One of the largest food commodities exported from the developing countries to the rest of the world, cocoa has gained increasing attention on the global marketâ€”raising many questions about its quality, sustainability and traceability. Cocoa Production and Processing Technology presents detailed explanations of the technologies that could be employed to assure sustainable production of high-quality and safe cocoa beans for the global confectionary industry. It provides overviews of up-to-date technologies and approaches to modern cocoa production practices, global production and consumption trends as well as principles of cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture.
The book covers the origin, history and taxonomy of cocoa, and examines the fairtrade and organic cocoa industries and their influence on smallholder farmers. The chapters provide in-depth coverage of cocoa cultivation, harvesting and post-harvest treatments with a focus on cocoa bean composition, genotypic variations and their influence on quality, post-harvest pre-treatments, fermentation techniques, drying, storage and transportation.
The author provides details on cocoa fermentation processes as well as the biochemical and microbiological changes involved and how they influence flavour. He also addresses cocoa trading systems, bean selection and quality criteria, as well as industrial processing of fermented and dried cocoa beans into liquor, cake, butter and powder. The book examines the general principles of chocolate manufacture, detailing the various stages of the processes involved, the factors that influence the quality characteristics and strategies to avoid post-processing quality defects. This volume presents innovative techniques for sustainability and traceability in high-quality cocoa production and explores new product development with potential for cost reduction as well as improved cocoa bean and chocolate product quality.
Table of Contents
Introduction to the World Cocoa Economy
History and Taxonomy of Cocoa
World Production, Grinding and Consumption Trends of Cocoa
Fairtrade Cocoa Industry
Organic Cocoa Industry
Traditional and Modern Cocoa Cultivation Practices
Pests and Diseases of Cocoa
Post-Harvest Treatments and Technologies of Cocoa
Changes during Fermentation of Cocoa Beans
Drying Techniques, Storage Practices and Trading Systems
Ochratoxin A (OTA), Pesticides and Heavy Metals Contamination in Cocoa
Cocoa Processing Technology
Chocolate Manufacturing and Processing Technology
Chocolate Quality and Defects
Fermentation and Extended Pod Storage on Cocoa Bean Quality
Fermentation and Reduced Pod Storage on Cocoa Pulp and Cocoa Bean Quality
Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa, PhD, is an associate professor in food science in the Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana. He holds a PhD in food science from the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK. He has vast relevant experience in food science and technology and international food laws and regulations, and he is an expert in cocoa and chocolate technology. Dr. Afoakwa has authored and co-authored 160 publications (including 70 peer-reviewed journal publications, 4 books, 4 book chapters, 2 encyclopaedia chapters and 80 conference presentations with published abstracts) in food science and technology, food and nutrition security and school feeding programmes.