1st Edition

English Medium Instruction in Secondary Education Policy, Challenges and Practices in Science Classrooms

By Jack Pun Copyright 2024
    274 Pages 17 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    Jack Pun presents best practices in pedagogy and teaching to facilitate effective content-subject learning at the secondary school level.

    Increasingly, parents are sending their children to English Medium Instruction (EMI) secondary schools in their home countries, to prepare them for full immersion in EMI in English native-speaking countries. The book explores the teaching and learning processes in EMI senior secondary science classrooms based in thirty secondary schools in Hong Kong. Conducting analyses of classroom, teacher and student perception data, the author discusses the issues of teaching science through the medium of English in secondary schools, the implications and applications for professional development of science teachers and other content-subject teachers, and suggests strategies for teaching science in different EMI contexts.

    This volume is highly relevant to scholars in the field of educational linguistics, particularly in English language teaching, content-based instruction, content and language integrated learning, and English as a medium of instruction. It is also useful to education policymakers, school teachers, research students, English and education majors.

    Introduction  1. English medium of instruction around the world  2. EMI polices and practices  3. Research methods  4. Quantitative analysis of classroom interactions in early-full and late partial EMI science classrooms  5. Qualitative analysis of classroom interactions in early-full and late-partial EMI science classrooms  6. Science teachers’ perceptions of their EMI experiences  7. Science students’ perceptions of their EMI experiences  8. Science students’ perception of their EMI learning journeys: Findings on the factored variables  9. Closing the gap between policies and practices: EMI research in theory and practice  Conclusion


    Jack Pun is Assistant Professor in the Department of English at the City University of Hong Kong. He completed his DPhil at the University of Oxford, which explored the teaching and learning process in EMI science classrooms, with a special focus on classroom interactions, use of codeswitching, and teachers’ and students’ views of EMI. His research interests lie in EMI and health communication. His research has been published in journals such as ELT Journal, Language Teaching, RELC Journal, Journal of English for Academic Purposes and International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. He is associate editor of Journal of Research in Science & Technological Education, and published two books in EMI: Teaching and Learning in English Medium Instruction: An Introduction (with Jack C. Richards) and Research Methods in English Medium Instruction (with Samantha Curle) by Routledge.

    "Jack Pun is one of those rare English Medium Instruction researchers who has personal expertise in both language and content. This dual expertise has enabled him to provide a tightly focused and authoritative contribution to the field."

    Ernesto Macaro, Emeritus Professor of Applied Linguistics, Department of Education, University of Oxford, United Kingdom

    "Jack Pun has carried out a detailed, systematic study of EMI practices in secondary schools in Hong Kong, focusing on both classroom interaction and teachers’ and students’ perceptions. The result is a rich and insightful analysis that will have wide-ranging implications for EMI policy and practice as well as medium-of-instruction research in diverse cultural, linguistic and educational contexts. It is a highly important contribution to the growing body of literature on EMI worldwide."

    Li Wei, Professor, Director & Dean University of College London (UCL), Institute of Education, United Kingdom

    "Motivated by personal experience and based on rigorous empirical studies, this book provides an excellent account of the implementation of EMI in Hong Kong’s secondary classrooms. This is a particularly valuable contribution to the EMI field because it offers an exemplary in-depth analysis of a specific context. There is a great deal to learn from this book and I strongly recommend it to all those involved in the implementation of EMI."

    Andy Kirkpatrick. Professor Emeritus, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia

    "A fascinating exploration of the issues teachers and students face when teaching and learning science through English Medium Instruction."

    Jack C Richards, Honorary Professor of TESOL, University of Sydney, Australia

    "Jack Pun deserves commendation for presenting to readers such a fine volume that has served to fill the gap in the existing literature. His focus on English as a medium of instruction in secondary school science classrooms, exploring issues relating to policies, practices and possible challenges, will compel readers to think deeply about this topic. The book will be a landmark work that researchers, practitioners and graduate students will find immensely useful."

