1st Edition

Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking

By Miroslaw Karbowniczek Copyright 2022
    262 Pages 125 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

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    The importance of electric arc furnace steelmaking is evident from the escalated world production seen in steel industry. This book presents systematic and complete details on the current state of knowledge about metallurgical processes carried out in the electric arc furnace. It includes principles of construction of electric arc furnaces, applied construction solutions, and their operations (together with auxiliary/supportive devices). Modern technologies of melting of various grades steel are detailed, considering the participation of secondary metallurgy including theoretical backgrounds of chemical processes and reactions. It contains theoretical analysis and results of laboratory, model, and industrial tests.


    • Covers the practical aspects of electric arc furnace steelmaking including technological process.
    • Discusses the operation issues of an electric arc furnace in a technical and technological context.
    • Presents a systematic and complete knowledge about relevant construction solutions and metallurgical processes.
    • Includes practical industrial benchmark indicators in the scope of equipment and technology.
    • Analyses practical case studies from industry.

    This book aims at researchers, professionals and graduate students in Metallurgical Engineering, Materials Science, Electric Power Supply, Environmental Engineering, and Mechanical Engineering.

    1. Introduction            
    1.1. Characteristics of steel electrometallurgy      
    1.2. Historical development of electric furnace design      
    1.3. Development of the design of modern electric arc furnaces 
    1.4. Development of electric arc furnace practice    

    2. Layout of an electric furnace shop        

    3. Construction of electric arc furnaces        
    3.1. Shape and dimensions of the reaction chamber  
    3.2. Furnace shell          
    3.3. Furnace refractory lining         
    3.4. Water-cooled wall design       
    3.5. Design and structure of the roof
    3.6. Mechanical equipment         
    4. Electric equipment of electric arc furnaces
    4.1. Power supply system         
    4.2. Disconnect switch and furnace operating switch
    4.3. Furnace transformer          
    4.4. Secondary circuit          
    4.5. Instrument transformers        
    4.6. Induction stirrer                  
    4.7. Optimal operating conditions of the EAF power supply system            
    4.8. Impact of electric arc furnace operation on the electrical energy quality           

    5. Auxiliary equipment                 
    5.1. Oxy-fuel burners
    5.2. Manipulator                 
    5.3. Post-combustion lances                  

    6. Graphite electrodes                  
    6.1. Production of electrodes and their properties               
    6.2. Electrode consumption                 
    6.3. Influence of the operating parameters and steelmaking conditions on electrode consumption  

    7. Environmental protection systems               
    7.1. Protection against gases and dusts               
    7.2. Gas capture system               
    7.3. Modeling of the system of off-gas capture from the electric arc furnace
    7.4. Comprehensive furnace housing system
    7.5. Use of waste gas thermal energy to heat up scrap          

    8. Charge materials applied in the steelmaking process             
    8.1. Steel scrap                  
    8.2. Direct reduced iron (DRI)              
    8.3. Crude iron                            
    8.4. Ferroalloys and technical metals              
    8.5. Slag-forming materials                 
    8.6. Oxidizing and carburizing materials               

    9. Steel production technique in arc furnaces              
    9.1. Fettling              
    9.2. Charge composition principles                
    9.3. Charge loading                
    9.4. Meltdown period               
    9.5. Oxidation period                 
    9.6. Refining period                  
    9.7. Tapping               
    9.8. Role of slag                  

    10. Mass and heat balances of the steelmaking process           
    10.1. Mass balance
    10.2. Example of a mass balance of an electric arc furnace steelmaking process
    10.3. Heat balance
    10.4. Example of a heat balance of an electric arc furnace steelmaking process


    Professor Miroslaw Karbowniczek, PhD is a Professor at AGH University of Science and Technology (AGH-UST) in Krakow, Poland. He was the Dean of the Faculty of Materials Engineering and Industrial Computers Science (2008-2012) and a Vice-Rector of AGH-UST (2012-2020). His academic interests focus on metallurgy, especially the metallurgy of steel, electric arc furnace metallurgy, ladle metallurgy, automatics, control, and modeling in this area.

    He has authored and co-authored over 220 scientific papers, including 2 original monographs, 1 original textbook, and 10 patents (including one registered in most countries worldwide). He has on many occasions presented the findings of his research at international scientific conferences. The international academic community has expressed their recognition by entrusting him with organizing and chairing the 9th European Electric Steelmaking Conference, which he organized in Krakow in 2008.