification of Breakfast Cereals
    Traditional Flaked Products
    Compressed Flake Biscuits
    Oven-Puffed Cereals
    Gun-Puffing of Whole Grains and Milled Fractions
    Shredded Wheat
    Baked Cereals
    Muesli Products
    Extruded Products
    Enrichment and Fortification

    Manufacturing of Cereal-Based Snacks
    Classification of Snacks
    Alkaline-Cooked Maize Products
    Extruded Snacks
    Wheat-Based Snacks

    Industrial Production of Modified Starches and Syrups
    Native Starches
    Modified Starches
    Resistant Starches
    Production of Syrups

    Production of Malts, Beers, Alcohol Spirits, and Fuel Ethanol
    Malting Grains
    Production of European Beers
    Opaque Beer Production
    Production of Sake
    Production of Cereal-Based Alcoholic Spirits
    Production of Fuel Ethanol From Cereals

    Quality Control of Cereal Grains and Their Products
    Quality of Whole Grains
    Quality Control of Dry- and Wet-Milled Products
    Starch Characterization, Quality, and Functionality
    Functionality Tests for Wheat Flours, Semolinas, and Yeast
    Functionality Tests for Wheat-Based Products
    Functionality Tests for Rice
    Functionality Tests for Lime-Cooked Products
    Functionality Tests for Breakfast Cereals
    Functionality Tests for Snacks
    Functionality Tests for Cereal-Based Syrups and Sweeteners
    Functionality Tests for Malt, Beer, and Distilled Alcoholic Spirits
    Nutritional Quality Control of Foods and Feedstuffs

    Production of Cereal-Based Traditional Foods
    Whole Grains
    Traditional Foods from Milled Fractions
    Gruels and Porridges
    Flat Breads
    Fermented Sour Breads
    Yeast-Leavened Wheat Breads
    Nixtamalized Maize Products
    Fermented Porridges and Beers

    Role of Cereals in Human Nutrition and Health
    World Malnutrition
    Improvement of the Nutritional Value of Cereal Through Plant Breeding and Biotechnology
    Nutrient Composition of Cereals and Nutritional Requirements
    Effect of Processing On Nutritional Value
    Effect of Environmental Conditions and Packaging on Nutrient Stability
    Nutrition Labeling
    Nutritional Value of Cereal-Based Foods
    Resistant and Slowly Digestible Starch
    Nutraceutical Properties
    Antinutritional Factors
    Gluten Intolerance

    Cereals as Feedstuffs for Animal Nutrition
    Cereal Grains and Coproducts as Feedstuffs
    Enhancement of the Nutritional Value of Cereals through Processing


    Sergio O. Serna-Saldivar is a Professor in the Department Biotechnology and Food Engineering at ITESM -Campus Monterrey.

    The specific attraction of this volume…is its comprehensive and outstanding collection of the current information about the physicochemical and nutritional properties for the major cereal grains-wheat, rice, maize, oats, barley, sorghum/millets-and their products. Additionally, what was lacking in academia was the availability of a new and standard text book for readers interested in this area and the author and editor have done a good job of bringing that together as a common and unique package. The book deserves credit to be the first of its kind in the market…This single-authored textbook comprises 18 chapters that take the reader through an exciting journey of postharvest management and the wide array of industrial processes used to manufacture foods in a stepwise, reader friendly style.

    Silverio Garda-Lara
    Dep. of Agrobiotechnology, Tecnologico de Monterrey, ITESM
    Crop Science 2010