    Lawrence Jun Zhang, Professor and Associate Dean (AD) International Partnerships Faculty of Education and Social Work, University of Auckland, New Zealand

    "This is a much-needed monograph on the implementation of English as medium of instruction in secondary schools. The monograph not only includes an in-depth analysis of classroom interactions, but it also focuses on the perceptions of students and science teachers. The findings have critical implications for teachers, teacher educators and policy makers to bridge the gap between policies and practices."

    Xuesong (Andy) Gao, Professor, School of Education, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

    "English Medium Instruction in Secondary Education: Policy, Challenges, Practices in Science Classrooms" by Jack Pun and Jack Richards is an essential read. It provides a deep and critical analysis of English as a medium of instruction, focusing on science classrooms. The book masterfully dissects policies, classroom interactions, and student experiences, and bridges the gap between theory and practice. A must-read for those shaping the future of EMI education."

    Angel M. Y. Lin, Chair Professor of Language, Literacy, and Social Semiotics in Education, Department of English Language Education, The Education University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China

    "This book provides a rich and deep exploration of classroom discourse as well as teachers’ and students’ construction and perceptions of their EMI experiences in Hong Kong secondary school science classrooms. With its in-depth treatment of EMI policies, practices and challenges, the book offers insightful implications for stakeholders of EMI and is a must-read for policymakers, frontline teachers and researchers involved or interested in EMI in Hong Kong and beyond."

    Guangwei Hu, Associate Dean of Faculty of Humanities and Professor, Department of English and Communication, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR, China

    "Not only will this volume entice all those involved in EMI science classrooms, but it will also appeal to EMI stakeholders in general, because the guidelines and reflections presented in order to deal with the language challenges found in classroom interaction are applicable to any EMI subject and context."

    David Lasagabaster, Professor of Applied Linguistics, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU

    "The book provides a meticulous account of the nature and complexity of classroom interaction in EMI classes in secondary education as well as of teachers’ and students’ perceptions of their teaching and learning experiences. EMI practitioners, scholars, and policy-makers interested in the interaction between policy and practice will find this book particularly useful. The theoretical perspectives on closing the gap between policy and practice are of exceptional value for the advancement of the field."

    Slobodanka Dimova, Professor in multilingualism and language testing, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

    "This book presents a very comprehensive research study on English Medium Instruction (EMI) in Science classrooms. Contextualised in the Hong Kong EMI context, Jack Pun examines the interaction patterns in early-full and partial-late EMI Science lessons, as well as teachers’ and students’ perceptions. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of classroom interaction patterns not only provide interesting insights into the teaching and learning process in EMI lessons, but also illuminate classroom discourse research. With macro- and micro-level analyses and stakeholders’ perspectives, this book depicts a clear picture of how EMI is implemented and perceived, thereby having implications for researchers, policy makers and teachers working in EMI and other bilingual education programmes."

    Yuen Yi Lo, Associate Dean (Learning and Teaching) and Associate Professor, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong

    "English Medium Instruction in Secondary Education makes a significant contribution to the field of EMI education. The book stems from Pun’s personal journey in learning Science as a student growing up in Hong Kong. It offers policy-makers and curriculum planners with insights from teachers and students on the opportunities and challenges on teaching and learning in the EMI Science classroom. Researchers can draw inspiration from the practicable approaches used to analyse classroom interactions with quantitative and quantitative methods. Teacher educators will also benefit from the thoughtful implications on professional learning for science teachers in EMI contexts. Overall, Pun has produced an excellent resource – one which is both valuable and timely for the community."

    Victor Lim, Associate Professor, English Language & Literature, National Institute of Education (NTU), Singapore


    "Jack Pun's personal narrative in the introductory sections offers compelling insight into the language barriers EMI learners encounter. Complemented by extensive theoretical discussions on EMI and research on classroom interaction patterns in EMI secondary science classrooms, this book unveils the complexities of implementing EMI in Hong Kong. It highlights the obstacles EMI learners face and outlines strategies for the professional development of EMI science and language teachers, making it essential reading for educators, researchers, and policymakers involved in the global EMI phenomenon."

    Marie Yeo, Senior Language Specialist, SEAMEO Regional Language Centre, Singapore