1st Edition

Confident Speaking Theory, Practice and Teacher Inquiry

By Christine C. M. Goh, Xuelin Liu Copyright 2024
    246 Pages 14 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    246 Pages 14 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    Confident Speaking provides language teachers and teacher educators with evidence-informed ideas to help second language (L2) learners speak fluently and confidently in different social and academic contexts.

    Christine C. M. Goh and Xuelin Liu, thought leaders in the field of language education, draw on scholarly literature and their own experience to show language teachers how to apply insights from research and theory in everyday classroom teaching. They offer 80 hands-on activities to help learners develop speaking skills through fluency practice and language-focused activities, and tap into their metacognitive thinking to adopt strategies for facilitating oral communication. Also included is guidance for teachers in designing lessons and larger units of work with the activities and carrying out professional inquiry activities into their own practice of teaching L2 speaking.

    This book is a valuable resource for language teachers and teacher educators, as well as researchers interested in the teaching and development of second language speaking.

     Permissions & Acknowledgements

    Series Editor Preface

    1 From Research to Implications


    A. Processes in Speech Production

    1.   Conceptualisation, Formulation and Articulation

    2.   Monitoring and Evaluation


    B. Linguistic Knowledge for Speaking

    1.  Knowledge of Discourse

    2.  Knowledge of Grammar and Pronunciation


    C. Learning to Speak and Speaking to Learn

    1.  Speaking Skills

    2.  Discussion Skills

    3.  Metacognitive Knowledge


    D. Instructional Enablers that Support Speaking Performance and Development

    1.  Pre-Task Planning

    2.  Task Repetition

    3.  Strategy Use and Instruction


    E. Practical Implications for Teaching L2 Speaking

    1.  Develop Learners’ Knowledge about Speaking

    2.  Plan Learning Activities for Practice and Holistic Development


    F. Application, Implementation and Research


    2 From Implications to Application


    A. Developing Speaking Fluency and Skills

    B.  Learning to Discuss

    C.  Learning about Spoken Discourse and Language

    D. Developing Metacognitive Knowledge and Strategy Use


    A. Developing Speaking Fluency and Skills   


    Activity A1: Sequence and Complete

    Activity A2: Ask and Answer

    Activity A3: Share and Reconstruct

    Activity A4: Imagine and Share

    Activity A5: Respond and Share



    Activity A6: Read and Compare

    Activity A7: Listen and Compare

    Activity A8: Sequence and Complete

    Activity A9: Construct and Explain

    Activity A10: Construct and Compare

    Activity A11: Select and Narrate

    Activity A12: Respond and Share

    Activity A13: Recall and Recount

    Activity A14 Prepare and Talk

    Activity A15: Construct and Retell

    Activity A16: Explain and Advise

    Activity A17: Describe and Share

    Activity A18: Draw, Share and Think

    Activity A19: Describe and Choose

    Activity A20: Infer and Construct

    Activity A21: Design and Share

    Activity A22: Select and Explain

    Activity A23: Create and Demonstrate

    Activity A24: Reflect and Share

    Activity A25: Share and Predict

    Activity A26: Summarise and Organise

    Activity A27: Collate and Report

    Activity A28: Infer and Tell

    Activity A29: Consider and Resolve

    Activity A30: Explain and Defend

    Activity A31: Understand and Retell

    Activity A32: Describe, Ask and Present

    Activity A33: Describe, Draw and Compare


    B.  Learning to Discuss


    Activity B1: Learn about Discussion 1

    Activity B2: Learn about Discussions 2

    Activity B3: Learn to Manage Problems During Discussions

    Activity B4: Learn to Lead a Discussion



    Activity B5: Discuss and Advise

    Activity B6: Discuss and Justify

    Activity B7: Discuss and Construct

    Activity B8: Discuss and Evaluate

    Activity B9: Discuss and Plan

    Activity B10: Develop Others’ Viewpoints

    Activity B11: Offer Alternative Viewpoints

    Activity B12: Explore Ideas Together

    Activity B13: Discuss and Elaborate

    Activity B14: Discuss and Propose

    Activity B15: Discuss, Demonstrate and Observe

    Activity B16: Discuss and Select


    C.  Learning about Spoken Discourse and Language


    Activity C1: Structure of a Casual Conversation

    Activity C2: Structure of a Narrative

    Activity C3: Structure of an Explanation Text

    Activity C4: Structure of a Formal Conversation: Survey Interview

    Activity C5: Structure of a Recount

    Activity C6: Structure of a Procedure Text

    Activity C7: Structure of an Information Report

    Activity C8: Structure of an Expository Text

    Activity C9: Making Speeches in Class Debates



    Activity C10: Language for Talking about the Future

    Activity C11: Language for Conveying Preferences and Comparing

    Activity C12: Transition Markers When Describing a Process

    Activity C13: Language for Expressing Regrets

    Activity C14: Language for Interrupting with Questions

    Activity C15: Features of Spoken Language

    Activity C16: Features of Spoken and Written Language

    Activity C17: Features of Different Spoken Texts


    D.  Developing Metacognitive Knowledge and Strategy Use


    Activity D1: An Overview of Metacognitive Knowledge

    Activity D2: Person Knowledge (Knowing about Myself)

    Activity D3: Task Knowledge (Knowing about Speaking Tasks)

    Activity D4: Task Knowledge (Cognitive Processes in Speaking 1)

    Activity D5: Task Knowledge (Cognitive Processes in Speaking 2)

    Activity D6: Task Knowledge (Monitoring and Evaluation)

    Activity D7: Task Knowledge (Evaluating Speaking Performance)

    Activity D8: Person and Task Knowledge (Self-Evaluation and Planning)



    Activity D9: Strategy Knowledge (Knowing Which Strategies to Use)

    Activity D10: Learning about Communication Strategies

    Activity D11: Strategies for Presenting and Asking Presenters Questions

    Activity D12: A Proficient L2 Speaker’s Strategies

    Activity D13: Sharing Experiences of Strategy Use

    Activity D14: Sharing Plans for Strategy Use

    Activity D15: Demonstrating and Observing Strategy Use


    3 From Application to Implementation


    A. Planning Lessons for L2 Speaking

    1.   Fluency Activities

    2.   Language-Focused Activities

    3.   Metacognitive Activities


    B. The Teaching Speaking Cycle


    C. Lesson Planning with the Teaching Speaking Cycle

    1. Sample TSC Plan 1

    2. Sample TSC Plan 2

    3. Sample TSC Plan 3

    4. Planning Your Own Teaching Speaking Cycle


    4 From Implementation to Research


    A. Teachers Inquiring into Your Own Practice


    B. Inquiry Tasks

    1. Doing Inquiry in a Group

    2. Doing Inquiry on Your Own

    3. Questions to Ask


    C. Inquiry Projects

    1. Topics of Inquiry Focus

    2. Considerations When Planning an Inquiry Project

    3. Inquiry Tools and Procedures

    Conclusion and Final Thoughts


    Appendix A: Three Types of Metacognitive Knowledge about L2 Speaking from Learners’ Perspectives

    Appendix B: Communication Strategies for L2 Speaking

    Appendix C: Themes and Topics for Speaking Activities

    Appendix D: Language Items to Support Speaking Activities




    Christine C. M. Goh is President’s Chair Professor of Linguistics and Language Education at the National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University Singapore. She has more than 30 years of experience in language teaching, teacher education and language learning research. Her most recent book is the second edition of Teaching and Learning Second Language Listening: Metacognition in Action by Routledge (with Larry Vandergrift).

    Xuelin Liu has taught EFL/ESL for more than four decades, at Yangzhou University, China; the National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; and Thompson Rivers University, Canada. In addition to teaching, she has been a consultant developing oral communication curricula for language institutions in several countries. Her latest project is an English education programme offering courses in language proficiency and test preparation for international students in Canada and China.